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Various Methods Which Are Used in Clinical Psychology Researches

INTRODUCTION

Clinical psychology is integration of theories, clinical knowledge that are applied by psychologist for understanding mental issues in person. There are many people those who are suffering from mental health problems. But they do not discuss their problems with professionals (Barker and Pistrang, 2015). In such condition it becomes difficult for the practitioner to provide quality treatment to these patients. Present study will discuss ethical issue with regards to psychological research and ethical guidelines in order to minimize these issues. Furthermore, it will explain various methods which are used in clinical psychology researches. Report will give proper justification for these techniques that are used in area of clinical psychology.

TASK 1

P4 Comparison of ethical guidelines

Before conducting research in clinical psychology it is essential for researcher that to pay extra attention on ethical aspects. Ethical considerations are considered as most important aspect that helps scholar in minimizing complex situations and finding accurate results. There are various ethical issues that can be arise in the investigation. These are explained as below:

Confidentiality: As mental patients do not feel comfortable to discuss about their illness with any other person. (Kratochwill, 2015) Because they think that people will react negatively with them. If psychologist conduct research on mental patients then it is very important for them that to keep their personal information confidential. If these details have been leaked then it may finish trust of participant. This is the major ethical issue which may change entire results and researcher may get failed to get actual outcome (A Pilot Study and Randomized Controlled Trial of the Mindful Self-Compassion Program, 2012).

Consent: It is another essential aspect that need to be considered by scholar while carrying out an investigation on mental health patients (Strauss, 2017). Before involving them into the research scholar has to take their permission by sending them consent form. This can support researcher in minimizing future complications. If scholar fails to take their concern then people will not share their views and can complain against the researcher as well.

Competences: It is another ethical issue that might get occurred in clinical psychology researches (Groome and Eysenck, 2016). Scholar needs to have ability to analysis and disseminating results of study. If individual gets failed to analysis results in effective manner then it may negatively impact on entire research.

There are various organizations those which have structured some ethical codes so that researcher can not harm emption and feeling of any mental person through their investigation. British psychological society (BPS) and American Psychiatric Association (APA) are two major organization those which have set some ethical codes (Beins, 2017).

Comparison

British psychological society

American Psychiatric Association

Role of participants

Participants can share their views and can skip any questions if they do not want to discuss on the topic.

Respondents are required to be informed about outcome and nature of research.

Participants play significant role in research but they have right to withdraw from research (American Psychological Association,2017).

Protecting respondent

Researcher has to ensure protecting rights of human being and have to pay attention on essential factors so that risk can be minimized (Code of Ethics and Conduct (2006),2015).

Maintaining confidentiality is essential ethical part of clinical research. But this APA does not pay more attention on confidentiality. It believes foreseeable use of information by involving human participants in investigation.

APA guidelines concentrate on well being of participants. Some time it follows laws such as protection against discriminating, harassment but some times without following any specific law it protect rights of respondents (Banyard and Grayson, 2017).

Guiding principles

Statement of values

Honesty and accuracy

Avoid exploitation and conflict of interest

Maintaining personal boundaries

Addressing ethical misconduct

Principle A: Beneficence and Non maleficence

Principles B: Fidelity and responsibility

Principle C: Integrity

Principle D: Justice

Principle E: Respect for people and protect their dignity

Involving animals

If researcher has to involve animals in the investigation then individual has to ensure animal welfare, avoid infliction.

Researcher has to fulfil their moral responsibility towards animals and have to ensure their welfare (American Psychological Association,2017).

TASK 2

P5 Plan ethical investigation in the area of mental health

Planing plays significant role in researches, it supports scholar in selecting right method for carrying out research in effective manner (A Pilot Study and Randomized Controlled Trial of the Mindful Self-Compassion Program, 2012). Planning assist researcher in finding accurate results and identifying consequences. By this way investigator can make plan to resolve issues and getting accurate results (Janis, 2016).

Data collection is most important part of researches, in clinical psychology researches scholar has to gather in-depth detail about mental health patients so that their situation can be analysed soon. There are various techniques of gathering details such as questionnaire, interview, case study etc. All these tools are helpful in developing in-depth understanding about research area. Questionnaire is the method in which scholar ask quests with participants (Maslach and Leiter, 2016). They are given some options and respondents have to chosen one option and have to give justification for the same. In interview method scholar conducts interview with participants and all interviewee give their opinion about topic.

In the present research on clinical psychology selection of questionnaire method is appropriate. By this way investigator has become able to find out issues in people those who are suffering from mental problems (Joyce and et.al, 2016).

Researcher has taken support of Piot study method in order to rates entire research programs on clinical psychology. 20 adult students have been involved in study as participants. These people live in stress because of too much pressure of education and family. Thus, they can give accurate answers about their mental condition (Shakow, 2017).

Rank Self-compassion in research

  • Almost never (1)
  • Almost (2)
  • Never (3)
  • Almost always (4)
  • Always (5)

Give rank to mindfulness

  • I am friendly
  • I take too much stress
  • I am not friendly
  • Average friendly
  • I am highly friendly to my self

Give rank to happiness

  • No happy
  • Happy
  • Average happy
  • Very happy

Give rank to your life satisfaction

  • Not satisfied
  • Average satisfied
  • Highly dissatisfied
  • Highly satisfied

Give response on depression in your life?

  • Feel depressed
  • Feel happy
  • Highly depressed

Do you feel stress in your life give rank?

  • Never
  • Always
  • often
  • Very often

How would you rank the entire research program?

  • Poor
  • Average
  • Good
  • Excellent

P5 Carrying out investigation on mental health

Frequencies

Statistics

Rank self compassion in research

Rank to mind fulness

I am friendly to my self in each situation

Life satisfaction

Depression in life

N

Valid

20

20

20

20

20

Missing

0

0

0

0

0

Mean

2.6000

2.9500

1.3500

2.4000

1.5000

Median

2.0000

3.0000

1.0000

3.0000

1.0000

Mode

2.00

3.00

1.00

3.00

1.00

Std. Deviation

1.23117

.99868

.81273

.99472

.82717

Variance

1.516

.997

.661

.989

.684

Range

4.00

4.00

3.00

3.00

2.00

Interpretation: From the above table it can be interpreted that mean value of self compassion is 2.6. Value of mean of mindfulness is 2.95. On other hand value of median is high in mindfulness and life satisfaction variables.

Statistics

Stress in life

Rank entire research

N

Valid

20

20

Missing

0

0

Mean

3.5500

2.5500

Median

4.0000

3.0000

Mode

4.00

3.00

Std. Deviation

.88704

.82558

Variance

.787

.682

Range

3.00

3.00

Interpretation:From the above table it can be interpreted that mean value of stress level in life is 3.55 and median is 4.0. Entire research mean value is 2.55.

Frequency Table

Rank self compassion in research

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

almost never

3

15.0

15.0

15.0

almost

9

45.0

45.0

60.0

never

3

15.0

15.0

75.0

almost always

3

15.0

15.0

90.0

always

2

10.0

10.0

100.0

Total

20

100.0

100.0

Interpretation:From the above table it is identified that 45% participants have given self compassion in research. It explains inter correlation between sub scales.

Rank to mindfulness

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

i am friendly

2

10.0

10.0

10.0

I take too much stress

2

10.0

10.0

20.0

I am not friendly

13

65.0

65.0

85.0

Average friendly

1

5.0

5.0

90.0

I am highly friendly to my self

2

10.0

10.0

100.0

Total

20

100.0

100.0

Interpretation: From the above table it can be interpreted that 65% answerers have viewed that they are not friendly. Theylive in stress thus, they get failed to talk with others easily. They have viewed that they are not friendly to themselves in each situation.

I am friendly to myself in each situation

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

not happy

16

80.0

80.0

80.0

happy

2

10.0

10.0

90.0

average happy

1

5.0

5.0

95.0

very happy

1

5.0

5.0

100.0

Total

20

100.0

100.0

Interpretation: 80% respondents have viewed that they are not happy. They live in stress which impacts on their mental health.

Life satisfaction

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Not satisfied

6

30.0

30.0

30.0

Average satisfied

1

5.0

5.0

35.0

Highly dissatisfied

12

60.0

60.0

95.0

Highly satisfied

1

5.0

5.0

100.0

Total

20

100.0

100.0

Interpretation: From the above table it is identified that 60% answers are highly dissatisfied with their life. They live in stress and feel irritating that is why they are not satisfied in their life.

Depression in life

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Feel depressed

14

70.0

70.0

70.0

Feel happy

2

10.0

10.0

80.0

Highly depressed

4

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

20

100.0

100.0

Interpretation:From the above table it can be interpreted that 70% respondents feel depressed because of their mental health situation.

Stress in life

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

never

1

5.0

5.0

5.0

always

2

10.0

10.0

15.0

often

2

10.0

10.0

25.0

very often

15

75.0

75.0

100.0

Total

20

100.0

100.0

Interpretation:from the above table it is identified that 75% people feel stress in their life very often.

Rank entire research

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

poor

3

15.0

15.0

15.0

average

4

20.0

20.0

35.0

good

12

60.0

60.0

95.0

excellent

1

5.0

5.0

100.0

Total

20

100.0

100.0

Interpretation: From the above table it can be interpreted that there are 60% respondents those who have viewed that entire research is good and it has taken care of ethical aspects with dealing with mental patients.

Regression

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.127a

.016

-.038

1.01369

a. Predictors: (Constant), ranktomindfulness

Interpretation: From the above table it is identified that there is moderate correlation between mindfulness and satisfaction in life. If person feel happy and friendly in each situation then it can enhance their satisfaction level.

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

.304

1

.304

.296

.593b

Residual

18.496

18

1.028

Total

18.800

19

a. Dependent Variable: lifesatisfection

b. Predictors: (Constant), ranktomindfulness

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

2.026

.723

2.801

.012

Rank to mindfulness

.127

.233

.127

.544

.593

a. Dependent Variable: lifesatisfection

Interpretation:from the table it is identified that value of p is .593.

Regression

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.273a

.075

.023

.98303

a. Predictors: (Constant), iamfriendlytomyselfineachsituation

Interpretation: From the above table it is identified that there is moderate correlation between life satisfaction and friendliness in each situation. Value of P is 0273 that show that there is moderate correlation between both variables.

Regression

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.384a

.147

.100

.94372

a. Predictors: (Constant), depressioninlife

Interpretation: from the above table it is identified that there is correlation between depression in life and life satisfaction. Value of P is .384 that shows moderate co-relationship between both two variables.

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

2.769

1

2.769

3.109

.095b

Residual

16.031

18

.891

Total

18.800

19

a. Dependent Variable: lifesatisfection

b. Predictors: (Constant), depressioninlife

Interpretation: From the above table it is identified that there is significant impact of depression in life on life satisfaction. Value of P is 0.95.

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

3.092

.446

6.938

.000

depressioninlife

-.462

.262

-.384

-1.763

.095

a. Dependent Variable: lifesatisfection

Interpretation: From the above table it can be interpreted that value of P is 0.000 that shows significant impact of depression on life satisfaction.

TASK 3

M4 Research Methodologies

In order to conduct this research, scholar has taken support of various research methods. All these techniques have supported psychologist students in finding in-depth detail about topic and reaching to final results (Banyard and Grayson, 2017). Researcher has applied quantitative research methods. Individual has taken support of SPSS in order to calculate mean, mode, median, correlation. This tool has significantly helped in identifying factors that cause issues for mental patients. Researcher has chosen purposive sampling methods and patients those who are taking treatment for their mental illness have been involved in this research. Furthermore, individual has applied deductive approach. In this researcher has framed hypotheses and test these hypotheses in order to find out results (Beins, 2017). Involvement of statistical calculation has helped in finding accurate results in clinical psychology research.

M5 Conclusion from investigation

From the above data it can be concluded that mental people feel dishearten and they do not behave friendly with others in any situation. Stress and depression create problem for them. They feel alone that makes them negative (Strauss, 2017). Thus, they do not discuss their problems with others. In such situation they feel dissatisfied in their life which impacts negative on their mental health condition.

D3 Suitability of research methods

In order to conduct the research on clinical psychology researcher has taken support of SPSS. This statistical tool is suitable for the clinical studies because by this way researcher has become able to get more authentic answers. This has helped in preparing self report data and testing these data in order to find out accurate answers (Shakow, 2017). Furthermore, use of deductive approach has supported in formulating hypotheses and testing these hypotheses so that valid results have been generated. Furthermore, use of purposive sampling was suitable for the research because by this way researcher has involved such participants those who have great knowledge about topic that is why involvement of adults students is accurate option to identify mental problems among students (A Pilot Study and Randomized Controlled Trial of the Mindful Self-Compassion Program, 2012).

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CONCLUSION

From the above study it can be concluded that students have to face huge pressure of their studies. Some times they feel irritating ad do not discuss their problems with others easily. Stress, unmindfulness are major factors that enhance mental issues among learners and it makes them dissatisfied. In such condition they feel alone and lose their social connection. If they live happily and discuss their problems with pothers with friendless then it may minimize chances of occurring mental health problems among students.

You may also like: Psychological and Biological Analysis of Patient Suffering From Mental Disorders

REFERENCES

  • Banyard, P. and Grayson, A., 2017. Introducing psychological research. New York University Press.
  • Barker, C. and Pistrang, N., 2015. Research methods in clinical psychology: An introduction for students and practitioners. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Beins, B. C., 2017. Research method: A tool for life. Cambridge University Press.
  • Groome, D. and Eysenck, M., 2016. An introduction to applied cognitive psychology. Psychology Press.
  • Janis, I. L., 2016. Psychological stress: Psychoanalytic and behavioral studies of surgical patients. Academic Press.
  • Joyce, S. and et.al., 2016. Workplace interventions for common mental disorders: a systematic meta-review. Psychological Medicine.46(4). pp.683-697.
  • Kratochwill, T. R., 2015. Single-case research design and analysis: An overview. In Single-Case Research Design and Analysis (Psychology Revivals)(pp. 13-26). Routledge.
  • Maslach, C. and Leiter, M. P., 2016. Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry. World Psychiatry.15(2). pp.103-111.
  • Shakow, D., 2017. Clinical psychology as science and profession: A forty-year odyssey. Transaction Publishers.
  • Strauss, A. L., 2017. Psychiatric ideologies and institutions. Routledge.
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