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Various Models of Communication involved in Health and Social Care

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Communication in Health and Social Care

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Introduction

Communication in health and social care is the important task which supports staff members to deliver good quality of services to large number of buyers. This aspect tends to provide assistance for users in accessing good quality of services from care home. Present essay is based on the specific scenario of inter-team communication issue. Furthermore, models of communication have been explained that shed light on dissemination of information in an effectual manner. Similarly, team work and communication are also analyzed in context of specific incident of health and social care. Apart from this, dealing with conflicts is focused to ensure the integration of personnel for delivering services in accordance with the preferences of users. In addition to this, confidentiality clause reflects that all information given to health care personnel must be kept with privacy and not disclosed to anybody without prior permission. Apart from this, common law of confidentiality also gives right to service users so that they can take legal action in case of any default in the respect of care home.

The inter-team communication issue takes place because of lack of guidance or ethical dilemma to staff members. A patient (Mr. X) was in severe condition as he was having issue related to tuberculosis. He had been admitted in care home of UK by his family. There were only 3 family members; mother, father and a younger sister. His mother was a dementia patient and father used to take care of her. However, his little sister is only 7 years old. This family did not know English as their native language was mandarin. He was getting services of that particular care home from last 10 days. During mid-night of 11th day, nurse who was carer of Mr. X was asked on phone to provide clinical information of Mr. X. The person who made call was patient’s friend and was concerned about him. However, at the time, no any person belong to Mr. X was present in the care home. Owing to this, nurse was in confusion that whether to provide information or not as it was strictly told to not sharing any personal information of patients to third party. At this juncture, she denied to provide any information related to patient and did not provide information of the same to any of the staff members. However, doctor who were taking care or handling case of Mr. X were allowed to provide information to his friends and family on phone, whenever required. This issues became very dangerous for family of Mr. X as his mother fall unconscious. Here, she was dying to know about his son that whether he was ok or not. Therefore, scenario reflects that lack of communication in team affects the situation of Mr. X's mother.

Models of communication

According to Shannan's model, there are different elements associated with communication process such as source, encode, decode and receiver. It shows that information sources like management and doctors prepare message in a clear manner. They have some purposes of their message and writing it down in a clear manner in order to allocate tasks as well as resources among staff members (Charney, 2010). Similarly, transmitter helps to encode messages given by sender or doctors. Here, nursing staff can easily understand the information disseminated by their immediate supervisors. According to the given scenario, doctors, therapists etc. use media or channel like e-mail, internet, notice board or printed document. This facilitates to provide appropriate information through which all the staff members can know the rules and regulations associated with confidentiality. The last second procedure of Shannon's model of communication is decode thereby staff members translate all the information and apply the same at the workplace. It can be critically evaluated that Shannon's model does not lay emphasis on different interpretations and unequal power relation which may affect overall procedure to a great extent. However, such kind of difference affects an individual and his work in the organization. Owing to this, it might be said that wrong interpretation was done by one of nursing staffs and accordingly, he did not provide information of Mr. X to his friend.

The linear model of communication is divided into three parts under which sender encodes the message and disseminate the same via effective channel. The given scenario reflects that nursing staff gets information with the help of internet and E-mail. However, their immediate supervisor delivers important information in face to face meeting. They suffer interruption related to noise and poor network (Davies and et.al., 2012). This scenario affects their performance to a great extent. This may be the reason of external inference created barriers in meeting expectations of individual in the organization. It can be critically evaluated that one-way communication procedure does not allow nursing staff to provide feedback. This affects performance of nursing staff because they may face issues while rendering services to end users. This model can be applied in given scenario where nurse was confused to provide the information and denied for the same (Drouet and et.al., 2013). It reflects issues related to poor communication in the team because doctors already knew regarding the same and they used to provide data related to health condition of Mr. X. It serves as a support to mother of patient as she was already suffering from dementia.

Owing to this, senders and receivers know regarding the purpose of information and they discuss about the same (Guangzhi, 2012). This aspect facilitates individual to provide immense support for completing their work in an effectual manner. However, being supervisor, doctors of care home are responsible for work done by their subordinates. For this purpose, effective mode of communication is applied in which workers can come to know regarding rules and regulations.

Teamwork and communication

According to Lim, Maubach and Zhuo (2009), teamwork refers to efforts of two or more people for achieving common task. However, effectiveness of teamwork depends on proper communication procedures. For this purpose, team of nursing staff is managed with the help of different types of meetings. Here, formal and informal meetings are taken by doctors through which staff members get better understanding related to number of issues. According to the given scenario, one of the nurses was not aware that friend of Mr. X can be provided with sufficient information. It provides convenience to all the staff members by offering them important information related to rules and regulations for transferring important data of patients. At this juncture, E-mails are used through which each nurse will come know about their work areas and they will be able to manage the same effectively (Mehrali and et. al., 2013).

Team communication skills are also very important in context of given scenario. The first one is cohesiveness which shows that all members of team work together for delivering good quality of services to large number of service users. It aids to develop better understanding among doctors, therapists and nursing staff who are taking care of particular patients. It proves to be effective in resolving issues related to lack of coordination and motivation. However, effective team building is also associated with cohesiveness only (Nordgren, 2011). Owing to this, the main focus is laid on integration of team where each participants provide their feedback and they are also involved in decision making procedure. Here, team leader such as doctor focuses on building good relationships with other personnel. Such kind of integration does it possible for them to make nursing staff aware of all related issues (O'Malley, Cohen and Grossman, 2010).

Sharing is the also the most important communication skills in team under which each person share simple fact with everybody. Not only this but personnel are provided chance to raise their queries in order to resolve the issues. At the same time, professional development is also important under which personnel give preferences upon learning. Here, nursing staff is provided opportunity for their development by offering them on the job training.

Salama and et.al., (2010) reflects that off the job training like coaching and mentoring are also used in care home through which they can improve their communication skills. This aspect assists them while sharing any kind of important information with third person. However, poor communication in team affects service quality to a great extent. Owing to this, there must be provision whereby management motivates employee to share each and every issue on right time. Current scenario also reflects careless attitude of nursing staff which in turn affected the mother of Mr. X.

Smith and et.al., (2012) stated that conference and board rooms are prepared for discussion with personnel in order to remove distraction from external environment. This procedure will make it possible for them to deliver information without any kind of distraction. Furthermore, Data Protection Act 1998 and Health and Social care Act 2012 are also discussed with personnel (Smith and et.al., 2012). It assists them in keeping into account legislative aspect and accordingly, treating with service users. However, being a leader of team, an individual is required to focus on issues arising in the team. This is done with the help of regular meeting under which employees or nursing staff share their common issues with management. Zwetsloot and et.al., (2010) argued that information and communication technology is applied at workplace of health and social care. It enables them for keeping all important data of visitors or service users with proper security. Furthermore, for using information and communication technology, all the employees are provided with training or learning. This aspect makes it possible for management to ensure continuous learning.

Dealing with conflict

According to Nordgren (2011), conflict is the common thing at the workplace which may affect the performance of individual or entire team to a great extent. The given scenario depicts that staff member was not known that friend of Mr. X can ask for his person information. At this juncture, other staff member might tell him something wrong for not working properly. This can create issues in entire team by increasing stress of nursing staff. Here, leader of the team such as doctor, therapist or senior staff member at first acknowledges the conflict. For example, he/she will make it clarify to entire team that nobody has right to blame others. It is the only management who will decide the punishment criteria for everybody. This procedure will be helpful for them to consider that they are treated equally. Here, the issues will be identified and responsible person will be asked to focus on all the information. It can be critically evaluated that in case of absence of any staff member for a particular day, authorized person will deliver the important information to the same on next day.

Otherwise, proper communication will not be maintained and its negative impact can be observed on service quality. Thus, after addressing the issues, the next step such as discussion of impact will be communicated among team (Smith and et.al., 2012). Here in the given scenario, all team members are communicated that just because of lack of concentrate among staff members, a patient gets affected which indicates very bad quality of service. They will further communicate impact of one person's fault on entire team. The next step is of agreement on cooperative process which reflects that every individual of team is asked for cooperation in order to ensure integration in team. This again supports the corporation in delivering good quality of services with proper communication among each member (Mehrali and et. al., 2013).

All these aspects are associated in preparing for the solution. The next major step for dealing with conflict is to understand the situation wherein position of every individual included in the team will be clarified. At the same time, all the factors related to issues will be gathered and conveyed in team (Srinivasan, 2013). At last, the entire team will reach at an agreement with consent of all the team members. In addition to this, conflicts are prevented with participation of employees and active listening as well as being open in team. All such practices facilitate to prevent conflicts and give flexibility for staff members.

Zwetsloot and et.al., (2010) information and communication technology saves overall time required to render service users by nursing staff taking their care. It is because data can be disseminated in each department in a quick manner that tends to determine overall success of care home. Thus, ICT will be helpful to cater need of all individuals associated in the team who are providing services to the patients. It will also support service users to access good quality of services from care home. However, they can effectively provide their feedback in case of any kind of faulty service. In addition to this, services users will be asked to provide remedy in case of faulty action taken by care workers (Communications, 2016). It aids to generate positive attitude among them and meet their expectations in an effectual manner.

Suggestions to improve practices

The current scenario is showing that service users come from different areas and they do not understand common language. Owing to this, they may face issues while rendering services. At this juncture, care home can use translator which helps to translate language into normal English. However, a person who is on the position of reception must have knowledge of some major languages (Mehrali and et. al., 2013). This aspect makes it possible for clients or services users to get treatment effectively. For example, an individual coming to take services of UK care home may face issues as he does not have idea regarding English language. For this purpose, receptionist will make it possible to resolve issues by converting their language in English. Furthermore, everybody such as doctors, therapists and nursing staff must be trained for common corporate culture which helps them to support service users and coordinate in team for meeting expectations in an effectual manner.

Information and communication technology can also be used in a team whereby management stores information of clients with confidentiality. However, access is not provided to each member working in the corporation so that service users can be free from related worries. Similarly, they must be given permission to use translator so their issues can be resolved if they do not have idea regarding common language of care home (Guangzhi, 2012). In addition to this, care workers must be motivated with monetary and non-monetary reward which will help them to coordinate in a team. Apart from this, good performance of personnel can be appraised with recognition which will have positive impact on their working style.

Formal and informal meeting must be conducted with nursing staff on time to time. It assists management to resolve their issues by noticing them on right time. At the same time, rules and regulations must be communicated regarding to code of conduct. For example, if someone is asking to access private information of service users and then, the same news will be delivered to the head of team (Salama and et.al., 2010). This aspect is effective for taking quick decision and providing remedy for service users. In the given case, nursing staff could have informed team leader so that he might provide information to the mother of patient. Not only this, feedback can be taken from participants by filling the assessment sheet. It provides opportunity to change the current procedure of working (Zwetsloot and et.al., 2010).

On critical note, if workforce is not performing well so they may have some kind feeling of fear as management can give them punishment. For instance, management may rank their performance in a negative manner which may have impact on their career growth. Furthermore, this scenario will help them to improve their current aspect of doing work. In addition to this, orientation must be done by stating code of conduct of business (Nordgren, 2011). It aids to meet expectations of all the service users and those related to care home. As per the given scenario, doctor handling patient of tuberculosis can set guideline for future improvement in team work. Under this case, a formal meeting will be conducted with team where they will be asked to coordinate and resolved their queries while disseminating information.

Conclusion

The aforementioned essay concludes that communication is very important for smooth operation of any business as it supports team to work with integration and motivates staff to deliver good quality of services to large number of service users. This aspect enables management to resolve team issues and develop good relations with workforce as well as service users. However, use of translator is effective for both the care workers and service users because they can understand the fact in a simple manner. Furthermore, care workers must be provided continuous learning by highlighting some of the specific issues (Guangzhi, 2012). This also provides support for the overall corporation to remove stress and ensure integration between team. Furthermore, free flow of communication from top to down is the key to create competitive edge of care home in the marketplace where goodwill is created in an easy manner (Lim, Maubach and Zhuo, 2009).

It can also be said that, conflicts are resolved with active participation of service providers which in turn leads to increase their motivation level. However, at some critical situation, service users can also be incorporated in the process of resolving conflicts (Davies and et.al., 2012). Similarly, leader of team must adopt both the flexible and rigid approach at the time of solving issues. This proves to be effective to provide immense support for their team member and motivate them to contribute towards achieving long as well as short term objectives.

Furthermore, interference should be avoided at the time of disseminating important information among team (Charney, 2010). It facilitates to clarify the facts and figures of team which may affect overall performance of the same. At this juncture, personnel are motivated for their good performance and punished for the bad one. This aspect also serves in an effective manner for providing motivation. In addition to this, service users are provided comfortable environment by understanding their specific need and assisting them in some critical situations.

References

  • Charney, W., 2010. Handbook of Modern Hospital Safety. 2nd ed. CRC Press.
  • Davies, J. and et.al., 2012. Developing high relational support services for individuals with long term mental health needs: scheme description and service evaluation. Mental Health and Social Inclusion.
  • Drouet, M. and et.al., 2013. Short-term sonic-hedgehog gene therapy to mitigate myelosuppression in highly irradiated monkeys: hype or reality&quest.Bone marrow transplantation.
  • Guangzhi, H. S. C., 2012. Study on doctoral dissertations on advertising in China.Journal of Advertising Study.
  • Lim, M. C. C., Maubach, G. and Zhuo, L. 2009. TGF-β1 down-regulates connexin 43 expression and gap junction intercellular communication in rat hepatic stellate cells.European journal of cell biology.
  • Mehrali, M. and et.al., 2013. Shape-stabilized phase change materials with high thermal conductivity based on paraffin/graphene oxide composite.Energy Conversion and Management.
  • Nordgren, L., 2011. Healthcare matching: conditions for developing a new service system. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences.
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