In recent period all the multinational and huge ventures recruit their workforce from different nations corresponding to varied cultures. The hotel industry is also not exempted to such trend. Therefore, management as well as leadership of multiple workforces is a great challenge in the hotel sector. It has become very obvious during various current studied that organizations having robust plus powerful leadership at each levels are proficient of attaining extraordinary results or vice versa. Hence, it is very significant that managers along with leaders distinguish the influence of varied patterns of leadership encompass on satisfaction and presentation of their staff members. Several top industry cases have enabled today’s leaders in understanding that in the growth or development of their workforce, diverse supportive culture is very essential. The mixture of culture brings many innovative measures as well within the company. Yet, leaders are facade with the dilemma of identifying how to tackle such concerns at workplaces (Malamud, and Rotenberg, 2010).
Evaluation of leadership and motivation theories
Many types of theories and styles of leadership are presented as well as being successfully adopted by companies across varied cultures. These theories are given below:
- Behavioral theory – It abandons the trait theory notion and says that leaders are created by providing necessary learning or training and not born (Briscoe and et.al., 2008).
- Trait theory – This theory states that various traits or features are required for a leader to become successful in their profession. On the basis of this theory, leaders are not made by training and are natural by birth. If any individual possesses such traits than he/she could be decided as a leader. Though, the theory is not liberated from limitations, one of them being the occurrence of huge of these features and absence of even on such characteristics cannot prohibit a person from being known as a best leader (Adair, 2006).
- Transactional theory – This leadership pattern focuses on rewarding workforce when they execute well and arduous them at the times of falling in their presentation. This model is supported by a coordination of rebuke and incentives.
- Transformational theory – This is also called as relationship theory in which concentration is on creating harmonious connections among leaders as well as its cohorts. Leaders who adopts this pattern, comprises ethical standard along with high moral (Brotherton, 2003).
- Contingency theory – It stresses on implementing varied leadership models, as per the needs of prevailing conditions. The theory states that no single concept is appropriate in all types of situations and thus, leaders should shape their behavior on the basis of requirements.
Leadership patterns across varied cultures
By this report, the investigator is presenting leadership as well as motivational strategies structure for effectively management of diversified workforce and cultural differences with the example of IBIS Hotel, London. It is the modern-day economy hotel of the city, which is situated in financial heart of London at an easy access to Liverpool Street Station. The lodge offers 504 relaxing rooms with all facilities. Moreover, George and Dragon Pub, La Table Restaurant and chargeable car parking area are provided by it. For the convenience of business clients, the hotel offers wireless internet access facility. The suites of enterprise could maintain huge events as well as meetings for up to 800 guests or 1200 people for a wedding party or banquet (Hotel ibis London City, n.d).
As the lodge is a worldwide organization, its employees are also related from diverse cultures. Hence, the managers of IBIS adopt various leadership and motivational models, for the reason to handle diversity problems of guests and employees. Several issues take place in the hotel, because of existence of ethnic multiplicity at each hierarchical level and within guests too. It is very difficult and critical task to manage this huge variety of staff and customers, as they come from ethnically and culturally diverse backgrounds (Christensen, 1992). Some of the main problems, which are required to be properly tackled by hotel leaders, are conflict management, performance management, discrimination issues, change management, fostering organization culture, communication, conducting training and development sessions, etc. In order to work out on such matters in lodge, the departmental leaders and human resource manager utilizes various theories and models of management.
- Democratic – This is also called as participative approach of leadership. In this method, leader motivates their workforce to get involved in main decisions of organization by providing their valuable suggestions. The manager built capability of making decisions in their subordinates by his/her influential and convincing behavior.
- Laissez Faire – In this style of leadership there is no participation of leaders. His/her presence is just through papers. The team members are highly self motivated as well as experienced enough to take decisions on their own. Moreover, they do not require much supervision. They don’t wait for leaders to push and motivate them for performances.
- Autocratic – In this model of leadership, leaders take excessive advantage of their position to make subordinates accomplish the job. The employees are also not call for making major decisions. They only pursue the orders of their leaders, who do not reliance on anyone for essential issues.
- Paternalistic – The leaders who adopt this pattern acts as a father figure to their cohorts. He/she is consultative as well as encouraging and takes valuable suggestions of subordinates. Though, the leader only makes the final decision.
It is very essential to understand the Hofstede’s cultural dimension, in order to compare as well as contrast various styles of leadership. This dimension is given by Hofstede, supports in conducting an assessment of employee’s traits belonging to different cultures. This varied cultures recognition contributes in workers comparison. In his accordance, employee’s characteristics, which come from multiple cultures, could be differentiated on the basis of five dimensions.
Management Theories for Managing Varied Cultures
In order to deal effectively with ethnic as well as cultural diversity in the organization, several management policies and practices are assumed by IBIS hotel executives. For the reason to promote an optimistic and constructive behavior within the staff members, a diversity management program has been initiated, so that employees work hard plus line up their goals with company and ads in its attainment. The Directors of IBIS hotel has put in workplace policy of top down including various roles and responsibilities, in order to control dissimilar culture within the hotel. It is based on the behavioral theory of management. The initial aim of this model is to generate an improved manpower by handling variety of managerial and job cultures. The management of hotel has implemented behavioral theory, because they believe that employees are the precious asset and their optimum utilization is very important for business .
The main reason for creating diversity policy is to keep a multiple environment of work and offering the employees an opportunity to communicate with individuals belonging from varied parts of globe and to serve customers of the hotel at worldwide level. It not only enhances satisfaction level of buyers, but also of employees also. Moreover, the policy of diversity adopted in the lodge is on lines with Mayo’s Theory that reflects the significant of working as per the modern trends and employees needs management, so that they could deliver their effective performance and toil hard to support in attainment of goals.
Leadership Theories for Managing Cultural Diversity
Leadership plays a significant role in diversity management whether ethnic or cultural in any organization. In the IBIS, there are various leaders as well as their panels adopts different kinds of leadership patterns, as per the prevailing condition. Commonly this could be said that the participative one is the most ordinary leadership style being pursued in the lodge.
The participative approach of leadership is that under which leader makes attempt to include all their team members in the process of decision making as well as takes their valuable suggestions. It depends on the leader that whether to perfectly adopt those decisions or not, but he/she engages everyone’s contribution in the process. In previous times, generally autocratic leadership pattern was in trend, under which the leader acted as dictator and made rules with no seeking of anyone’s suggestions. Whether or not these regulations were fair, they had to be beard by all followers. Manpower was treated as appliance and also importance is not provided to their individual needs. Though, times have tainted and it is not feasible today to control people. For workforce their satisfaction level along with self esteem is more essential than money and if any unfair treatment faced by them, they leave the job.
Theories Related to Managing Cultural Diversity
In the hospitality as well as service industry, individual come from various backgrounds and they all work with each other. Hence, it becomes very crucial for IBIS managers to be well aware with various theories, which are significant to cultural differences. Some common motivational plus leadership theories are mentioned below:
- Democratic theory – It widely acknowledged one theory as well as known across most of the cultures. The theory provides a chance to leaders for initiating high levels of incorporated communication with their staff members, this theory demands high amount of coordination. Leaders who adopt this practice can successfully strengthen bonding of their team (Leading across cultures, 2012).
- Relationship theory – This approach of leadership pays concentration on nurturing robust relationship among leaders and their cohorts. Such close association and bond is essential for inclusion of complete squad. According this concept, adequate respect is given by team head to their team member’s dignity and interests. Hence, this leadership theory is very supportive in managing a diversified team (Lee, 2012).
- Situational theory – On the basis of this theory, leadership cannot be directed by a set of pre-established protocols. It is proposed by this theory that leaders are needed to take such decision, which is demanded by the prevailing conditions.
Techniques for managing and building teams with culturally diverse workforce
In order to develop and manager culturally diverse workforce, following techniques could be used:
Discipline in superior authority – The significance lies in delighting the diverse personnel’s as one. It could be attained, if discipline maintains by higher level authority over the staff members of company. The related problems should be focused by top level executives, so that customers and employees relation be persistent in the diverse situations also. Building such type of culture within the organization, encourage employees to work hard as a perfect team .
Encouragement to the manpower – There can be many types of motivation, such as noticeable, non-casual, vague and regulatory. The IBIS hotel could give timely rewards as well as appreciation to their employees, on the basis of their presentation etc. It would encourage them to be satisfied plus appreciative with their work and will make them to serve the guests more briskly.
Measurement – In order to analyze and measure diversity management programs impact, organization must use qualitative as well as quantitative measures. It would support in determining the spaces, if any.
Succession Planning – The process makes sure about continuous and consistent employees development. The main intention of doing this is to fill the main business tasks of the company. It is very essential tool of motivation, which encourages workforce to improve their performances regularly.
The system of Employees Relationship Management – It has grown to be fundamental for managers to be susceptible towards cross cultural differences. The IBIS is required to initiate employee’s relationship management programs, for the reason to tackle related issues. These programs should consist of increasing awareness about cultural variations. It should also aim at incorporating minority workers nicely in the workplace environment of hotel. Moreover, one part of this program could be celebrating festivals of different cultures .
At last, it can be said that leaders of IBIS, adopts several tool and theories of leadership and management for adequate management of cultural multiplicity in the hotel. It not only enhances workers morale, but resolves different background conflicts too .
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