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Introduction to Psychology for HSC

Lifespan development and individual behavior affect by different psychological factors. These factors have significant as well as trivial impacts on different life stage of entire life cycle of a human. Majorly social and environmental factors have huge and direct impacts on nature and behavior of individual which helps in improving their development. The present study is based on psychological principles in health and social care. It includes different theories of lifespan development. Further, it will explain social and biological determinants of human behavior displayed in health and social care contexts. Including this, research will also comprise application of all psychological theories on health and social care practices such as on individual level of stress and behavioral disturbance, etc.

Task 1

1. Comparison of different theories of life span development

According to psychological theories there are ranges of services which are provided by Health and Social care organizations to distinct individuals in their whole life stage development. These life stages are infancy, early childhood, adolescence, adulthood, late adulthood and final stage of life and death. These stages of life can be easily understood by different individuals. These psychological theories are continuity, discontinuity, stage and open ended theory. Comparisons of these theories are described as under:

Continuity versus discontinuity theory of HSC

Continuity theory of development is one o the important psychological theory of HSC which helps in determining different new and innovative changes in the different stages of individuals in their life cycle. But, on the other hand, discontinuity theory of health and social care helps in determining sudden and instant changes in different stages of human being and these changes are generally unexpected and diverse. Motor development is one of the important parts of continuous theory of lifespan development of an individual. According to this theory each and every individual faces the motor changes in their whole life stage. These types of changes are relevant to the previous changes of life cycle. Older people and their lifestyle is the best example of this theory because their behavior and actions will remain same for different activities in their young and older age. They treat their relationships, behavior and personalities same as their young age.

Therefore according to the continuity theory older people uses most suitable strategies for their lifespan development and every strategy is directly associated with their past actions and behavior. Therefore, Motor development theory is very appropriate theory for understanding old stage development of a human being. Along with this, statement of this theory has reflected that individual modify different stages of life cycle for managing internal and external structure of development. But, their internal structure such as life, personality, values, beliefs and ideas remain same in continuous development.

But, on the other hand, discontinuity theory has stated that every individual needs to have faced some diverse and unexpected changes which can directly affect lifespan development of a human being. In addition, as per this theory, there are huge differences between all changes in the different life stages. Therefore, it has reflected un-continuous changes in the life stages of a human being. This theory also focuses on isolated and indifferent changes in stages of whole life. Along with this, changes have their own starting and ending point which reflect entire stages of lifecycle.

Stage versus open ended theory

Psychological theories include stage versus open ended theories which focuses on the every stage of life span development of an individual. As per the stage theory every individual needs to face similar stages of the life span development which lies between birth and death of a person. According to this theory, future expectations of an individual force them to select an appropriate path of development from different ways. Therefore, stage theory is based on assumptions. Stage development theory can easily understand by Erik Ericson theory of life span progress. As per these theories every individual needs to face different changes and lessons which affect their whole life span development. According to this theory mostly social, external and parental factors have positive and direct impact on life span development of an individual According to this theory every human being needs to face eight stages in their life cycle and these stages are associated with each other. Therefore, life span development of individual are also depended on these stages. In these stages, individuals need to face different changes in every stage such as changes in personality, emotion, skills, quality and attitude, etc. these changes directly affect all stages of the life span development of an individual. Stage theory has also reflected that a human being needs to face different factors such as emotional conflicts, external environment and relationships, etc.

But, on the other hand, open ended theory does not focus on any kind of assumptions and insight. This theory has stated that every individual develops different hypothesis and assumptions. These assumptions plays important role in their positive and negative reactions in different situations. Their reactions are also based on different psychological, physiological and cultural factors. Their decision making process are also affected by these factors. Therefore, as per the open ended theory every individual has distinct choice for making each and every decision. Stage theory can easily understand by Erik Ericson but open ended theory of Jaan Valsiner helps in understanding various aspects of human development. Every aspect associated with various factors such as routine activities of individuals. This theory has also reflected that every aspect is also different from person to person. Including this, intra-personal is also one of the important aspects of this theory which helps in understanding action and reactions of each individual. Third and important aspect of this theory is transfer of experience from past life. Including this, it is an important theory for understanding the different challenges which are faced by child in their life.

Task 2

1. Explanation of social and biological factors that influence human behavior

Capacity of mental, physical, social and emotional activities during the different stages of life cycle is known as human behavior. Different factors can influence the human behavior and social and biological factors are most important factors in it. Influence of social and biological factors are described as under...

Social factors

Socialization and social factors can affect behavior of an individual in effectual manner. These factors help in obtaining appropriate knowledge, skills and language through the society. These factors can influence human behavior. In the childhood stage every individual learn most of the things from their families so, it is also considered as major factor which can influence the human behavior. Education is considered as other factors which can also influence the Sam’s life. Low education level reflects the bad behavior of Sam and high level of education will represent a very good behavior. Along with this culture, media and environment of Sam can also affect his behavior.

Biological factors

There are different biological factors which can also influence the behavior of Sam. Genetic aspects are one of the major factors which can influence individual’s behavior. Intelligence and talents comes from heredity so, it can also affect the behavior of Sam. Along with this, loss of neurons is the major reason behind the diseases of Sam. Along with this, biological factors also include autonomic nervous system, central nervous system, localization and lateralization of brain function, endocrine system, sensory systems, etc. These factors affect physical and mental health of Sam. So, it is also considered as major biological factor which can influence the behavior of Sam.

2. Importance of social roles in context of health and social care settings

As per the given scenario, Sam id facing the some problems in his life span development and it has negative impacts on his behavior as well as mental and physical health. In this stage he can’t able to fight with all these problems. Both mental and physical healths are very important for aging these issues. An appropriate lifespan development is depends on behavior, attitude, environment and social factors rather than heredity. Therefore, for maintaining mental stages of Sam, social roles will play very important role. Sam is facing the problem of depression and reducing mental disorder so, in this condition, appropriate care of parents and good nutrition are very important for both psychological and physical health. Sam is a patient of Alzheimer so, he can loss their memory due to high level of stress. In this condition, social role will play very significant role in determining and reminding his identity. Therefore, it helps in development of identity and self concepts in Sam. Along with this, social roles will also important for maintaining conformity and traditional values in behavior of Sam. Overall, social roles are very important for physical and mental development of Sam.

Conclusion

The current research report has successfully described different psychological theirs in context of health and social care settings. These theories are continuity and discontinuity theory, open ended and stage theory, etc. Report has disclosed that every human being needs to go through different life span development stages such as infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Each stage is associated with an appropriate psychological theory. Further, research has also described that social and biological factor has direct and indirect impact on human behavior. These factors include socialization, family, education, language, media, culture and environment, etc. Major biological factors also affect the life span development of an individual which include genetic, neuro-degenerative disorder, traits and blueprints, etc. Including this research has also found that social roles also play very important role in reminding identity, conformity and developing self concepts.

References

  • Agarwal, N. and Zeephongsekul, P., 2013. Psychological pricing in mergers & acquisitions using prospect theory. Studies In Economic And Finance.
  • Akoumianakis, D., 2014. Boundary spanning tactics and “traceable” connections in cross-organizational virtual alliances: A case study. journal of enterprise information system.
  • Apostolopoulos, A. C., 2010. Coastal bridges and the 120 Life Span – the Rio‐Antirio case study. International Journal of Structural Integrity.
  • Bornstein, H. A., Vandell, L. V. and Rook, S. K., 2010. Lifespan Development: Infancy Through Adulthood. Cengage Learning.
  • Bowers, A., 2015. Category Expectations, Category Spanning, and Market Outcomes, in Giovanni Gavetti,William Ocasio. Advances in Strategic Management.
  • Boyd, R. D. and Bee, L. H., 2011. Lifespan Development. Pearson.

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