Introduction to Cultural and tourism
Cultural and tourism industry is the most developing sector of UK. It contributes towards economy growth and development of nation by increasing employment and meeting demand of wide range of tourists. This sector is attracting visitors of UK as well as numerous foreign countries which aid to revive cultural and heritage sites of nation effectively. Present report is based on case study of Lhasa, Tibet where InterContinental Hotels Group are plan to open Resort Lhasa Paradise. Further report will cover impact of different types of owner on the managing tourism sites as well as roles and responsibilities of the organizations working in the same sector. In addition to this, potential conflicts in the conservation of heritage and cultural resourcing has been explained. Apart from this, methods and media used for interpretation within tourism industry have been evaluated.
1.1 Analyzing the growth of UK heritage and cultural industry
The cultural industry of UK consists of galleries which have several collections, museums, heritage landscape and conservation as well as archaeology. Heritage is a type of practices which are adopted by the government of nation to preserve features of culture of particular society from one generation to the next (Cultural Research and Intangible Heritage. 2009).
Facts related to it:
It has been gaining popularity from 16th century and with the passage of time cultural tourism has become a trend. It assists the visitors to get detail information that how society has evolved and contributed towards development of future. It shows that industry not only considers the tangible aspect but also intangible like languages, customs and practices (Uzama, 2009). This aspect helps in preserving legacy of past generation so it can be shared with future generations. Owing to this, the major part of heritage and cultural industry of UK is funded by public or government. Furthermore, development of cited industry plays vital role in international arts and cultural facet. The sector has worth of £85.6 billion in 2006 with approximate 32.6 million overseas visitors in 2007 (The Cultural Heritage Blueprint, 2008). Furthermore, Heritage Lottery Fund which is introduced in UK has provided benefit to heritage and cultural industry of UK. Similarly, England regional museums and galleries received fund of worth £300 million through Museums, Libraries and Archives Council's Renaissance in the Regions Programme. In the same way cited sector raised its source of finance in order to ensure continuous development of lucrative sites and meet expectations of visitors in an effectual manner (Hudson, 2010).
Furthermore, in the development and growth of heritage and cultural industry government of UK also laid emphasis on social inclusion and others which provide immense support to the cultural heritage. The most imperative aspect of cited sector is importance of culture and increasing interest of visitors just because of availability of wide range of options. It facilitates in increasing attention of large number of visitors towards developed lucrative sites of nation. In addition to this, UK is nation which is full of historic monuments, royal palaces including world's top museums (Adams and et.al., 2015). UNESCO has determined 25 World Heritage Sites which includes natural beauty like Dorset and East Devon Coast to cultural riches. It also includes, Tower of London, Westminster Abbey, and Maritime Greenwich so as to attract visitors from different nations (World Heritage Sites, 2016). Apart from this, city of Bath and Liverpool as well as Edinburgh are some of the places which show natural beauty of UK. Also, all these sites include detail information related to past time and culture of society which create interest among visitors to know more. Apart from this, other sites are also attracting visitors and which in turn are supporting construction industry of UK to a great extent. Other than this, theater, sport activities and St. Paul's Cathedral are some of major factors which aid in increasing the number of visitor for the nation (Britain’s cathedrals, 2016). On contrary, improper influence of the local tourists of their cultural lands is an issue for cultural and heritage industry of UK. Therefore, cultural and heritage industry of UK is growing and contributing towards building heritage environment (Son, 2011).
1.2 Discussing potential conflicts in the conservation
The conservation of heritage and cultural resource is important for any nation. It has two aspects connected in both positive and negative manner.
Case of Tibetan
According to the given case study, Tibet is known as the world's tourism attraction which aids in attracting large number of visitors towards attractive site. Here, Tibetan people provide unique hospitality to visitors who come across UK. However, according to the given case study InterContinental hotel is planning to expand in Tibet in order to provide rich experience to visitors to visit Tibet. However, this has become arguable in term of employment and governing rules (Marshall and Villiers, 2015). Similarly, conservation threats imposed by government related to China are also increased just because of boycott comes by Free Tibet and other group against Chinese government. Here, residents of Free Tibet have fear because of governing bodies as they think that they might be discriminated against Tibetans.
Role of IHG in case
At this juncture, IHG hotel promises that it will promote economic opportunities without any kind of description and people will have their growth perspective at workplace. Furthermore, hotel has vision to increase living standard of residents of Lhasa. However, Free Tibet is not satisfied and claims that it will marginalize Tibetans economically (Buda and McIntosh, 2013). Here, Tibetans wanted to have Tibetan owned business which aid to preserve culture of country in an effectual manner. They just want to hire those who have information related to language and other detail information related to culture of Tibet. Similarly, case depicts that Lhasa is about to destroy and residents were relocated just because of renovation plan of Chinese government.
Under this, it is very important to assess both of aspects in order to ascertain good performance of industry in the marketplace. Here, London based free Tibet has several conflicts so as to revive natural beauty of nation. Furthermore, issues related to discrimination affect culture and heritage industry of UK to a great extent (Tsiotsou and Ratten, 2010). At this juncture, security measures have been enhanced and foreign visitors as well as journalists barred from entering into region. It depicts that IHG hotel can face issues with regards to its development and attraction of large number of visitors towards the most attractive place as Tibet. It serve as the barriers in the development and growth of industry. On the other hand, because of such kind of conflicts foreign tourists do not like to enter in such kind of areas where they do not feel safe (Mehmetoglu and Normann, 2013). This in turn growth and perspective scenario of UK 's cultural and heritage industry is affected to a great extent. However, the move taken by government was just to attract tourists but it is to introduce by destroying traditional architecture. Owing to this, it was not all accepted by local residents of Tibet and hence they created conflicts in the development of cultural and heritage industry.
2.1 Assess the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions
The heritage and cultural attractions plays very important role in meting the needs and expectations of different kind of customers. furthermore, it can be stated that different travellers have different kind of need and demand. For example leisure travellers seeks for fun and relaxation whereas some of them seeks for exploring the culture and heritage of different countries. When people travel or visit a particular country or nation, they seek for its heritage and culture in attractions. The above stated statement can be justified by the example of British Museum and The Natural history Museum (Morgan and Ranchhod, 2010). Further both the museums have capabilities in meeting the need and demand of people all across the world. These museum have collection of various kind things which are associated with culture, heritage, art and science. British museum is located in Bloomsbury area of London and it is dedicated to human history. It consists of the culture, heritage and art which reflects the history of humanity. Moreover it is consist of the collection which has been made by scientist and physician names Sir Hans Sloane. The major collection of British museum includes Rosetta Stone, Oxus Treasure, Parthenon, The Royal Game of Ur etc. In addition to this, All these things attracts tourist from all across the world (Hall and et. al., 2012). Parthenon sculptures which is an iconic sculpture from ancient Greece demonstrate the heritage and culture of that period. Further it can be stated that British museum is one of the best place to meet the need and demand of people which seeks for exploring culture and heritage related to human history. Oxus Treasure which is a fabulous metalwork which has been Achaemenid Persia (McCabe, 2010). The main purpose of the British Museum is to make people aware about the development and history related to mankind. The articles and things which are kept in museum helps people to explore and have in depth knowledge regrading their culture. The museum also helps scientist to carry out in depth researches and future developments. British museum also organize various kinds of activities for kids and children. Family newsletter, discover digital music and other related events are held in the museum which entertains children and eliminates the chances of getting bore (Singh, 2008).
Cultural attraction through museum
On the other side of this, the natural museum in London is the one which demonstrate various components of natural history. Furthermore the museum has an collection of more than 80 million items which fall under the category of zoology, paleontology, botany, entomology and mineralogy. In terms of taxonomy, the museum is considered as one of the most renowned and popular center for research. Until the year 1992, the natural museum was termed as British museum and after that it got separated from the same. The skeleton of dinosaur has gathered attention from people all across the world. In depth researches are carried out by scientist on the botany collection of the museum which includes bryophytes, seed plants, slime moulds and ferns from all across the globe (Swarbrooke and Horner, 2012). The entomology collection of museum depicts more than 34 million arachnids and insects. The collection of all these insects and other living creatures is more than 300 years. There are over 29 million of specimens of animal are present which has been gathered from more than 250 years. Therefore, in depth research can be carried out on any of the areas which the museum includes. One of the major duty of the museum is to take care of all its collections in best possible manner. In order to carry out research, the management of museum also provides an opportunity to borrow the specimens to scientist, artist and other researchers. natural museum also provides various kind of programs and sessions for the entertainment of children. It organize sessions such as storytelling with puppets which makes the learning of kids more effective and interesting (Morrison, 2013).
Both the museum of London can be termed as very effective in reflecting the art, culture and heritage of the country. These are the one which do not charge any kind of fees for entry and considered as major attraction for tourist. Further they also play very important role in terms of researches related to culture and heritage. Both of the museums have their own culture and heritage. In addition to this, people's need regarding the exploration of human history is satisfied by British museum whereas the need regarding exploration of natural history is satisfied by Natural museum. The management of both museums focuses on meeting the need related to research, learning and entertainment. Further both have a wide variety of collection of various types of tourist such as scientist, students and family with children (Wong and Song, 2012). Therefore, it can be stated that British museum and Natural museum are able to meet the need and expectations of different kind of customers Cultural Heritage Rights: From Ownership and Descent to Justice and Well-being, 2013. In addition to this, cultural and heritage attraction also boosts other sector like travel and aviation industry by increasing demand of products and services. For example, visitors coming enjoy wild life in UK would definitely like to stay in comfortable and affordable hotel along with effective transportation facilities. Therefore it can be said that presence of unique art galleries and cultural as well as heritage beauty make it possible for sector to generate huge emplacement and attract more visitors (Uzama, 2009).
3.1 Evaluating the impact of different types of ownership
There are different types of ownership for management of heritage and cultural sites of UK. It consists of public, commercial and private ownership. It affects operation of particular site to a great extent. For example, public ownership is that where most of the funds are arranged through government and other related charitable trusts which are formed to support such kind of corporations. Furthermore, the major ownership type of related to public private partnership and public ownership (Hudson, 2010). They all have their management style which enables them to perform better and provide good quality of services to targeted population or consumers or visitors. Here, example of Woodland Trust as public private partnership can be taken.
On the other hand, English Heritage and Natural England are the example public ownership. It is well known fact that heritage and cultural organization must have creativity, enough funds and level of responsibilities to perform all related task. Here, issues are faced by publicly funded sites because of subsidy and delay in the arrangement of financial resources. On the other hand, public private partnership access number of sources for raising sources of finance and hire experts in their organization in order to give rich experience to sites (Adams and et.al., 2015).
Public private partnership sites
Furthermore, public private partnership sites have liberal approach in promotion of attractive sites and preparing holiday packages through which they can contribute towards generating employment and also increase visitor base in UK. These sites facilitate to define role and responsibilities of members working in the organization and accordingly provide them training to enhance cultural beauty of nation (Son, 2011). Here, Woodland Trust is the site which effectively recruit personnel and provide them opportunity for continuous learning. It aids to promote cultural beauty in front of targeted population. In addition to this, sources of fund for this site are; donation and appeals, corporate supporters, grants and charities as well as legacies. Along with that, lottery funding and membership are also included which provide financial support to this site. It aids to promote cultural beauty in the nation. This heritage site have existence in two location such as England and Scotland.
Apart from this, Science Museum London is the effective public site which is totally managed by government of UK. It can be seen that this site is attracting wide range of visitors and providing them unique experience by inclusion of past cultural and heritage information of country. Furthermore, English Heritage consists of 400 of England's historic building, monuments and other related sites (Marshall and Villiers, 2015). It works as per the national government and also the source of finance are also provided by government only. Therefore, type of ownership is the effective manner which define development and growth of particular site. However, innovation and creativity are founded much more in case of private sector so as to meet expectation of number of tourists in an effectual manner. In addition to this, role of national governmental department is also imperative as they provide immense support heritage and cultural industry of country (Buda and McIntosh, 2013). They make plan on the basis of time and sign contract for its development. This is what make a nation lucrative and attractive in front of tourists. Furthermore, in the same governmental department make efforts to boosts tourism as well as construction sector by generating huge employment. Similarly, specialist conservation groups such Natural England which are privately funded aid to support heritage and cultural sector of UK. Apart from this, voluntary bodies are also there which leads to serve as the support for tourism sector of nation. It consists of art and craft sector and media who give detail information related to heritage and play active role in attracting visitors.
3.2 Analyzing role and responsibilities of two UK heritage organization
The roles and responsibilities of Heritage organizations are imperative in because of their unique role. It consists of several corporations such as Department of Media, culture and sports as well as English heritage. Along with that, Woodland trust and Heritage Lottery Fund. Here, the main focus will be laid on department of culture and Woodland trust.
Woodland trust- private public partnership
The selected organization as Woodland trust is private public partnership which has range of sources for its development and growth. The main motive behind this site is to protect and sympathetic management of native Woodland Heritage. It includes project Nature Detectives Youth programme and ancient tree hunt campaign (Tsiotsou and Ratten, 2010). For example, its Ancient Tree Hunt campaign search for catalogue all veteran tree in nation. It aid to keep record related to those trees and ensure that it contribute towards making national beauty attractive in front of foreign tourists. Furthermore, this trust covers approximate 200 sq KM area in order to save both natural and semi natural habitats. However, all these work is done under advisory role of government so as to contribute towards effective development and creation in heritage sector. In addition to this, Woodland Trust launched its Jubilee woods in order to plant 6 million trees. This action was taken by trust to celebrate Queen Elizabeth 2nd Diamond Jubilee in 2012. This is what make lasting impression on tourists and assists them to visit UK for the purpose education and learning regarding culture. Furthermore, the most unique action taken by trust is self ownership situation within the National Forest that leads to plant 300000 trees. In addition to this, Woodland trust manage approximate 110 sites of Special Scientific interest (Morgan and Ranchhod, 2010).
Department of culture
The department of culture is another effective example of heritage organization in UK because of its management of cultural and heritage sites. This department is funded publicly in order to determine growth and perspective of sector in an effectual manner. This department is highly responsible to manage cultural tourism as well as leisure activities. For example Olympic and Paralympic games are managed by department of culture England. Along with that it plays active role to consider expectations of tourists and meet the same with collection of cultural sites along with their effective preservation. Apart from this, activities performed by department of culture consists of getting license for the export and import of several goods which require in cultural and heritage industry of nation (Hall and et. al., 2012). Not only this but management of art collection is also done by this site which leads to meet expectation of number of visitors in an effectual manner. In addition to this, it is the major responsibility of department of culture to implement new technology for the attraction of buyers. For example arranging effective media for promotion of London Olympics and accordingly provide growth opportunities for other sector such as travel and hotel sector. Apart from this, department of culture facilitate to search new and attractive locations which makes visitors satisfied and enhance the beauty of heritage and cultural industry of UK.
4.1 Methods and media used for interpretation within the heritage
The process of interpretation helps in providing useful information which is related to British museum and Natural museum London. Further it will also help in getting aware of the facts, figures and things which are associated with both the above stated tourist attractions. Along with this, interpretation will also assists in providing all the visitors with great amount of knowledge and experience. Various methods related to interpretation which has been adopted by both British museum and Natural museum helps individuals to become aware of the heritage and culture which has been associated with these two attractions (McCabe, 2010).
Role of media
Other than this, media has been also used by both museums to a great extent. With the help of media, various kind of information is being provided to the visitors in the form of videos or audios. Along with this, print media is also taken into consideration for promoting the leaflets and brochures of these museums. In modern era, television and internet has emerged as the biggest platform to reach audience in effective manner. Both the above stated platforms are used by British museum and Natural museum to make people aware about the heritage and culture which has been demonstrated by them. With the help on internet, British museum and Natural museum are able to provide information to people via online (The Cultural Heritage Blueprint, 2008). This has made it very convenient for people to become aware about the programs, timings of museums. Now people can easily access information from all across the world. Media such as television and internet is also used by these museums is also used to market and advertise the services and features which are provided. Not only this, but attractive media aid to support tourism to a great extent by making lucrative marketing plan (Swarbrooke and Horner, 2012). It aids to attract more buyers and meet their level of expectations in most effective manner. Furthermore, technological up-gradation proves to be effective in science museum to make them understand related to unique concept. It assists customers or visitors to get detail information related to sites and satisfied their need in an effectual manner.
Audio and video recording
Further, it can be stated that with the help of audio and video recording the experience of visitors is delivered to other people (The Cultural Heritage Blueprint, 2008). Other than this, thematic method is also used by the above stated museums to make public aware about the growth and development which has been taken place. Social media sites such as Facebook and twitter are also used to interpret the culture and heritage within industry. The growing use of social media in all around the world has made these sites a very potential platform to share information. Thus, British museum and Natural museum post information regarding culture and heritage on these medias (Wong and Song, 2012).
Personal and Non personal methods
Furthermore personal and non personal methods are being used by British museum and Natural museum to make tourist and general public aware about the things and objects which are being kept in museum. The non-personal methods depicts the visual and audio information regarding the antique and old objectives which are there in both the museums. It can be also explained that the non-personal method is more better than personal method as it provides wide range of effective information to tourist and other people (Uzama, 2009). Other than this, it can be also stated presenting information in effective, unique and creative manner results in developing interest of people towards a particular subject. Therefore, it can be asserted that both British museum and Natural museum are using effective method and media to interpret culture and heritage.
The aforementioned report concludes that heritage and cultural industry of UK is the most imperative sector which facilitates to generate huge employment and meet expectations of number of visitors. The attractive location and present of different types of organization kept on developing lucrative destination of nations. It can also be said that, both private and public private ownership are handling tourism business effectively by fulfilling their responsibilities in an effectual manner. Furthermore, different methods such as media, need of audience and level of language are imperative aspect in tourism sector of UK. Apart from this, heritage and culture sites are effective in term of education, recreation and entertainment of large number of visitors.
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