Introduction to Organization and Behavior
The present research is about the organization and behavior. Culture, structure, motivation, team building, leadership styles, group and group behavior and change management are the important part of the organization and its behavior. This investigation comprises various structure and culture of the organization and its impact on performance of the business. Research majorly focuses on the new acquisition of the City and Abbey College. This report also describes distinct factors of which influence the individuals behavior at the work place. Along with this organization and its behavior affects by the uses of different leadership styles and organizational theories and practices of management. Including this research evaluates dissimilar management approaches which are used by the companies. Project report includes some discussion about the relationship between leadership styles, motivation and change management of the organization; and comparison of the different motivational theories and its usefulness for the organization. Including this, nature and behavior of groups, teamwork and impact of technology on team functions of the organization also are describing following paragraphs of the report.
Impact of Organization Structure & Culture
City and Abbey College both have different organization structure and culture which affects the business performance of the overall business. Distinct structure and culture embrace the all departments of the college together and are a necessary part of the administration and strategic management. Organization structure can define in term of process by which all duties and responsibilities, activities and function are controlled and coordinated in the organization. This process or organization structure influences by the various component of internal and external environment of the organization, these are objective, size, nature of the business, culture and its resources (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004). Organization culture can define the way by which workforces of the company complete their task, roles, responsibilities with effective motivation and communication. Scenario reflects that organization structure and culture of the Abbey College is not so good so this college is facing the various administration problems. In other hand City college has strong and positive organization structure and culture which helps in improve the performance of the entire company. Thus, ideal, positive and developing culture supports marketing, human resources, finance, operational and strategic functions and activities of the organizations. Organization structure and culture helps in developing strategies and aligns these strategies to meet the vision, mission and objectives of the organization. Participative culture between employees and top management helps to motivate the entire personnel for valuable results which shepherd high presentation of the commerce. Along with this open and optimistic culture for the employees play an important role in organization growth, performance and plunder, knowledge and experience. Organization culture affects the working environment, motivation, communication and coordination of employees which has direct relations with the market share, growth and other strategic development of the organization (Tommy, 2002).
According to this report from assignment desk organization structure also affects the performance of the organization. In this merger and acquisition of City and Abbey College both institutes have different organization structure. Distinct structure affects the overall performance of both institutes. Majorly organizations follows three types of structure, theses are functional, divisional and matrix structure. Functional structure affects the synchronization and communication between two departments of the organization because it focuses on different functions of the organization. Every department works on their own functions only. Divisional structure is sued by those organizations which has large scale operations. Matrix structure follows all systems of function and divisional structure. In this type of structure managers assures about the effective communication and coordination between different departments of the organization and workforce. In this way the structure and culture of any organization influence the business performance of the company (Abouzeedan and Hedner, 2012).
Factors that Influence Individual Behavior
There are various factors in the acquisition of Abbey College by the city college which influence the individual behavior at workplace. Both organizations have different structure and culture which affects individual performance as well as overall presentation also. Work behavior can define as the manner which helps in employment. Work force is an important asset for any organization and behaviors of every single personnel affects the performance of the business. There are various factors whi organization and behaviorch affect the individual behavior, these are:
- Demographic factors
- Knowledge and Skills of the employees
- Attitude and personality
- Working environment
- Organization’s policies.
Behavior of the workforce of colleges is affected by the various demographic factors, such as economic factors, background, education, age, gender, contest, etc. Knowledge and skills is an important factor which affects the individual behavior. Employees can enhance their performance by the suitable use of their knowledge, skills and ability. Perception, attitude and personality influence the thinking and learning attitude of every individual which helps in improving their outcomes. Working environment is the main factor which increase and decrease the individual performance. Positive workings conditions help in encourage higher outcomes and negative and unfavorable working conditions discourage and de-motivate them. Some time organizational policies regarding the holidays, salary and compensation also manipulate the individual behavior (Cardona, 2000).
Compare different leadership styles in different organizations
Leadership style can define as leader’s behavior towards the planning, directing, implementing, motivating and controlling peoples of the organizations. It comprises personality, communication prototype and perception of leader in leading entire team for attaining organization’s goal. Leadership styles influence by the experience of the manager, nature, size, problems, challenges, opportunities and structures of the organizations. There are four types of leadership style; theses are Authoritarian, Paternalistic, Democratic and Laissez-faire. Major differences are describing below (Robbins and Judge, 2008):
Thus, Different organization uses distinct leadership style as per the nature and functions of the business. Abbey College uses poor leadership style so its performance is totally decreasing year by year and City College utilizes the effective and participative leadership style which reflects the higher performance for coming future.
Organizational Theory for Practice Management
Form the pronunciation there are various organizational theories given by the different analyst and economist to explain the association’s management, leading employees, distribution of the resources, team management, etc. Fredrick W. Taylor has produced a theory which is famous as principles of scientific management. Majorly it is useful for the failed companies because of the poor management. Scientific management theory states four basic principles for every association, these are:
- The expansion of new and true science for the work of each person.
- Scientific recruitment, selection, training and development of the workforce.
- Effective supervision and coordination with employees to ensure about that every task is stipulated in the prescribed way (Hassall and Joyce, 2001).
- Division of the duties and responsibilities between management and employees.
ll these principles replace all traditional rules and techniques of the corporation by scientific management. This theory helps in optimum allocation of the available resources, assists in hiring right people for right place, training of the workforce and performance enhancement.
Different Approaches to Management
As per the nature of business and operation different organization uses distinct management approaches. Special management approaches are, human behavior approach, classical management approach, social system approach, social-technical system approach, system approach, etc. Human behavior approach is based on the leadership style, motivation and behavioral theories of the organization. This approach improves the individual behaviors of the workforce of the organization. Classical management approach is based on the scientific management theory which helps in utilizing the organizational resources effectively. Social system approach focuses on the behavior, structure and system of the organization which helps in achieving its objectives of corporate social responsibilities. Social-technical system approach focuses on the social and technical efficiency of the organization it is based on the social and technical system of the organization (Mullins, 2007). Thus, this acquisition of the Abbey and City College reflects that the classical approach is the best management approach for both institutes which provides standardized process of the work, effective planning, directing, and controlling the activities and functions to the City College after this joint venture. Classical approach of the management grants effective motivation, communication and coordination between workforces of the organization and it leads best success and business performance of organizations.
Performance of the both institutes is depends upon the economic depression conditions and financial inflation because these affects the employment and various other operation of the organizations. Along with this leadership style of Abbey and City College has great impact on organizational productivity that may have on motivation within both organizations during an economic depression.
Autocratic leadership style: Abbey College follows autocratic leadership style; in this type of leadership style all decision is taken by the leaders without involvement of the team members. Because of this leadership style Abbey faces high employee turnover problems and staff members are less motivated as compare to the other leadership style. It is appropriate for some specific situations and management problems (Cherry, 2013).
Participative leadership style: City College uses participative or demographic leadership style; in this type of style only leaders can take the final decision but all pronouncements are based on the equal participation, ideas and suggestion of the every employee of the organization. Participative leadership style improves coordination between employees, motivation and job satisfaction of the workforce. It creates mutual understanding between employees and leaders which improves the performance of the organization.
Thus, both leadership styles may have miscellaneous impact on the motivation in both organizations during a merger and acquisition.
Different motivational theories
There are various theories by which organization can motivate their employees at work place, such as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Hertzberg’s hygiene, Goal Setting theory, ERG theory, Vroom’s expectancy theory. All these theories are used by associations for analyzing the needs and requirements of employees (Wolski, 2013).
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: It is invented by the Abraham Maslow. This theory describes the hierarchy of five basic needs of individuals for effective motivation, such as physiological, safety, social, esteem and self actualization need. According to Maslow, every individual is motivated for the completing their unsatisfied wants and firstly they accomplish their lower level needs after achieving these they try to fulfil their superior level needs. Physiological needs include requirements of food, air, water, etc. Safety needs majorly focuses on the job security and job satisfaction, social needs comprises society and culture, etc. Esteem needs include the ego and self respect of employees. At last after completing all levels employ tries to attain the self actualization needs, which includes status in the society.
Herzberg’s two factor theory: This theory is proposed by the Frederick Herzberg in 1954. It is based on two factors, hygiene factor and motivational factor, these factors affects the contentment and disappointment level of the employees from their job. Motivational factors motivate personnel as well as provide appropriate job satisfaction also
(Kinicki and Kreitner, 2006). Whereas, hygiene factors provide only inspiration but these factors will not give job satisfaction to the employees.
Comparison between both motivational theories: The main difference between both theories is that Maslow’s theory is based on the five levels of needs but Herzberg theory is based on only two factors. Need theory helps in the motivating employees at every level of needs but two factor theories provides the job satisfaction on the basis of the different factors.
Evaluate the usefulness of a motivational theory
In the 21st century workforce motivation is very fundamental task for every manager of the each organization. There are various theories of the motivation, such as Maslow’s theory, two factor theory, and goal setting theory, Vroom’s theory, ERG theory, content theory and process theory. All these theories are useful for motivate the employees and improve the individual and organizational performance. Maslow’s theory describes five levels of needs but this is not fit for every type of the workforce. Two factors theory is best for determine the job satisfaction but it considers only two factors so it is not suitable for effective motivation of the employees. Goal setting is good for the motivation because it decides the clear goal and objective of every individual and organization which motivates employees to best outcomes and attains this goal (Martínez-León and Martínez-García, 2011).
This theory required effective planning and direction which is time consuming for the organization management. ERG theory based on three needs, these are existence needs, related needs and growth needs of the employees. Content theory will explain the individual’s needs where process theory determines thought process behind an individual’s behavior. Therefore, every theory has their own pros and cons for organization managers. For this Merger Maslow’s theory is the best because through this theory manager can determine the every level needs of the different employees of the both organizations.
The present report concludes that Abbey and City both colleges have different organizational structure and culture which affects the leadership styles, motivation, communication, development of the group and evaluation of the group behavior and teamwork of the organization. This acquisition requires participative leadership style for attaining the goal of the organization; Maslow’s need theory for motivate employees; and Formal and informal groups for enhance the teamwork of the organization. Thus, all these aspects of the organization and its behavior will lead towards the success of this merger.
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