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Introduction of Urban Health Issue

Urban health issues can be broadly defined as the issues of people who are residing and employed closely together usually in an incorporated area with common environmental conditions and similar water supply systems (Breman and Arita, 2013). With the increase in urbanization, urban areas provide wider possibilities for individuals and family members to grow by giving them better healthcare and living environment. However, people living in urban areas still continue to face severe health hazards and new health challenges every day (Payne and et.al., 2015).

This The present report will focus on severe health issues related to risk of infectious diseases in the area of New Hampshire located in east London. The reason behind the increased risk of infectious diseases in this area is continuous changes in climatic conditions of UK. The study also includes presentation and analysis of relevant data and ways to eradicate urban health issues prevailing in New Hampshire.

RATIONALE (why this is an urban health issue)

Why this is an urban health problem

Infectious disease is an urban health issue because there is a continuous threat of climatic changes that are taking place in urban areas which causes risk to physical living environment in New Hampshire (Menifield, 2016). During the recent years (2011-2015), 4000 cases of infectious diseases has have been reported resulting in dangerous diseases like Dengue fever, Malaria and Lyme fever due to alterations in climatic conditions in UK (Manley, Boots and Wilfert, 2015).

why we have chosen to study the issue in the selected area and full description of the local area

The reason for selecting the area of New Hampshire for studying the risk of infectious diseases is that this area has evidence of rapid changes in environmental condition. Increase in temperature levels and changes in rainfall pattern helps the insects to stay active for longer time period which increases the risk of spreading communicable diseases for the people residing in that area (Anderson and May, 2012).

The broader perspective of choosing this area is that epidemiological data of (2011-2015) reported 29% of the total population residing in New Hampshire suffered from communicable diseases due to Air pollution and improper sanitary conditions (Dietz, Jambai, Paweska and Ksaizek, 2015). A larger ratio of people suffering from food borne and water borne infectious diseases due to poor health and hygiene conditions have been measured in New Hampshire, UK (Payne and et.al, 2015).

Collection of relevant data

Size of the area

The Size of the area of London Borough of Newham is 36.22 Km square (Pinto, 2013).

Population

The Population of London Borough of Newham is approximately 308000. The Newham area is ranked seventh highest in London on the basis of its population. It has been observed that there is an increase of 23.5 percent in the population of Newham over the 2001 figures which was 2437891 (Newham Council, 2016). The area has large population of Black African origin people, Asians and people from different family origins from all around the world. Besides this, Newham has a very high young and diverse population (Dietz and et.al., 2015).

Observation on related determinants that influence the urban health issue,

The Prevalence of infectious diseases in London Borough of Newham which is a major health issue of the place is high due to several factors (Overview of London boroughs, 2016). These factors significantly affect health concerns of the existing population of Newham. According to Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) it has been observed that it is one of the third most deprived local authorities of area in UK (Manley, Boots and Wilfert, 2015). In order to observe determinants, following points can be discussed:

Poverty: Poverty is one of the major determinants that largely affect the population of Newham. Due to unemployment and low paid jobs, people do not have enough money to access education and other community amenities. Statistical figures show that 35 percent of working population of Newham is paid below according to average wages in London (London's Poverty Profile, 2016).

Lack of awareness regarding hygiene and sanitation: It has been observed that due to high poverty, people lack education regarding sanitation and hygiene factors that leads to various infectious diseases (Breman and Arita, 2013).

Besides this, it has been observed that lack of cleanliness and hygiene at food outlets, restaurants, supermarkets, community centers and other public places negatively affect the health of residents of Newham by infecting them with contagious diseases such as Tuberculosis.

Immigration: It has been observed that immigrants from different national origins bring with them the causal agents of various contagious diseases. This leads to high prevalence of infections among the population of Newham.

Analysis and interpretation of data

The collected data can be analyzed and interpreted in the following manner:

Public health consequences and implications of infectious diseases in Newham

Infectious disease constitutes a major health issue across the globe. There are several implications of infectious diseases that severely affect the population of Newham. These diseases not only adversely affect the health of individuals but also negatively impact the societies and economies (Fonkwo, 2008). These implications can be elaborated in the following passage:

It can be analyzed that infectious diseases take a toll on individual’s health. Infectious diseases lead to reduced life expectancy among Newham population. The statistical data indicates that the main causes of death in this area are infectious diseases as well as cardiovascular and other respiratory diseases. The infectious disease which has the highest prevalence rate in Newham is Tuberculosis. From statistical figures, it can be interpreted that the rate is increase to 40 percent in the recent decades. The factors responsible for the increased rate of infectious diseases are poor housing facilities, poverty as well as lack of awareness regarding hygiene, and cleanliness and immigration. It can be inferred from the collected data that majority of the population of Newham is under paid which imply that they do not have access to education and other amenities due to financial constraints. In addition to this, immigration is also one of the main factors that elevate the risk to public health due to infectious diseases. It can be interpreted that immigrants from other national origins bring with them harmful microbes of contagious diseases to Newham which consequently leads to perils of epidemic infections.

Impact on the general populations, on the individual and on the health services

The impact of infectious diseases is very adverse and immense on the general population of Newham. It can be analyzed that Newham individuals are at major risk of the development of infectious disease. This is because there is lack off basic sanitation and cleanliness sense at common public places such as restaurants, food outlets, community centers and supermarkets. At these common places, the probability of getting infections is higher as large number of people comes in contact with each other. Thus, it can be analyzed that the rate of transfer of pathogenic microbes is very high at public places (Anderson and May, 2012). Other than physical impact on health of general population, infectious diseases also take toll on the economic aspect of the communities of Newham. The epidemic of infectious diseases is interpreted as a major burden on economy of Newham. Infectious diseases aggravate the process of economic decay which further worsen NE wham’s poverty scenario (Dowdle and Hopkins, 2014). It can be analyzed that due to poverty, individuals cannot afford expensive health care treatments which leads to fatal consequences. Further, it can be interpreted that lack of access to effective health care practices has the potential of reducing the risk of life expectancy of the affected population of Newham.

Recommendations

Various ways and strategies can be implemented to control and eradicate the risk of infectious diseases prevailing in New Hampshire.

  • During the mosquito breeding season, it is recommended to apply, mosquito repellents with 30-40% DEET (N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) twice a day (Payne and et.al, 2015).
  • It is advised to wash off the pollens which get collected on clothes skin hairs and on face after spending time in exterior environment.
  • By constructing efficient water supply system, network of standpipes and family toilets, the poor sanitary conditions can be facilitated (Anderson and May, 2012).
  • By ensuring adequate and reliable healthcare services to the people in New Hampshire, risk of different hazardous disease can be minimized.
  • Facilitating sustainable access to safe and sufficient food materials will aid in controlling death related due to improper food habits and malnutrition (Watson and Head, 2015).
  • Using of impregnated bed nets treated with insecticides can help in preventing entry of mosquitoes in houses and other areas which can reduce the chances of malaria. , Dengue fever and lime fever (Dowdle and Hopkins, 2014).
  • Personal protection and adapting environmental changes are necessary for preventing diseases at a faster rate. This includes vaccinations against parasites and prophylytic treatment for malaria or other mosquitoes driven disease.

Conclusion

This report is likely to be useful in understanding the increased risk of infectious diseases predominant in New Hampshire, UK in the years (2011-2015). The reason which contributed in increasing the risk of infectious diseases is the abrupt environmental changes in New Hampshire. Various strategies such as maintaining proper hygiene, constructing adequate sewage pipelines and toilets for outflow can enhance sanitation facilities.

Active and passive immunization, vaccinations against the parasites and proper therapeutic treatment are some methods to prevent communicable disease from spreading. Ways of adapting climatic changes and individual protection have also been studied to provide a broader view, so that number of people suffering from infectious diseases in UK can be decreaseds in upcoming years.

References

  • Payne, H. and et.al., 2015. Incidence of Pneumococcal and Varicella Disease in HIV-infected Children and Adolescents in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 1996–2011. The Pediatric infectious disease journal.
  • Dietz, P. M. and et.al., 2015. Epidemiology and risk factors for Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone—23 May 2014 to 31 January 2015. Clinical Infectious Diseases.
  • Manley, R., Boots, M. and Wilfert, L., 2015. Emerging viral disease risk to pollinating insects: ecological, evolutionary and anthropogenic factors. Journal of Applied Ecology.
  • Anderson, R. M., and May, R., 2012. Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control.
  • Dowdle, W. R., and Hopkins, D. R., 2014. The Eradication of Infectious Diseases

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