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Defining Success in Micro Finance Market

University: Coventry University

  • Unit No: N/A
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 60 / Words 14882
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: N/A
  • Downloads: 28
Question :

The research questions include the following:

  • Give the introduction, background, and objectives of this research paper.
  • State the literature review of the given research paper.
  • Methodology to explain how the research was planned, designed, and conducted.
  • Analyze the overall research and findings from the given data.
Answer :
Organization Selected : Micro finance

INTRODUCTION

Overview of The Research

Microfinance is a service of providing micro credit or micro insurance services of small values to individuals to help smaller section of society such as people of low income group (Mersland and Strom, 2014). Microfinance market is a marketplace where banks and other financial institutions provide microfinance facilities to various individuals. Success of this market is largely depends upon development of an economy. Microfinance market is a not a requirement which are already developed as they are capable for acquiring finance for various sources (Moss, Neubaum and Meyskens, 2015). Scope of this market considered to be large in countries which are developing their industries and which has high population such as India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan and many more. Success of Microfinance market largely depends upon various aspects such as awareness about benefits of this market, preference towards business and many more. In this research report, success of Microfinance market is analysed by referring to an organisation which is involved in providing micro finance to individuals that is ASA or Association for social advancement.

In this report, success of this marked is evaluated by conducting a research about ASA international operations in Myanmar, Bangladesh and India. These countries are appropriate for conducting this type of research, as they have underdeveloped or developing economies and also has a large population. In order to provide evidence to the research results, secondary method is used to conduct investigation. Secondary data is identified by referring to data which is pre published by reliable sources. Annual reports of ASA is taken as secondary data which is used to analyse success of Microfinance market. In this report intense research about micro finance market and about ASA is conducted. Main aim behind conducting this research is to ascertain the benefits of ASA to the countries like India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. By conducting this research, investigator can build an understanding about the concept of Micro finance.

Research gap is the area which limits investigator to conclude their results. This research gap can occur due to insufficient information. In this investigation, research gap which has been ascertained is success report which is important to be acquired to ascertain level of growth of ASA. This research gap can be bridged by interpreting annual reports of ASA as these reports has all the information such as client turnover, profitability, investment return ratio and many more from which  level of success can be ascertained (Quinones and Remenyi, 2014).

Background of The Research

Micro finance is a narrow concept which includes services like micro credit, micro savings and micro insurance. The background of these services is its aim which is to provide benefit to that group of society which are below poverty line or has low income group. Micro finance services are provided by banks and other financial institutes. These institutes provide help to smaller section of the society who are not able to fulfil their basic requirements of livelihood due to low earnings. The most important factor of this finance is that loan or credit of small amount is provided without any guarantee. It is hard to acquire funds by the people who has low income group has they do not have any guarantee but with the help of micro finance even they can acquire credit. This service helps individuals to start their own business by acquiring finance on low rate of interest (Shahriar, Schwarz and Newman, 2016).

In order to better understand success of Microfinance market, an organisation is selected which operates to provide microfinance services to individuals. This organisation is ASA or Association for social advancements which operates in 12 countries of Asia and Africa. In order to research about the background of this organisation, it has been ascertained that ASA is incorporated in April 2007 and has secured a loans of billions from various foundations such as Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. In the year of 2018, this association established and acquired existing microfinance institutes in several countries of Asia such as India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Ghana. In the period of 11 years that is from 2007 to 2018, this association has their micro finance institutes in 12 countries which are Myanmar, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, Philippines, Tanzania, Rwanda and Sierra Leone. The most important accomplishment of this association is that in the year 2018, ASA completes its premium listing at the main market of the London Stock Exchange. In this research report, success of micro finance market has to be ascertained which can be determined by success of ASA. Functioning of ASA in only three countries has to be analysed in this research. All the information for determining solutions for research is acquired from annual reports of ASA (Weber and Ahmad, 2014).

Rationale of The Research

Rationale refers to the reason due to which a particular research is conducted by the researcher. Main rationale behind conducting this research is to ascertain the level of success which has been attained by ASA. This research work can help investigator to determine various aspects which has been mentioned in annual report of ASA by which success of this association can be identified. Investigator can enhance their knowledge about microfinance and also about its services such as micro credit and insurance. A research work usually benefits for two kinds of groups. The first one is the researcher as they can build understanding about the topic and second group is people who further reads this research work. Readers who will further review this investigation can improve their knowledge and can conclude situation of ASA immediately without performing any individual investigation. The main aim or rationale behind conducting this investigation is to ascertain whether or not ASA is successfully conducting their business. Readers can ascertain benefits to countries by providing them facilities of micro finance. Issues can also be identified by investigator which can assist readers about techniques by which this system of micro finance can be improved.

Research Aim, Objectives and Question

Research aim is the overall goal of a research which has to be fulfilled at the end of the investigation. Research aim of this research project is “To evaluate Success in Micro Finance Market”, An Analysis of ASA NGO/ ASA International Operations in Myanmar, Bangladesh & India.

Research objectives describes the aspects which are required to be achieved by the investigator from a particular investigation. Research objectives are clear and concise declarative statement which direction to investigate variables. Objectives for this research are mentioned below:

  • To understand the role of micro financing in the growth of certain South Asian countries such as Myanmar, Bangladesh and India.
  • To understand how ASA NGO can achieve success in Micro finance market of India, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

Research questions are the aspects which are required to be identified or answered through the research work. These questions are generally based on the aims and objectives of an investigation. Research questions for this particular investigation is mentioned below:

  • Is ASA is successful in India and Bangladesh?
  • Is ASA is successfully working in Myanmar?
  • By considering usual social and economic conditions, how much success has been attained by ASA in Asia by their micro finance venture?
  • What are the measures by which micro finance market is getting success by coordination in ASA?

Introduction of Next Chapters

This dissertation report is based on the topic of ascertaining micro finance success by evaluating performance of ASA. This research report is classified into five categories which are mentioned below:

CHPATER 1: INTRODUCTION

In introduction various things are discussed by the researcher in which the information of the project topic, what the researcher is going to explain in whole assignment, vital background material which is required to formulate the research document, all the objectives of research and the research questions and aims have also been addressed by the research in the introduction part. It is also very important to write about the method or way which is going to be be followed in next chapters. All such type of information had been written by the researcher in the introduction.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

In literature review the research is going to provide reviews on key academic literature on various topics that are required to form the research questions. These questions are used to define success, micro finance, non government organisations and such type of case studies that are required to studied while conducting a research. It is also going to be clarified by the researcher the links between research question and literature review.

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In methodology researcher will provide the explanation of that way in which research has been planned, designed and conducted. Two type of data will also be used by researcher that are qualitative and quantitative. All the research questions and objectives are also going to be clarified in the methodology section. Various sources of data collection are also going to be explained and the techniques that are used to analyse data will also be discussed.

CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS & FINDINGS

In this chapter the researcher will present the analysis of findings, show clear links to the literature review chapter and also going to answer the research questions. All the findings are going to be presented in the form of charts, graphs and tables.

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS

In conclusion the research will discuss about the findings, include the limitations of the section and the recommendations will include the sources of justified research.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

Success of ASA in India and Bangladesh

According to Arianna Huffington (2017), success is not limited with only money and power but there are various other factors too which defines success of an organisation such as its goal accomplishment, society welfare and attaining wisdom. Association of social advancement is an organisation which operates to provide micro finance facilities to that part of the society which has low income group or are below the poverty line. Main aim of this association is to provide employment to maximum individuals of a nation by providing them low interest credit services so that they can start their own business and can provide employment to other individuals too. This association even provides credit loans without any guarantee so that every individual can attain this type of loan. This associations words in various countries of Asia and Africa including India and Bangladesh (Anku-Tsede, 2014).

According to Sammi Caramela (2018), Micro finance which is also known as micro credit is a financial service of providing offers, loans, savings and insurance to individuals who can not afford to acquire credit using conventional methods of finance. This facility promotes business owners and entrepreneurs to start their business or to develop their business. Association of social advancement is engaged in providing this type of services. ASA is a non governmental organisation which works for the welfare of society. This association is non profit and non political in nature. This is an international association which operates in multiple countries which the mission of evading unemployment and poverty. It is considered that providing credit for starting up a new business is more successful than providing credit for job employment as a business not only creates employment for owners but also for other individuals too.

According to Association of social advancement of India (2018), main aim of this organisation is to reduce poverty and improve quality of life in India. Mission statement of this association states that ASA work to provide benefits to individuals who face economic challenges in an innovative and sustainable way. This organisation is based on the values of establishing trust through transparency. This association values innovation, integrity and professionalism. In order to ascertain that is this organisation is successfully in India or not it is important to determine various aspects such as satisfaction of their clients, profit making, development of industrial sector of that nation and many more. In order to identify whether ASA is successfully working in India it is important to ascertain is they are able to fulfil their objective or not. Primary objective of ASA India is to improve and strengthen the economic status of poorer section of the society through facilitating and expanding micro finance products. Secondary investigation is further conducting in this report to ascertain development of India and its industrial area (BaoQuoc and Tsai, 2014).

According to ASA India (2018), ASA was awarded as best Indian non profit organisation. Awards and achievements can provide evidence that this association is successfully operating in India. In order to provide an accurate and conclusive evidence it is important to research about this association using secondary data which will be conducted by investigator in data analysis. In order to provide a reflection about is ASA is successfully working in India or not, awards and achievements are enough to provide evidence. This organisation is said to be elected for Executive board of the Round Table for the consecutive three years (Kleynjans and Hudon, 2016).

Association of social advancements operates in various countries and one of them is Bangladesh. This country is a South Asian nation which is considered to be an under developed country. Growth of Bangladesh is relatively low than other Asian countries and there is consent issues of intense poverty, unemployment and other economic problems.

According to Association of social advancements Bangladesh (2018), this association is a top micro finance institution of this country and provides credit services to thousands of individuals every year. ASA was established in Bangladesh in the year of 1978 as this country was in immediate requirement of various schemes which can provide benefit of low interest credit to their business owners and entrepreneurs. Due to various issues, this organisation has observed to attain 8 million clients across Bangladesh. By reviewing the mission statement of this organisation, it has been determined that main objective of this association established in Bangladesh is to support and strengthen the economy at the bottom of the socio economic pyramid by facilitating access to financial services to poor individuals. Association of social advancements of Bangladesh is based on the values that, use innovation and non conventional management for achieving cost effectiveness and sustainability. In order to identify whether this organisation is held successful in Bangladesh or not, it is important to research about annual reports of the association as well as about the current status of nation. This investigation will be conducted by the investigator in data analysis to determine accurate and reliable results with evidence of quantitative data. Achievements of this organisation can also provide an overview about success of ASA (Kumar and Qazi, 2016). By the accomplishments of this association, it can be said that this association is successfully working in Bangladesh. In order to provide evidence to above statements, accomplishments of ASA in their particular nation are, this association has completed nearly 40 years in Bangladesh which can enough to portray that this organisation is successfully working there. ASA has acquired 8 million clients across Bangladesh and most of them are satisfied with the financial services of this association. Besides providing credit services there are various programs initiated by this organisation such as Education, agriculture, sanitation, health care and many more. ASA is a self managed association which is not related with government interferences. By the above accomplishments it can be said that Association for social advancements is successfully working in Bangladesh.

Success of ASA in Myanmar

According to the Gary M. Woller (2018), Micro finance market is a market place where services related to micro finance instruments is conducted. Micro finance instruments are considered as micro credit, micro insurance and other micro schemes which has primary aim of providing benefit to the society despite of earning profit. Micro finance services are also provided by various banks and other financial institutions also but association of social advancements is considered as the best organisation of providing micro finance as this association is a non profit and non government entity due to which there is negligible interference of government.

Myanmar is a south Asian country which is considered as World’s one of the least developed countries. Reasons behind situation of this nation is high population and poverty. In order to provide micro finance services to individuals of Myanmar, ASA has established 14 branches in this country. This association is working in this country with the objective of promoting entrepreneurship so that individuals can be self reliant and dose bot need any employment opportunities. In order to ascertain that whether ASA is successfully working in Myanmar or not it is important to ascertain various success aspects such as satisfaction of clients, development of the country and others. This investigation will be conducted under data analysis using secondary data of association of social advancements. Success of this organisation can also be ascertained by the evidence of success stories which are mentioned as follows.

According to Association of social advancement of Myanmar (2018), there are various success stories which provides relevance to the statement that besides various issues, still this organisation is working in this country successfully. According to this organisation they have provided to micro finance services to millions of individual. One of these individuals is Win Win, a citizen of Myanmar who works a tailor. Win Win is a mother of two kids and is a 45 years old lady who never borrowed money from any bank or any other financial institution as because of high interest rates. In order to enhance her financial position, she decided to take a small credit of 100000 and purchased a sewing machine. This decision resultant to be her decision as her business starts to generate profit of 2500 every week by which she was able to repay her loan in small period of time and also generated high income from this business.

According to association of social advancement (2018), there is another success story which can provide evidence to the statement that ASA is working successfully in Myanmar. This association has provided micro credit to various individuals and one of them which has successfully attained benefit from these facilities is Khin Thidar Lin. She is a resident of Myanmar who is engaged in the manufacturing and selling of traditional guitars known as Muhinga. Manufacturing this type of instrument is considered as an innovative approach of business due to which even after of micro business holding, she received a credit of 200000 by which she hired another worker who can manufactures this type of guitars. This decision of Khin Thidar Lin leads her towards high profitability as her business reached to heights (Kusum Mukherjee, 2014).

From the above success stories of individuals, it can be said that association of social advancement is working successfully in Myanmar. By reviewing working of this organisation, it has been observed that this organisation is more inclined towards providing credit services t that part of the nation which is not able to acquire credit from conventional ways that is from banks and other financial institutions. This part of the nation is considered as the women entrepreneurs, low income group individuals, people below poverty line, individuals who can not afford to pay high interest, entrepreneurs with different ideas and many more.

Success Which Has Been Attained by ASA in Asia by Their Micro Finance Venture

According to Arpita Amarnani (2018), Micro finance venture is the plan in which funds for micro finance is acquired. Association for social advancement is an organisation which has started micro finance venture in Asia in order to provide benefit to Asian countries which are considered as under developed or developing. Micro finance services includes a wide range of facilities which are developed to facilitate small business owners and entrepreneurs. In order to establish a micro finance venture, association of social advancement has acquired various organisation which were previously engaged in providing these kind of facilities. Various micro finance institutions are acquired by ASA in Asian countries in order to develop a base for effective working. In order to ascertain the success which is acquired from ASA in Asia it is important to review annual report of this organisation so that investigator can ascertain their turnover and number of clients which are facilitated form this facility. Main aim of ASA is to provide credit services to specific individuals and not to earn maximum profit from their operations. Success of association of social advancements can be ascertained by considering annual reports of this organisation as a base by which success factors such as client base and sustainability level can be ascertained. This investigation will be conducted by researcher at the section of data analysis and findings. Success of ASA by establishing micro finance venture can be ascertained by the success stories and accomplishments of this association. It is considered that developing and under developed countries are in serious requirement resolvement of these issues.

Social conditions are the situations in which an organisation has to operate. Success of any organisation can not be ascertained without referring to its conditions which they has to face. Theoretically, all real world attributes remain constant and success is determined by only profitability and goal ascertainment. But this theoretical approach cannot be used in real life as in actual world business entities has to go through numerous issues which can be studied theoretically as they are diverse in nature. The study of understanding social conditions which influence a working organisation is referred as environmental analysis. ASA is a working entity which operates for the benefit of society. In order to analyse their success, it is important to first analyse their business environment. This type of environment is classified into two categories that is internal and external. Internal factors are the influencers which are directly related with the association such as employees, board and shareholders of the organisation. External business environment is further analysed into two subsections which is micro and macro. Micro factors are the influencers which affect the association at micro level (Marakkath and Attuel-mendes, 2015). These micro factors are suppliers, debtors, creditors and many more. These influencers are directly related with the organisation but is not a part of their internal functioning area. Apart from this, there are few macro factors too which influence success of micro finance venture. These macro factors involve political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental influences. The most two important factors which effects success of ASA in Asia are social and economical. In the prevailing conditions of social and economic factors, success of ASA in Asia can be defined as stable and progressive. Prevailing conditions are the usual conditions which are typically faced by ASA. There are no emergency and unusual conditions which has to faced by the association.

In order to ascertain volume of success attained by ASA, it is important to evaluate their model. According to the report of PWC (2017), ASA is managing to maintain their successful model in Asia. Under this model, Association of social advancements focus upon following the approach of decision making MFIs. ASA of Bangladesh has the ability to garner deposits which has been instrumental in providing better service and cheaper access to funds for the poor. This is the same technique which js adopted by Micro finance institutions of banks but the reason behind success of ASA is support and grants of governmental parties. ASA of India has a matured structure and now face stiff competition from the small finance banks and payment banks. ASA of India accepts deposits and provide cheaper funds, this help MFI structure to sell other products and balance risk. This balancing of risks allows to attain great success. In the case of Myanmar, governmental ministry has charge of the micro finance sector, Central banks as a regulator controls and mitigate risks of controlling growth and reviewing expansion of micro finance institutions in an objective manner (Mia, 2017).

From the above cases of three countries that is India, Bangladesh and Myanmar it has been ascertained that in usual social and economic conditions, ASA attains high success. Another factor which can help in determine how much success has been attained by ASA in Asia is digital awareness. Any public service which works for society can only attain success when the society is well aware about benefits which can be gained by them. Financial literacy is dependent upon digital literacy, numerous financial literacy programs have been conducted across Asia to educate customers on credit and saving discipline. In current scenario, the best technique of spreading awareness is digitalisation.

After studying all the aspects it can be said that ASA is gaining success in Asia and especially in countries like India, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

Measures by Which Micro Finance Market is Getting Success by Coordination in ASA

According to  Daniel Rozas (2018), micro finance market is a venture which obtains their most of the funds from grants which are provided by governmental authorities and this factor is their greatest advantage against achieving huge success in Asia. The main behind setting up micro finance association in Asia is to benefit those nations which are facing intense poverty due to lack of funds. By providing, funds to individuals on low interest rate, the purpose of association of social advancements can be fulfilled as they provide loans to clients who wish to start their own business as business not only benefits the owner but also benefits other individuals as it creates employment. Association of social advancements is an organisation which deals in providing low interest loans to those individuals who are unable to produce funds by a conventional method. ASA has established themselves years ago in Asia and growing with an increasing rate. Reason behind this success can be ascertained by the measures due to which micro finance market is getting success (Quinones and Remenyi, 2014).

Micro finance market is defined as a market place which provides low interest loans to specific individuals of low income group. For an organisation like association of social advancements requires various strategies and action plan to be successful. Measures of micro finance market due to which it has attained huge success are discussed as follows.

Strategies –

Strategy is the critical success factor, which if is used with proper direction and competencies then it can result in growth and development. Providing funds and loan is included in service industry and it is considered that key of success in service industry is its right marketing strategies. Strategies are the game plan in which organisation set goals, address all their issues and manage operations in such a way that it results in obtaining sustainable competitive advantage. Strategies is the medium which helps in setting long term and short term objectives. Long term objectives of ASA such as development of nation, client maximisation, customer awareness, employee development, technological leadership and public responsibility can be fulfilled by proper plans and strategies. Countries like India has a matured structure, which means there is an intense competition in micro finance market and various small banking institutions are also engaged in providing low interest loans to individuals. Strategies involves all the plans for expansion and growth due to which micro finance market is gaining success through ASA as this organisation prepares strategies before executing any project (Shahriar, Schwarz and Newman, 2016).

Service Attributes –

Attributes are the positive characteristics of service by marketing is done so that clients can build an understanding about why that service is beneficial for them. For example: Association of social advancements provides services of low interest loans which are beneficial for those individuals who are not able to procure loans from banks due to high interest rates. Market of micro finance is engaged in providing numerous services such as micro credit, micro insurance and many more. These services are high profitable and must be gained by individuals who want to start their own venture or business. These attractive attributes should be mentioned to clients so that they can understand the benefits of these services and acquire them. Service attributes such as low interest rates, long term pay back and less formalities should be provided to all so that society can be aware of the benefits of these services.

Customer and Brand Loyalty –

This is the most important measure from which micro finance market is attaining huge success. Customer and brand loyalty is the relationship between client and organisation in which organisation provides reliable services to their clients and gain their loyalty so that their brand equity can be enhanced. High customer loyalty id developed by delivering high customers value services. Customer loyalty is an important strategy and every critical element involved in managing microfinance operations should be formulated to promote loyalty. Loyalty of customers can be earned if the organisation is committed towards providing them valuable services. Customer loyalty can also lead ASA towards sustainable competitive advantage as the firm will be able to have long term customers who they can use as success stories in marketing strategies. Customer loyalty allows clients to spread a word about the organisation by which goodwill of the association gets enhanced (Srinivasan, 2014).

Action Plan –

Action plan is the series of planned activities which are required to be executed by the organisation. This action plan involves all the steps such as marketing, management, controlling, direction and many more. Action plan helps an association to pre plan every aspect of the activity by which it has been ascertained that what activity should be done in future and in what manner.

All the above measures help the micro finance market to grow and attain success. Association of social advancements is an organisation which has used all the above measures and has attained huge growth in Asia. Micro finance market is gaining growth in India, Bangladesh and Myanmar due to effective working of ASA. By considering profit and productivity of ASA, various small finance bank are also trying to give intense competition to this association. Measures like strategies, action plan, customer and brand loyalty are the techniques by which client satisfaction is attained. ASA is an association which does not only attained growth for their selves but also for whole micro finance market (Assefa, Hermes and Meesters, 2013).

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is a systematic plan for conducting research. This plan is divided in various parts such as research philosophy, design, method, action plan and many more. Main aim behind this methodology is to provide a definite structure to an investigation. In the case of this research, methodology which is used is observation as requirement of this investigation is to ascertain success of ASA by observing the annual report of this association and interpreting that report to get desired results. Research planning along with research design and conduction is discussed below:

Research Philosophy

Research philosophy deals with planning of the investigation. All the attributes which are planned are source, nature and development of knowledge. Research philosophy is the belief about a phenomenon which should be use and analysed to collect all the data. Research philosophy involves being aware and formulating all the beliefs and assumptions. This philosophy is of classified into various types such as Pragmatism, Positivism, Realism and Interpretivism (Bateman and Chang, 2012). It is important to select a reliable research philosophy so that aim of the investigation can be fulfilled. In this investigation, qualitative research method is considered to be selected as with all the data qualitative results are required to be analysed. Interpretivism is the technique by which small samples are analysed in depth to conduct qualitative investigations. The main aim behind selecting this research philosophy is to adopt naturalistic approach such as questionnaire. Interpretivists avoid rigid structures and adopts a more personal and flexible research structures which can help in analyse human interaction and it even make sense about what is perceived as reality. By following this particular philosophy, investigator remains open to new knowledge throughout the study and help them to be informative. This philosophy helps in planning all the aspects which are necessary for a research such as data collection, sampling technique, data analysis and many more. This interpretivism philosophy can be used to analyse quantitative data in much more meaningful conclusions and research findings.

Research Design

Research design is defined as a framework of methods and techniques chosen by a researcher to combine various components of research in a reasonably logical manner. This design is important to be efficiently handled (Bogan, 2012). Research design provides a direction about how a work should be done. Descriptive design is used for this investigation because the data which is procured from annual reports of ASA is required to be in detail. This research design is the best option for the research as it helps in experiments. It helps to collect the details that are required to conduct a research. It is a neutral method which is free from biasness. The report which is generated with the help of descriptive design is reliable as all the relevant data is used for the research. It is very important for a research design to be more reliable as it may assure the observer get right and appropriate information. Outcome which is gathered from such type of research design should be applicable to a population and a restricted area. Descriptive design is used in this research report to analyse success and growth of ASA in detail so that investigator can analyse outcomes in detail.

Research design allows investigator to smoothly conduct their investigation so that conclusions and findings must be accurate and reliable. A good research design includes theoretical and conceptual framework which must be linked with objectives and questions of the research. It is important to select an appropriate research design. The reason behind choosing descriptive design is to analyse every aspect of research objectives and questions in detail. This design enables to broadens thought process of investigator along with it provides a fascinating and exciting experience of investigation. It also cuts down inaccuracy as they are low chances of missing any information as all the aspects are already explained in detail (Boons and Lüdeke-Freund, 2013).

Research Approach

Research approach is a plan and procedure which consists various steps of detailed method of data collection, analysis and interpretation. There are various types of research approach such as inductive and deductive. The main difference between inductive and deductive approach is selection of theory. In the case of inductive approach, a theory is emerged from the data which can be generated from the data which available to investigator. In the case of deductive approach, testing theory is used according to which a hypothesis is taken. In this research, deductive approach is used which is usually used in investigations where quantitative data is used.  However there is no set rules and regulations which limits the scope of deductive approach (Buera, Kaboski and Shin, 2012).

Deductive approach refers to the reasoning from a general content to specific. It includes process of deducting conclusions from premises or propositions. There are various reasons due to which this approach is selected. There is a high possibility of identifying relationships between the variables and concepts. It helps in measuring concepts quantitatively. The benefits which are determined above are the main reason of selecting this approach. In this investigation, annual reports of ASA is required to analysed and interpreted and in this process deductive approach can be used. As it helps in preparing questions which are related with quantitative data and leads towards results which are numeric and specific in nature (Driver, 2012).

Primary and Secondary Data

Data collection is a technique of collecting information about variables and values. This process is used gather all the data which has to used for concluding the research and analyse appropriate research findings. Data can be collected using two methods that is primary and secondary. In the case of primary data collection, information about questions are gathered using first hand information. There are various techniques by which data can be collected. These techniques are interviews, questionnaires, observations and focus group. On the other hand, secondary data collection method is a technique in which information which is published by other sources is used to conduct a research. In this project report, secondary data collection method is used. Association of social advancements is an organisation which operates in providing micro finance services to that part of the society which is unable to procure funds from conventional methods. In order to analyse success of this organisation it is important to analyse their financial data. This financial information will be the secondary data from which reliable findings and conclusions will be made. Secondary data which is used in this investigation includes annual report of ASA of several years. From these annual reports, information about ASA of India, Bangladesh and Myanmar is used (Helmig, Ingerfurth and Pinz, 2014).

Secondary data which is used in this investigation is processed in the form of Questionnaire. In this documents various questions about ASA success will be asked and answers will be gathered by investigator itself with the help of secondary information which is used.

Qualitative and Quantitative Data

Data which is collected from above methods that is primary and secondary is classified into two categories that is qualitative and quantitative. In the case of qualitative method, data which is acquired is related with descriptions and observations which can not be computed. Qualitative data is used for exploratory research methodology and is subjective. Quantitative data is the information related with numericals and statistical information. This data is concerned with numbers and mathematical calculations which can be calculated and computed. This type of data is expressed and measured in numbers. This data adopts conclusive approach and helps in reaching the conclusions. Collection of data is more structured in this case and is objective (Holzmann, Palmer and Robalino, 2012).

In this investigation, data which is collected is quantitative. In order to ascertain the success of association of social advancements, it is important to analyse their annual reports and these reports has several numerical data. Income statements, balance sheets and even cash expenditure reports are analysed in order to interpret conditions and situation of ASA.

Questionnaire

Questionnaire is the list of various research questions which are required to be answered in order to draw appropriate conclusions. Usually the questions which are included in this document are asked by respondents but in this particular research, secondary data of annual reports of ASA is used and the questions will be answered by the investigator using data from annual reports.

Questionnaire:

Q1.  Do you agree that ASA is required in the countries like India, Bangladesh and Myanmar?

a) Agree

b) Disagree

Q2. Which year has maximum branches of ASA?

a) 2014

b) 2015

c) 2016

Q3. Which year has the highest Return on Assets in ASA?

a) 2014

b) 2015

c) 2016

Q4. Is coverage of ASA is adequate in Asia?

a) Yes

b) No

Q5. Are the documents of ASA is adequately audited?

a) yes

b) No

Q6. In which year ASA has maximum number of employees?

a) 2014

b) 2015

c) 2016

Q7. Do ASA fulfils all the regulatory requirements of government?

a) Yes

b) No

Q8. Which year has highest profitability of ASA in Asian countries?

a) 2014

b) 2015

c) 2016

Q9. Which year has maximum number of active borrowers?

a) 2014

b) 2015

c) 2016

Q10. Which year has maximum average loan size?

a) 2014

b) 2015

c) 2016

Q11. Which year has maximum savings?

a) 2014

b) 2015

c) 2016

Q12. Is the corporate social responsibility is fulfilled by ASA?

a) Absolutely

b) Partially

Q13. In which of the following year ASA has incurred maximum expenses?

a) 2014

b) 2015

c) 2016

Q14. In which of the following year, ASA has maximum capital adequacy ratio?

a) 2014

b) 2015

c) 2016

Q15. In which of the following year, ASA has maximum Return on equity?

a) 2014

b) 2015

c) 2016

Q16. In which year, ASA has maximum capital fund?

a) 2015

b) 2016

Q17. Is Reserve ratio of ASA is showing decreasing trend, analyse it with three years?

a) 2014

b) 2015

c) 2016

Q18. Is Loan loss ratio is showing increasing trend, analyse it with three years?

a) 2014

b) 2015

c) 2016

Q19. From which of the following sources, ASA is acquiring their maximum funds?

a) ASA's own funds

b) Member's savings

c) Loan Insurance

d) Debt management reserve (DMR)

e) Loan from Development partners

f) Other sources

Q20. Is ASA of India, Bangladesh and Myanmar are successfully operating?

Techniques of Analysing Data

There are various techniques of collecting and analysing data. In this investigation, data is collected using secondary information which is procured from annual reports of ASA. Association of social advancements is an organisation which provides micro finance services like micro credit., micro insurance and many more to those individuals of the society which are not able to procure loans from conventional methods (Huybrechts and Nicholls, 2012). Quantitative as well qualitative data is collected from the annual reports of ASA such as income statements, client distribution, return on equity, return on investments, corporate social responsibility and many more. Data can be usually collected with the various methods such as sampling. Sampling is a method of selecting respondents using random sampling method and use them to acquire information which can be analysed further for acquiring reliable results and findings. In this case, numeric and non numeric data is collected from the annual reports of ASA. There are various techniques of analysing the data which is collected such as graphs, charts and pie charts. All the data which is gathered from annual reports of this organisation is processed through these techniques (Islam, 2016).

There is no fixed techniques for data analysis, as methods for analysis can be changed according to the nature of data. For example if the information is in the form of values and numbers then it will be evaluated using graphs and charts. On the other hand if the information is related to qualitative data then it can be evaluated using literature review and general article. In this investigation, data which is gathered from annual reports of ASA is analysed through charts and graphs. In order to analyse success of ASA, various factors which can determine the success of an NGO are used. These factors are used in the questionnaire which is developed above, these factors are corporate social responsibility, return on equity, return on assets number of branch offices, number of client turnover and capital adequacy ratio. All of these factors are analysed using graphical tools such as graphs and charts in the section of data analysis (Jaouen and Lasch, 2015).  

CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS and FINDINGS

Data analysis is the process of evaluating data and using analytical tools in order to examine each component of the data which is provided. This section is the last section of analysis as in this segment all the data which is gathered and sourced is finally analysed to interpret and identify reliable results. The main aim behind analysing data is to inspect and discover data information which can support the decision making. In the case of research of ASA, all the information which is gathered from annual reports of this company is further analysed in this section by answering all the questions of questionnaire (Jensen, 2017). By analysing the data, objective of this investigation can be fulfilled which is to determine is micro finance market is attaining success through NGO ASA in countries like India, Myanmar and Bangladesh.

Various questions along with their interpretation is discussed below along with graphical representation:

Q1.  Do you agree that ASA is required in the countries like India, Bangladesh and Myanmar?

Frequency

a) Agree

90

b) Disagree

10

 

Interpretation and Findings:

Association of social advancements is an organisation which provides micro finance services to that part of the society which are unable to procure funds from conventional ways (Kent and Dacin, 2013). Asian countries such as India, Bangladesh and Myanmar are considered as under developed and developing countries and the main reason behind it is lack of industrialisation and commerce. In order to develop these countries it is important to enhance their industrialisation. Micro finance company such as ASA operates to provide micro finance services to these individuals of these countries so that overall development and growth of these organisations can be attained. From the above arguments and graphs it has been ascertained that countries like India, Bangladesh and Myanmar are in serious need of ASA and even other entities like this.

Q2. Which year has maximum branches of ASA

Frequency

a) 2014

2931

b) 2015

2932

c) 2016

2933

 

Interpretation and Findings:

The main aim of this investigation is to define success of Micro finance market in Asian countries like India, Bangladesh and Myanmar (Khavul, Chavez and Bruton, 2013). This research is based on a micro finance entity that is ASA. Success of this company can be ascertained by the number of its branches which is opening every year. From the above graph, it has been ascertained that every year one branch has opened by which it can be said that this association and micro finance market is gaining continuous success. In order to fulfil the aim of defining success, various success factors are ascertained and number of branches is one of them. From the above graph and interpretation it has been found that ASA is gaining continuous success in these three countries that is India, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

Q3. Which year has the highest Return on Assets in ASA?

Frequency

a) 2014

9.60%

b) 2015

9.63%

c) 2016

9.43%

 

Interpretation and Findings:

Return on assets (ROA) is a measure of calculating profitability of an organisation. This measure is a kind of ratio which helps in ascertaining what is the profitability of an organisation against the assets which are used by the company (Komppula, 2013). ROA can be calculated by dividing total value of the assets by total income which is generated by the entity. This measure is selected as it can be a success factor. From the graph it has been ascertained that ROA of ASA is not in the increasing trend and assets of this organisations are not fully utilised to attain growth. This issue can be a result of improper management and controlling activities.

Q4. Is coverage of ASA is adequate in Asia?

Frequency

a) Yes

90

b) No

10

 

Interpretation and Findings:

Coverage of ASA can be measured by identifying number of branches of this company and that should evaluated by considering demography of a specific country (Komppula, 2013). From the coverage sheet of ASA branches in countries like Bangladesh, India and Myanmar it has been seen that there is adequate coverage of ASA offices in these three offices.

Q5. Are the documents of ASA is adequately audited?

Frequency

a) yes

80

b) No

20

 

Interpretation and Findings:

Auditing is a process of checking the adherence of the financial reports of an organisation and providing fair judgements. Association of social advancements is an organisation which operates with the guidance of governmental authorities due to which it is important to audit their reports. From the above graph 80 percent is in favour of the fact that financial reports of ASA are  adequately audited. This 80 percent has been ascertained by the audited reports which states fair judgements. The reason behind 20 percent against is the lack of auditing practice in Bangladesh.

Q6. In which year ASA has maximum number of employees?

Frequency

a) 2014

224219

b) 2015

247247

c) 2016

285097

Interpretation and Findings:

Employees are the man power of an organisation, these employees are only appointed when there is a requirement of the man power. ASA is a social association which operates with the aim of providing benefit to society. Employees satisfaction is the most important factor of determining success. From the above graph, it has been observed that trend is showing increasing trend in the number of employees which means ASA has attaining high employee satisfaction due to which more and more people wants to work with them. In the year of 2014, total number of employees are 224219, 247247 in 2015 and 285097 in 2016.

Q7. Do ASA fulfils all the regulatory requirements of government?

Frequency

a) yes

70

b) No

30

 

Interpretation and Findings:

ASA is a non profit organisation which has their prime aim to develop the society and to increase their profitability. This association works under governmental authorities due to which they has follow all the regulations of the government. From the above graph it has been ascertained that 70 percent of the marks is in the favour that ASA is fulfilling all the regulations of the government. The reason behind providing 70% in favour by investigator are the evidence of audited report which states that this company is fulfilling all the governmental requirements. The remaining 30% are the reason of inefficiency of ASA operating in Bangladesh.  

Q8. Which year has highest profitability of ASA in Asian countries?

Frequency

a) 2014

17636926663

b) 2015

20995566648

c) 2016

27656620126

 

Interpretation and Findings:

Profitability is the profit making ability of an organisation. It is considered that for a non profit organisation, profitability should not be a concern while calculating success. But in the case of ASA, profitability is also considered as an important for success as this association is engaged in providing credit and it is significant for them to earn reliable profits. From the above graph it has been ascertained that profitability of ASA is in increasing trend. Earnings of this association is continuously increasing year by year. In the year of 2014, profit has been recorded as 1763692666, 2099556664 in 2015 and 27656620126 in 2016. This increase in the profitability states that ASA is attaining high success in these three countries that is India, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

Q9. Which year has maximum number of active borrowers?

Frequency (million)

a) 2014

4.44

b) 2015

5.36

c) 2016

6.21

 

 

Interpretation and Findings:

Association of social advancements is an organisation which deals in providing micro finance services to their clients. These services includes micro insurance, micro credit and other micro services. For the organisation which operates in providing loans and credit services to clients, the most important success factor for them is to enhance their client base and their satisfaction. From the above graph it has been ascertained that the client or borrowers of this company is increasing day by day. The data from which this graph is prepared is gathered from the annual reports of ASA which is limited to the countries of India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. In the year of 2014, active borrowers are reported as 4 million, 5 million in 2015 and 5.9 million in 2016. This data reflects that number of borrowers are increasing every year which states that this association is attaining high growth and development.

Q10. Which year has maximum average loan size?

Frequency

a) 2014

21706

b) 2015

25259

c) 2016

30395

 

Interpretation and Findings: 

Association of social advancement is an organisation which operates in providing micro loan services to their clients. For a company like ASA it is important to ascertain their average loan size before defining their success. The above graph is prepared using annual reports of ASA operating in three countries that is India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. From the above graph, it has been ascertained that the trend line of average loan providing to clients is increasing year by year. In the year of 2014, the average loan value provided to the clients of ASA is 21706, 25259 in 2015 and 30395 in 2016.

Q11. Which year has maximum savings?

Frequency (million)

a) 2014

28378

b) 2015

37238

c) 2016

50684

 

Interpretation and Findings: 

Association of social advancement is an organisation which provides micro services such as micro credit, micro insurance and micro savings. This organisation is engaged in providing micro savings services which allows their customers to save their funds. Value of savings is considered as a factor of success as it states other aspect of this organisation. ASA is engaged in providing savings and debt services to their client and in order to define accurate service of this company it is important to consider savings as well along with debt. From the above graph, it has been observed that in the year of 2014, total savings are 28378, 2015 in 37238 and 50684 in 2016. This graph is showing increasing trend which reflects that this company is attaining high growth and development.

Q12. Is the corporate social responsibility is fulfilled by ASA?

Frequency

a) Absolutely

95%

b) Partially

5%

 

Interpretation and Findings: 

Corporate social responsibility is a self regulating business model which helps an organisation to fulfil their responsibilities against society. This concept integrates social and environmental concerns fro which company is socially accountable. Association for social advancements is a NGO which operates to provide benefit to the society. Main aim of this association is limited with the benefit of society. It is important for a company like ASA to fulfil their social responsibility to attain growth and success. CSR is the most important factor to ascertain success of ASA. From the above graph it has been ascertained that ASA is fulfilling their 95% of the social responsibility. This score is marked by the investigator to ASA from the information which is acquired from CSR report of this company. According to the CSR report of this company, they are fulfilling all their responsibility. The reaming 5% is the reason because of the country Bangladesh which is not providing adequate results.

Q13. In which of the following year ASA has incurred maximum expenses?

Frequency

a) 2014

9087688733

b) 2015

10714135989

c) 2016

15241538692

 

Interpretation and Findings:

Expenses is the total cost which incurred by the company in an accounting year. Ascertainment of these expenses is important as they help in defining success of an organisation. Recording and reviewing expenses helps a business to determine an accurate idea about their profitability. Increase in expenses states that the organisation is continuously developing and operating and even earning reliable profits. From the above graph, which is prepared by the data of annual reports of ASA, it has been observed that expenses of ASA are increasing every year. In the year of 2014, total expenses were reported as 9087688733, 1071413598 in 2015 and 15241538692 in 2016. These values justifies that expenses are increasing every year which is a reliable evidence of high success of ASA.

Q14. In which of the following year, ASA has maximum capital adequacy ratio?

Frequency

a) 2014

86.69%

b) 2015

70.31%

c) 2016

61.45%

 

Interpretation and Findings: 

Capital adequacy ratio is a measure of a bank's available capital which is expressed as a percentage of a bank's risk weighted credit exposures. Capital adequacy ratio used as an international standard that measures a bank's risk of insolvency. A bank which has high capital adequacy ratio or increasing trend in this ratio is considered as safe and likely to meet all its financial obligations. From the above graph which is prepared from the financial reports of ASA , it has been observed that this company has a decreasing capital adequacy ratio. This decreasing trend reflects that this company is not adequately capable for meeting their financial obligations. This negative factor, does effect success of ASA but not with highest order as ASA is a governmental authority which can attain help for government.

Q15. In which of the following year, ASA has maximum Return on equity?

Frequency

a) 2014

17.03%

b) 2015

17.25%

c) 2016

17.50%

 

Interpretation and Findings: 

Return on equity is a measure which helps in ascertain financial performance of an organisation. This helps to determine profitability of an organisation in relation to the equity. ASA is a large scale organisation which operates under control of governmental authorities. It is important to analyse return on equity of this company as it is a success factor. The above graph is developed with the help of financial information of the ASA which is acquired from the annual reports of three years of three countries that is India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. From the above graph, it has been analysed that return on equity is in increasing order that means profitability against equity of ASA is continously increasing every year.

Q16. In which year, ASA has maximum capital fund?

Frequency

b) 2015

58261338243

c) 2016

69436631035

 

Interpretation and Findings: 

Capital fund is the excess of NPO's assets over liabilities (Young and Lecy, 2014). High capital fund states that company is effectively able to manage their liabilities and controls their assets effectively in order to attain reliable profits. Any surplus or deficit in capital fund is termed as accumulated fund. ASA is an non profit organisation which operates to provide benefit to the society. From the above graph which is prepared from the secondary information collected from the annual reports of the organisation, it has been ascertained that in 2016 high capital fund was recorded by this organisation. It has been seen that capital fund of ASA has increased by 8% in total which is considered as a reliable increase. From the above graph and findings it can be said that high capital funds are also a factor of high success and development of the this company.

Q17. Is Reserve ratio of ASA is showing decreasing trend, analyse it with three years?

Frequency

a) 2014

3.54%

b) 2015

3.00%

c) 2016

2.69%

 

Interpretation and Findings: 

Reserve ratio is a measure which helps in ascertaining the value which is held as reserve by a business organisation in order to further utilise it in sources such as investment and lending (Toledo-López and et. al., 2012). It is important for an organisation to balance in the value of reserve as a high reserve ratio states that company is not utilising their funds effectively. From the above graph which is developed with annual reports of this organisation it has ascertained that company is having decreasing trend in their reserve ratio which means they are successfully utilising all their funds in operating activities.  

Q18. Is Loan loss ratio is showing increasing trend, analyse it with three years?

Frequency

a) 2014

0.22%

b) 2015

0.16%

c) 2016

0.27%

 

Interpretation and Findings: 

Loan loss ratio is a measure for banks and other financial institutions which are engaged in providing loan services to their clients (Smith, Gonin and Besharov, 2013). It is considered that in the business of providing debts, loan loss is a common thing but it is necessary to balance this ratio in order to ensure that there is no excess loss incurred by the organisation. ASA is a non profit association which provides credit services to their clients and it is expected to incur a little loss in this business as few of their client are help defaulters. From the above graph and findings it has been observed that there is a fluctuating trend in the loan loss ratio. Ratios which are recorded are as follows: 0.22% in 2014, 0.16% in 2015 and 0.27% in 2016. When compared to other financial institutions it has been ascertained that ASA has relatively less loan loss ratio which can help them in attaining success.

Q19. From which of the following sources, ASA is acquiring their maximum funds?

Frequency

a) ASA's own funds

77151.81

b) Member's savings

50684.03

c) Loan Insurance

4430.44

d) Debt management reserve (DMR)

3237.44

e) Loan from Development partners

911.40

f) Other sources

9035.18

Interpretation and Findings: 

In order to ascertain success of association of social advancements it is important to determine the sources from which this company is attaining funds (Simpson, Padmore and Newman, 2012). The above graph presents the different sources from which they are attaining funds, this graph is prepared using annual reports of ASA of three years that is 2014, 2015 and 2016. By observing above graph it has been ascertained that ASA is sources most of their funds from their own reserves and profits which means this company is attaining high success as it is able to operate without acquiring any external sources of funds. Even this company is a non profit organisation and can easily attain funds from governmental authorities and charities, this company is attaining such profits that there is no requirement of acquiring funds from external sources. Reviewing the success of this company, many other financial companies are encouraged to provide micro finance services.

Q20. Is ASA of India, Bangladesh and Myanmar are successfully operating?

Interpretation and Findings: 

From the above 19 questions, their findings and interpretations it has been ascertained that association of social advancements is successfully operating in the Asian countries such as India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. These finding is based on the information which is procured from annual reports of this company of three years that is 2014, 2015 and 2016. Besides of few drawbacks which are observed in ASA of Bangladesh that is low capital adequacy and return on assets, the overall finding can be based on the fact that this association is acquiring high success and development.

Link Between Literature Review and Findings

From the above analysis and findings it has been observed that ASA is attaining high growth and is successfully operating in Asian countries like India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Success of ASA in India and Bangladesh is evidently proved in above analysis as this company is having high profitability and return on investments. Success is defined in the section of literature review and according to it, success of a company like ASA can not be only ascertained through profitability and returns it requires the determination of other various aspects such as client satisfaction and employee satisfaction. In the case of Bangladesh, ASA is facing few issues due to intense poverty but still it is earning high success and this statement can be justified with increasing number of branches of ASA in Bangladesh, high client coverage and continuous increasing number of active borrowers (Peck and et. al., 2013).

Micro finance venture is a sector in which various firms and non profit organisations are included which provides micro finance services to their clients which are not able to get credit from normal ways such as through banks. The main reason behind the success of this micro finance venture is association of social advancements. After reviewing the success of ASA, various small financial institutions has also started their micro credit department. ASA of India is a matured structure and has gained intense growth in the micro finance market of India. In the case of Myanmar, this country is considered as one of the least developed countries of the world. In order to develop this country it is important to reduce their poverty and provide employment opportunities. After the low income of Myanmar and less resources available ASA has attained high growth in this country also as people of this country are vulnerable for employment opportunities. Micro finance venture is referred as the marketplace where services of micro finance such as micro credit, micro insurance and micro savings are provided to their clients. In order to gain success by this market it is important to first gain trust of the client and ASA has created a base for all the companies which are operating in this market. If the social and economic conditions influencing ASA are stable then it is considered that this company can attain highest level of growth but if social and economic conditions are not in favour then also ASA has developed various provisions and contingency plan by which they can still manage to gain success (Roodman, 2012).

There are various measures by which ASA and other companies operating in micro finance sector can attain success. Companies operating in micro finance sector has sole aim to provide benefit to their clients due to which they has support of governmental authorities and attain grants and funds from these organisations (Simon, Bumpus and Mann, 2012).

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

Findings

From the data analysis of the secondary data which is procured from sources like annual reports of ASA, it has been ascertained that association of social advancements which is a non profit organisations is attaining high success in micro finance venture. In order to ascertain whether findings of this research are similar or contradict with other investigations it is important to review other researchers as well (Moss, Neubaum and Meyskens, 2015).

According to Md Aslam Mia (2018), Micro finance organisations like association of social advancements are gaining high success in countries like India, Bangladesh and Myanmar as these countries are either under developed or developing due to which there is a high scope of micro credit in these nations. According to this investigator, Asian countries such as Bangladesh, India and Myanmar are not developing enough due to lack of industrialisation. To provide reliable finance to these countries, associations like ASA has been developed.

Another finding which has been ascertained in this investigation is that instead of developing countries, micro finance market is attaining success in under developed and developing countries such as India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. This finding is similar with previous investigations and rationale behind this finding is that developed countries has huge finance market due to which there is no requirement of micro finance market in these countries. From the above data analysis it has been observed that success of ASA has various reasons and some of them are employee satisfaction and client satisfaction. The scholarly article which has been selected states that ASA is attaining high success which is similar with the findings of this investigation. Along with this above similarities, there are few contradictions are also present.

According to this investigation the main reason behind the success of association of social advancements is its high client base and satisfied employee but according to the findings of scholarly research, the main reason behind the high success of ASA is social and economic conductions of the countries in which they operate. Another finding which has been ascertained by this investigation is that even organisations operating for the welfare of the society still has to fulfil their corporate social responsibility. This investigation is also assessed by an example of ASA. This association is operating in micro finance market and is a non profit organisation. This company deals in providing financial advantage to their clients so that poverty and other issues of a society can be reduced and evaded. While operating for providing benefit to the society, this company also has to fulfil their corporate social responsibility. Another contradiction which has been identified is that investigation of scholarly article states that main success factor of a non profit organisation is client satisfaction, but according to this research main factors which affect success of a non profit organisation is client base and satisfaction of employees (Quayes, 2012).

Limitations and Restrictions

Limitations and restrictions are the factors which limits an investigation to be conducted effectively (Ledgerwood, Earne and Nelson, 2013). In order to conduct a research about micro finance market with an overview of association of social advancements it is important to acquire all the secondary information which can help in identify success factors of this company. ASA is a non profit organisation which is operating in various countries of Asia and Africa but this investigation is limited to only three countries that is India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Limitations of this research is that this investigation is only limited to only few countries due to which overall performance of ASA can not be ascertained. Another limitation of this investigation is that all the information which is gathered in this research belongs to the secondary data which is collected from the annual reports of association of social advancements. Limitations is the factor which sates the area in which a particular research can not be use to interpret conclusions and results. In this particular investigation, data analysis and findings are not appropriate for the overall performance of ASA and not even for the conclusions of performance of different countries in this association operates.

Along with few limitations of this research, there are even few restrictions which are faced by the investigator while researching about this topic. The topic of this investigation is defining success in micro finance market which considering base as association of social advancements. In order to define the success of this non profit organisation it is important to ascertain acquire ample of information such as annual reports of this company along with various additional managerial reports of this company from which data such as customer satisfaction and employee satisfaction can be attained easily. This investigation is based on secondary data collection method in which second hand data is analysed to interpret conclusions and results. As association of social advancements is an international entity due to which structure of this organisation is complex. Main success factors that is employee satisfaction and client satisfaction can only be ascertained when there is data available for employees and clients. This data restriction is the most important limitation of this research as no company provides information about their clients and employees to anyone. Another restriction of this investigation is improper annual reports of this organisation. In order to ascertain success of an organisation it is important to review their annual reports for at least ten years so that an accurate conclusions and findings can be made. Data restrictions such as no annual report for seven years and no information about client satisfaction and employee satisfaction, this investigation has various drawbacks which are tried to be resolved in this research by analysing the available data effectively and efficiently. In order to evade all the limitations of this investigation, researcher has analysed all the available information is such a manner that all restrictions have been overcomed. There are 20 questions has been prepared which are answered by the investigator by considering the annual reports as the base. Along with along annual reports, auditor's report and CSR reports are also been considered while providing results and findings.

Recommendations

Recommendations are the statements which provides conclusion about what a specific organisation can do to resolve their issues. In this investigation, association of social advancements is analysed in order to ascertain whether this organisation is attaining success or not. From the above investigation it has been ascertained that ASA is gaining high success in the countries like India, Bangladesh and Myanmar but there are still few issues which are faced by this organisation and they are decreasing return on assets and low capital adequacy ratio. These  issues are observed to be occur due to inefficient management and lack of controlling activities in Bangladesh. These issues can be resolved with appointing few employees which should be provided sole responsibility of management and controlling. Another recommendation for association of social advancements is that this company should acquire more funds through governmental grants and public charities so that they can operate even with more efficiency. Decreasing return on assets can be improved by increasing the values of assets so that company can have higher returns against their assets. Capital adequacy ratio of this organisation is also low and in order to rectify this situation company can increase their funds so that they can have  reliable capital ratio. Association of social advancements is an organisation which operates to provide benefit to the society. In order to attain more benefit, it is recommended that this company should start their operations in more developing and underdeveloped countries of Asia and Africa. As it has found that this company is earning more profits and growing more in developing countries rather than developed countries.

Also read:- Dissertation on Governance and ethical dilemma: A case study on Lloyds Banks

Implications

Implications are the consequences which has to be faced by the company if they follow all the recommendation which are recommended by the investigator. It has been recommended that this association of social advancement is an organisation which has recommended that they  should enhance the performance of Bangladesh branch, but if ASA follows this recommendation they has to employ more employees which should be provided the responsibility of controlling and management. ASA has to incur an extra value of wages and salaries because of this recommendation. Another recommendation which has been provided by the investigator is that this company has to enhance their capital adequacy ratio but in order to do this, ASA has to acquire more capital from sources like governmental authorities. But if ASA will follow this recommendation then they has to develop an even more professional body so that government can be satisfied with their proposal and can provide them grant. Another recommendation which has provided by the investigator is that association of social advancement should enhance their financial performance by increasing their return on assets. In order to fulfil this recommendation, ASA has to ensure that they acquire more and more assets by which they has to incur extra cost for acquiring more assets. This extra cost can even result in lowering of their capital. Get more details about assignment writing service from our experts.

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