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Key Points to Remember About Harvard Citation

In a reference list, sources are listed alphabetically by author's surname. If there are multiple citations by the same author, these would be listed chronologically by year of publication.

You can cite a source directly by quoting verbatim from it or indirectly by citing a source to show that you have used an author's ideas, but not quoted them. Examples of both the cases are given below:

1. Books

Harvard Reference List Citations for Books by One Author

The structure for a Harvard Reference List citation for books by one author follows the format given below:


Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. (you should include the edition only if it is not the first edition) The city published: Publisher, Page(s).

For example:

Patterson, J. (2005). Maximum Ride. New York: Little, Brown.

Citations for Two or Three Authors:

When you are citing a source with two or three authors, you need to state all surnames also, such as:

Author1, Author2, and Author3 (year, p. Page_number) states

For example:

Mitchell, Smith, and Thomson (2017, p. 189) states…

(Mitchell, Coyne and Thomson, 2017, p. 189)

Citations Used for Multiple Works from the Same Author in the Same Year:

While referencing multiple works from one author that are being published in the same year, the works are allocated a letter (a, b, c, etc.) after the year.

For example:

(Mitchell, 2017a, p. 189) or Mitchell (2017b, p. 189)

Format Using Which Citing Multiple Works in One Parentheses:

List the in-text citations in the standard way, but it has semicolons between various references:

For example: (Mitchell, 2017, p. 189; Smith, 200; Andrews, 1989, pp. 165-176)

Citation of Different Editions of the Same Work in One:

This includes the author(s)’s name only once and is followed by all the appropriate dates separated by semicolons:

For example:Mitchell (2010; 2017) states… Or (Mitchell, 2010; 2017)

Citations for Print Journal Articles in Harvard

The standard formation of a print journal citation includes the following components, and the format is given below:


Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Journal, Volume (Issue), Page(s). Look at the example to understand things more clearly:

For example: Dismuke, C. and Egede, L. (2015). The Impact of Cognitive, Social and Physical Limitations on Income in Community-Dwelling Adults With Chronic Medical and Mental Disorders. Global Journal of Health Science, 7(5), pp. 183-195.

2. Citations for Print Newspaper Articles

Many a time, information gathered from the newspapers is also helpful. When citing a newspaper, use the following structure:


Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, Page(s).

For example: Weisman, J. (2015). Deal Reached on Fast-Track Authority for Obama on Trade Accord. The New York Times, p.A1.

3. Citations for Newspaper Articles Found on a Database or a Website

To cite an information or data found in the newspaper found either in a database or a website, use the following structure:


Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, [online] pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

For example: Harris, E. (2015). For Special-Needs Students, Custom Furniture Out of Schoolhouse Scraps. New York Times, [online] p.A20. Available at: [Accessed 17 Apr. 2015].

4. Images/visual mediums

You can even cite the sources, if the images or any other form of the visual medium has helped you in your research process. But the format followed is different for each one of them, read further and know about the same.

Citations for films/videos/DVDs:

There are a lot of documentaries, films, others that have informative content. To cite them, you can use the following format.


Full Title of Film/Video/DVD. Year of release. [Type of medium]. Director. Country of Origin: Film studio or maker. (Any other relevant details).

For example: The World's Best Curries. (2011). [Film]. Directed by J. Hertz. U.K: Foodie Studios.

Citations for broadcasts:

Broadcasts are often informative, but you cannot just use the information from them directly. And thus, make sure that you cite it using this:


Series title and episode name/number. (Year). [Year of broadcast]. Broadcasting organization and channel, date and time of transmission

For example: World Kitchen: Nigeria, episode 5. (2011). [Broadcast 2011]. BBC 1, first transmitted 30 July 2011, 20:00

5. Citations for Dissertation:

You can even consider the work done by other scholars for your research. Use the format given below:

Last name of the author, first initial. (Year). Title of the dissertation. Level. Official name of the university.

For example: Neath, G. (1998). An examination of Mexican food in popular culture. Masters level. Oxford Brookes University.

Hope this guide helps you out the next time you are stuck while writing your academic paper.

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