What is Descriptive Research Design? Here's Everything You Need to Know

18 Dec 2021 945
Descriptive Research Design

A Quick Guide to Understand the Methods of Descriptive Research Design

Descriptive research is a strategy to investigate that uses several methods to find sufficient information over a topic. Market researchers follow a significant process to accumulate good qualitative data. This blog will explain the concepts of descriptive research design and why it is necessary. Thus, you don't have to read different articles and papers to understand these concepts in detail. Everything is served to you on a platter. You only have to pay attention to the content, and you will ace your papers related to descriptive research. Without wasting a single time, let us move towards the next section that will elaborate on the definition of descriptive research design.

What is Descriptive Research Design?

Do you know what descriptive research design is? Researchers use it to dig a particular phenomenon or event to its core and gather a large amount of data. It helps in analyzing the cause and effects of the specific phenomenon, which helps in deriving an effective solution. The primary purpose of descriptive research is to answer what, where, and how questions related to a situation, phenomenon, or population. Thus, It deals with the evaluation of the problem. The main difference between descriptive and experimental research is that the experts only analyze the variables in empirical research but do not control or manipulate them like the descriptive one. It is the top choice by the organizations when the aim is to identify the trends, characteristics, frequencies, and categories. It never explains the why part because the priority should be to know when, where and how something happened rather than why. The other conclusions are formed after deriving sufficient data over the incident. The researchers use three methods to conduct a practical descriptive analysis. The following section unveils those methods.

3 Methods of Descriptive Research Design

1-Survey Method-This method includes taking valuable information through the answers received via questionnaires or surveys. It is the most common way of extracting data for market research. In addition, they help in getting valuable feedback from the respondents. A significant advantage of this method is that it can be conducted both online and offline. Therefore, it can save a lot of labor and provide relevant data in less time.

2- Observational Method-Every research requires the keen observation skills of the researchers. It is an essential component of descriptive research design. The observation strategies are different for qualitative and quantitative data. Data collected in the quantitative analysis must be understood in terms of numerics. It gets done by statistical data analysis. Qualitative observations do not involve numerical measurements. It focuses on monitoring the traits of the phenomenon. This method is essential because it helps trace the patterns and behavior of the situation to find the most effective solution.

3-Case Study Method-The primary purpose of a case study is to examine an individual, a group, or an incident in detail. This study results in creating a hypothesis that helps in exploring the phenomenon effectively. Their use is limited while writing a report on descriptive research design. It is because it can highlight several mistakes of the researchers and drawbacks of the shreds of evidence accumulated. Plus, it also fails in providing accurate predictions over the problem.

Main Types of Descriptive Studies

Some major types of descriptive studies conducted within an organization are as follows.

1-Consumer Behaviour Studies-Descriptive research methods help analyze the consumer's expectations and opinions regarding the brand. It helps make adequate plans to outperform the other competitors in customer satisfaction. It increases the positive perceptions of the brand. The company can change its prices based on the results generated after studying consumer behavior.

2- Sales Studies-It deals with studying the market's potential with the help of descriptive research. By this, the researchers, the trends of the market, and which product has the maximum chances of generating the best profits. It also helps them to understand the factors impacting the market shares. Unlike detecting customer behavior in the above method, the researchers frame the customer's demographics.

3- Market Characteristics Studies- Another use of descriptive research is to analyze the product distribution in the market. It is an essential process for multinational corporations. It helps in detecting the countries with better profit scales. In addition, researchers can analyze the brand management of competitors and know which strategies are working for them. It is also helpful in report writing if you know how to use them for your own benefit.

Pros and Cons of Descriptive Research Design


1. The data collection is quick and easy to conduct.

2. The fact that information is extracted from a natural environment makes it honest and actual data.

3. It helps in making effective decisions for data analysis strategies.

4. It helps understand the topic better by a qualitative and quantitative approach.


1. Sometimes, it becomes difficult to get suitable answers from the respondents in surveys because of confidentiality issues.

2. It never answers the 'why,' which makes it limited because it never explains the main reason for the event's occurrence.

3. It is not easy to conduct a thorough study over a topic when there are lesser-known facts and shreds of evidence.

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