Critical Analysis Of Physiological Principles

Answer :


Human body has a complex structure and a combination of various organs system, cells and tissues. In this regard, physiology refers to study of each structures' functions. In health and care field, this concept is based on physiological principles where services are provided to people to give them relief from some specific issues (Sarafino and Smith, 2014). In this regard, an assignment is prepared to make critical analysis on physiological principles for health and social care. It describes the structure and function of human body and a relationship between various functions on the basis of anatomy and physiology study. Further, a description about the way data is collected in health and social care. In addition to this, present report is also highlighted how age of an individual affect structure and function of body.


1.1 Anatomical features of human body

Anatomy is biological study which describes subdivision of human body parts, animals and other living organism. It is considered as study which helps in analysis body structure from front and back. It is Combinations of various form of cell which aids to create tissues and their organs instrumentation. Anatomical is complex scientific method deals with diverse system are as follows endocrine, nervous, reproductive etc. Human structure  is a working of separate parts like head, neck, upper limbs, bone, abdomen etc. construction of living body depends on cardiovascular, nervous, urinary, respiratory, reproductive processing etc. For example: Digestive  system, which  plays a vital role in human body because converting food into nutrients, vitamin and minerals is hard task. Intake of food provides energy and ability to stay alive.  Working of this system depends with mouth, stomach, large intestine, small intestine,  throat etc. Human body constitutes a number of biological system which performs specific functions for everyday living (Eyles and Woods, 2014). It includes circulatory system whose main function is to move nutrients, oxygen, blood, carbon-di-oxide and other in all over the body. This part consists heart, blood vessels, arteries and veins. Similarly, digestive system is another main part of body which involves a series of connected organs and absorb food by breaking down into small particles as well as remove excreta as well. Therefore, anatomical features of body can be described in following manner:-

Nervous system:- Body part consist of various organs and they are interrelated with each other. Any action of body parts are allowed by nervous system. It is complex in nature, as total organs are depend on signal provided by nerves. Some cells are directly connected with brain, then it passes to spinal cord and to other parts of body. This system is made up with two combinations are central and peripheral. Central controlling is done by brain and spinal cord. Working of somatic and autonomic come under peripheral part of nervous system. It controls voluntary actions like conscious movement and involuntary actions such as breathing. Thus, through this process, it sends signals to different organs of body. In addition to this, nervous system has two major subdivisions which are: Autonomic (Involuntary actions) and Somatic (Voluntary actions). In this regard, somatic nervous system includes nerves which connect spinal cord and brain with sensory receptors in skin and muscles. While, autonomic regulates specific processes  of body. It includes breathing rate, blood pressure and more.   

 Physiological Processes: Nervous System 

Respiratory system: It refers to biological system which consists specific organs and structures used for oxygen exchange living body. In terms of response to physical activities under mentioned case scenario includes- pulse and respiratory rate, breathe or oxygen transport and more, are increased. Thus, when transportation of oxygen in body increase then rate of respiratory will also enhance (Gardner, Pearce and Mitchell,  2017). In this regard, when a person of young age do physical exercise for long hours then strength of respiratory muscles, oxygen diffusion rate and vital capacity of body will increase.

Physiological Processes: Respiratory System 

Cardiovascular system: This system relates with heart organ which helps in blood circulation, transportation of nutrients like electrolytes, amino acids and more. It can also be defined as system which consist main part of body like heart, blood vessels, veins and arteries etc. Thus, in response during physical activities by the college going student, this system releases neurotransmitters. In addition to this, pulse rate, stroke volume of heart and blood pressure increase at high rate. Furthermore, during physical activities, heart transmits blood to those areas of body where demand of oxygen is greater. All these responses increase heat, therefore, under this case, body will start sweating. The main function of this system in body is to pump blood in all over part. As it contains blood vessels which carry essential things like oxygen and other nutrients, to helps for growth. Thus, in this regards, body takes such essential nutrients from blood as well as dumps wastage such as carbon dioxide and other excreta as well. Moreover, the major role of cardiovascular system in living body is to maintain blood flow therefore, it allows to survive as well. Some parts of this system like veins, used to deliver blood from other parts, back to heart. Thus, it is considered that blood in veins intakes low oxygen because it takes out by the body. Similarly, it riches in carbon dioxide as body of living beings unloads it back into blood. As shown in figure below that right atrium used to pump blood into right ventricle. Further, this ventricle sends blood to pulmonary trunk then from veins to lungs. Thus, under this process, in lungs, blood picks up air or oxygen by breathing and exhale carbon dioxide.

 Physiological Processes: Cardiovascular System

Musculoskeletal system: This is an organ system which consists cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscles respond in various manner. It maintains postures, allows movement, circulates blood throughout the body as well.  Thus, in order to respond on daily routine works, this system includes different type of contradictions. It includes eccentric, concentric and isometric contractions which are developed when body muscles contracted during physical work. Moreover, the response under skeletal system under present cases, reveals that with increase in synovial fluid, movement of different joints of body will enhance. In addition to this, ligaments of that individual gain strengths and density of bones also increased under such case. Smooth muscles of this system help in controlling the flow of substances within lumens of hollow organs. While skeletal and cardiac muscles consist striations which are only visible under microscope because of minute components within cells. These subdivisions of musculoskeletal system allow body to move.

 Physiological Processes: Musculoskeletal System

1.2 The way system of body interacts with functions for growth

Role of cellular METABOLISM in growth :- Body depends on functioning of cells, these operation of cells in body which helps action to carry out is termed as metabolism. Processing of body parts depends on chemical activeness as they provides energy. Reactions depends on a all those living organism and cells like digestive, nervous, respiratory etc. BMR(basal metabolic rate calculated in kilojoules(KJ) this rating assist body all systems are working correctly or not. If rates are getting higher then surface area of  body like weight,height gets impacts.

Role of growth hormone in body growth:- Intergrowth of body depends on cells as they are cover very sensitive parts of body like bone, muscle and hair growth. Bones develop very frequently with growing tissues. Suffering in tumour, cells which have positive behaviour turns into negative or divide signals in into uncontrolled system of body. When tissues get increase in obesity hypertrophy i.e. cells size gained. Due to genetic nature or individual eating capacity are sign of being obese (Harriss, MacSween and Atkinson, 2017). Replacement of tissue for hair, skin acts as a barrier that helps in preventing from harmful microorganisms and component. Substitution of tissues prevents from injuries.


2.1 Response of body during regular activities

As per given case, it is evaluated that an individual under age group 25 years, is generally engaged with lot of physical activities. It includes: studying continuously for long hours, keep mind and other parts of body activate etc. Therefore, under such case, normal body response in various ways as explained below:

Body of human generally maintains a state of equilibrium which is also called homoeostasis. Here, individual has no feelings in terms of sickness, uneasiness or other unpleasant signs. Therefore, in order to do study continuously for long hours, body of a person manages a range of complex functions. Therefore, it entails the probable change in respect to physiological and psychological functions. It includes breathing, eating, excretion and coordination with others. In this regard, liver is responsible to maintain fat and carbohydrate metabolism. While, excretory system reabsorbs essential materials like iron, salt level in blood, regulated pH level and excrete wastage from body. A normal person of young age can do all such activities related to physical and psychology without any hazardous. But for this process, they need healthy food to eat in regular interval of time. This would help in keeping mind and other system of body activate so that body will response normally.  

2.2 Explanation of body response in terms of physiology, cellular and tissue structure

Integrated responses of body in accordance with tissue and cellular structure can be better explained in following manner:- When an individual carry out various activities on regular basis then need of oxygen in the skeletal muscles increases. In this regard, tissues become able to burn extra fat and level of sugar in body (Parahoo, 2014). Thus, this would makes muscles more strong of an individual. Furthermore, to meet oxygen demand of various organs and tissues then distribution of flow of blood also changes. So, it entails that such person requires to consume healthy and nutrition food as well as avoid spicy or junk eatables. But in context with college going person or individual of 25 age-group, conduct studies for long working hours so it influences respiration process of body. Under this case, rate of respiration rate will increase, where body requires more fresh air for inhaling process in order to respond in deep manner. In addition to this, to work for more than 7 to 8 hours continuously by a person, increases stress level also. Under this process, body becomes tired and it required energy drink to keep mind refresh and activate.

2.3 The way body coordinates with its internal activities

Homoeostasis refers to maintain optimum internal environment of a body, under which various organs do functions on continuous basis. It can also defined as a tendency for maintaining stable conditions in internal environment and make adjustment into body accordingly to external atmosphere. Therefore, due to mechanism of homoeostasis, temperature of body is kept within normal range as well as nutrients are supplied to cells as per needed. Moreover, kidneys used to maintain homoeostasis within body by regulating adequate amount of salt and excrete water. For example: In order to conduct studies on continue basis for more than 6 hours, nervous system of body play an important role. In this context, the main tissues which are responsible for internal coordination within body are endocrine and nervous system. The way of coordination in this regard, can be explained in following manner:-

In human body, a response takes place when receptors of a cell receive stimulus. Through cell conductors, these responses are then transferred to effectors. Therefore, in this respect, body of individual response to adapt changes. Since there is no single system which coordinate overall functions of body, so, nervous system controls and maintains functions through central, autonomic and peripheral. Under this process, central nervous system controls functions of mind and body as it consists spinal cord. Here, brain interprets external environment as per situations and controls movement of body (Oliver, Foot and Humphries,  2014). Therefore, it is also known as centre of processing sensory information. While spinal cord acts as communication bridge between brain and other sensory receptors. Thus, in this regard, all functions of a body will coordinate to other functions with the help of nervous system. This will eventually keeps mind and other sensory organ of person activate during study as well as give respond to outside environment.    


3.1 Explanation on recording and use of routine measures in health and social care

Record of routine measures refers to main process in developing a health and social care plan for an individual. It provide data of a person who is suffering from a health related issue and integrates further for patients care. The purpose behind taking records of sick people in terms of pulse and respiration rate, blood pressure, intake of food etc. By this process, service providers can determine which type of treatment need to be given to a certain persons. In addition to this, patients will also become able to access own health record as well as can examine medicines prescribed to them, current diagnosis and schedule of appointments (Sheldon and et. al., 2014). According to given case study, a person having age of 65 years, suffers from hypertension which develops a chest pain. Therefore, the way to record mentioned states and their uses in health and social care, can be explained in following manner:-

Temperature: This part of body depicts a vital sign, which is required to measure accurately. Temperature of a normal person is 98.6 degrees of Fahrenheit, which states that any decrease or increase, reveals a certain cause. It is generally measured by thermometer. But as per innovation and high technological advancements, temperature can also recorded by thermometer which consists a wide range (Manotas and et. al., 2014). It includes mercury, bimetallic and digital thermometers. By measuring temperature, service providers can ascertain stage of illness and determine type of treatment needs for further improvement. As per given scenario, the person is suffering from hypertension therefore, temperature refers to a routine measure.

Pulse rate: It defines number of times, heart rate of a person pumps for executing blood circulation and respiratory system. For a healthy and normal person, pulse rate is 60 to 100 beats per minute. Therefore, as per present scenario, adult person who suffers from chest pain and hypertension. So, it is necessary for service providers to measure pulse rate of such person time to time. It will help in

Blood pressure: It is important to measure blood pressure of an individual because high BP creates more risk of health problems on patient's arteries and heart. In this kind of situation, peoples may suffer from headache or dizziness but in some cases they don't feel any different changes in their body. Normal blood pressure level is between 135/85 and 140/90 mm Hg. Some factors which influences BP of an individual are stress, cold temperature, smoking, caffeine or alcoholic consumption, weight gain or loss etc. In present case, BP of adult age persons having chest pain so high stress level, due to intake of heavy food, stressful environment or other thing, might increase or decrease in regular manner (Fredriksen-Goldsen and et. al., 2014). Therefore, by taking record of BP in regular manner, service providers can diagnose which factor affects on health and increase blood pressure. Through this process, they can prescribed better medicines and suggestion for such patients.

Electrocardiography (ECG): It is a systematic process of recording heart related activities by using electrodes. This flat metal electrodes attached on patient's chest to detect electrical charges that generated by heart beat it shows by graph. It is a non invasive test that diagnose heart system and its disease. Throughout this cardiologist get better understanding by knowing heart rate and estimate cardiac efficiency. Service providers consider on this process for knowing about cardiac disease such as chest pain, shortness of breath, fainting spells, weakness and control on it.

Body mass index:- Taking records about BMI of an individual is major concern in health and social care. Information provided from this measurement process generally does not calculate accurately therefore, only approximated value is taken (Davis Boykins, 2014). Body mass test is only done for measuring weight i.e. over weight or under weight from normal weighted person. To calculate BMI there are some parameters as 18.5 considered as under weight, 18.5 to 24.9 as healthy person, 25 to 29.9 is over weight and above all these value obesity take place, but these factor are depends on individual height and age. In context with old age people who is suffering from chest pain and hypertension, body mass index will help service provider in determining treatment procedure for resolve such issues.

3.2 Assess on the way of providing information about body functioning by routine measures

Under this, necessary information is given through routine measures in case of 65 years old person. The Temp., Pulse, BP, BMI, ECG etc. are Haemodynamic Monitoring of the Human Body. These all the effective tools for measuring body from various perspectives. In addition to this, Body Mass Index will signifies that how much an individual can overweight and the measures which can minimize his weight. More than 30, BMI indicates that an individual is overweight. In addition to this, body temperature will signifies a person that is suffering from the fever or not. On the basis of body temperature, fever of an individual can be measured. The temperature of normal person is between 97.8 to 99.1 degree. But in case fever, the body temperature of person cross 100 degree (Tilley and Cameron, 2014). When average person endures such level of the beats twice then the possibility of Brain strokes and heart attack rises through 70%. If an individual, has high fever then its pulse rate will be high and it will not able to perform in a well manner.   Under this, measurement of blood pressure will state probability of an individual to develop the high blood pressure. If an individual is obese, then the chances of Blood pressure will be enhanced. For normal person, Blood pressure is less that 120/80 that means over 80 and below 120 can be move away possibilities of any heart related disease or stroke. If the blood- pressure of a person is above 115/75 mmHg, then probability of arising the cardiovascular enhances. With the help of Aneroid monitor, Finger- wrist and digital monitor, Blood Pressure (BP) can be measured. On the other hand, ECG is related to heart and it helps the signs for the heart related disease. It gives information about heart rate and also rhythm. When rhythm of a person is regular then heart rate is 300 divided through number of the lager squares among QRS complexes. On the other hand, second method to use with irregular rhythm in order to estimate rate. In this, count number of the R waves in 6 second strip and then multiply by 10.

3.3 Information about the body functioning may inform care planning for this person

Through information about the functioning of body, care home can planned for concerned people. Care and special attention can be provided towards treating organs of body which are not properly functioning (Hussain and et. al., 2015). Enhanced BMI can be bring with in normal range through giving him basic treatment that will include the proper nutrition as well as diet plan. In context to this, physical activities are also necessary for that person. Under this, there can be adoption of the better approach to the long- term weight management. Symptoms of Flu and Fever ascertained through body temperature and it will be helpful in providing the necessary treatment 65 years old man which can help to recover him. In this regard, service providers of health and social care are used to assume Hemo-dynamic states (King and et. al., 2015). It includes body temperature, blood pressure and respiration rate etc. Since people who are accustomed to high stress and depression stage, then in such case homoeostasis level of body much affected. Therefore, under this condition, body temperature of such people becomes more high.

Similarly, BP of adult age-group people is normally considered as 120 or 80 beats per second. But in context with person who suffers from hypertension then in this case, BP will critically fluctuate. High stress and chest pain sometime leads to cause either brain or heart stroke. In addition to this, respiration rate of such patients also increases as per stress level. Henceforth, all such information assist service providers of health and social care, to determine treatment of sick people accordingly.    


4.1 Age may affect body structure and functioning

All vital organs start to loose some of the functions as age at the time of adulthood. In this, ageing modifications can occur in tissues, organs and cells of bodies which impact on functioning of body system. This 85 years old lady has Type 2 Diabetes and also suffered from arthritis of knees. With increasing age, spinal cord and brain both have lost weight and nerve cells. Under this age, may have impacted on muscles that helps in take breathing. So, she would not able to exhale and inhale air (Bowen and Murshid, 2016).  In context to this, age may impact integumentary system like cells can have became irregular and larger. It can have the thinner skin, prone to injuries and translucent. Age of 85 years lady can have affect on functioning and structure of her body related to respiratory and nervous system mention below:

Nervous system- Functions of brain is varying with the age on central nervous system. Under this, several tends to learn verbal abilities, intellectual performance and material tend which comes from experience and wisdom. By ageing reaction of 85 years old lady, will minimize than the past. Due to her Spinal Cord began to weakening and this body part controls require proper time for reaction in regards with the bodily environment. On the other hand, Peripheral Nervous System will show less voluntary effort and impulses. If bloods circulation will goes down, neurotransmission and Synapse become higher, less reflexes and lower sensation can be notices in behaviour of 85 years old lady.

Respiratory system- Ageing impact in respiratory activities exhaling and inhaling is same to impact of ageing in the other organs. Under this, gas exchange and inhaling becomes slower, respiratory reflexes become weaker. In addition to this, sometimes Influenza, Pneumococcal infections and many others may be happen to a person.

4.2 Impact of common disorders on body structure and functioning

Cells are developing the blocks of tissues and all the cells are experience modifying with ageing. At the old age, they become less able and also larger to be multiply and divide. At age of 85, several cells loss ability to functioning and they start functions abnormally (Taggart and Cousins, 2014). Impact of high BP may play necessary role in cognitive and dementia decline over time. Reduce flow of blood impact on brain and it causes thinking as well as memory issues. When pressure at which blood travel gets enhanced then it starts to damage the artery walls and will affected on body structure. In case of fever, it direct the defences towards infection place. Rise in the body temperature assess a person to resolve any infection. But if the temperature is high then it can lead to the complications and can be serious. In this, body of person will not able to do proper functioning. On the other hand, its impact on the body structure is that high temperature leads to induces shivering, enhance metabolism rate, body moves blood to the warmer interior etc.

Under this, there are many common disorders for an instance absence of mind, impaired or loss function of tissues, organs such as ataxia, incontinence etc. At the age of 85, she is suffering from Type 2 Diabetes and it can cause the Foot complications, Ketones, DKA, Nephropathy, Gastroparesis and Stroke. In context to this, arthritis is disease of joints and it causes stiffness, hips, joints, shoulder etc. At the age of 85 year, body stops functioning and can not work properly  (Daskalakis and Yehuda, 2014). Arthritis can occur in older people due to result of the long years of tear and wear on body. It can be arise from past injuries and normal physical activity. From the bad health, that 85 year lady is not able to functioning in healthy manner and after some time she has wound on her leg and from this she is unable to walk.  

4.3 Relation between effects of common disorders and infection to care routinely given to individuals affected

As per present case, apart from diabetes, medical condition of old lady is well related to medical care. Due to age-factor and arthritis, service providers of health and social care cannot recommend to such patients to do any physical exercise. It includes regular walk in morning and evening, which is most essential part of treatment for diabetic patients. Thus, it would affect routine care treatment for mentioned old lady. In this regard, to give relief from arthritis pain, service providers will recommend pain killers, as there were no more solution for this. Similarly, for giving treatment to recover wound on leg, which is not healing well, care-takers will keep dressing on regular manner (Sturmberg and et. al., 2017). They will do regularly check wounds and change dressing in order to reduce development of bacteria on wounds. It also help in preventing patients from worms which may occur due to late recovery. In this regard, necrosis or dead cells and excess tissue, generally occur with diabetic injuries and wounds. This would promote bacteria which may create infections. So, it is essential for care-takers to remove dead-tissue as well.   


 It has concluded from this assignment that physiology refers to a study of function of body parts and how they response for doing physical activities by a person. Similarly, anatomy in this regard, helps in evaluating the relationship between different parts of body. Further, physiological principles in health and social care, state procedures taken by service providers for care planning of an individual who is suffering from a certain type of health issues. It describes in what manner, care planners diagnose disease of persons and set medical planning for further treatment.    

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