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Overview Of Management Accounting Essentials


It is generated on a weekly or monthly basis for company's internal stakeholders like chief executive officers (CEO) and department managers unlike financial accounting which helps external stakeholders determine the financial condition the company by annual reports. The reports of management accounting include sales revenue generated, cash availability, accounts payable states, raw materials, inventory, outstanding debts, etc.

The following assignment is based on Pavestone, one of the leading manufacturing companies. It was founded in 1980 and undertakes manufacturing of segmental concrete products to industrial, retail, contractor, residential and commercial businesses. The assessment includes requirements of different types of management accounting systems, different methods used for management accounting reporting, advantages and disadvantages of planning tools for budgetary controls and how organisations are adapting management accounting systems to respond to


P1.Overview of management accounting and essential requirements of different types of management accounting systems

Management accounting is a detailed process of identification, interpretation, analysing and presenting accounting information of a company which is acquired by cost and financial accounting (Maskell, Baggaley and Grasso, 2016). It helps the managers of the firm to formulate effective policies and enhance their decision-making process.

Difference between management and financial accounting:

There is a huge difference between management and financial accounting which are discussed below:

  • Users: Management accounting is an internal function and is implemented internally with employees and managers of the firm whereas financial accounting is the point of consideration for external users like shareholders, banks, creditors, etc.
  • Regulations: Management accounting does not consider external rules and regulations and no application of accounting standards is imposed. Whereas, various set of rules and regulations are imposed in financial accounting.
  • Sources: Management accounting undertakes both financial and non-financial data, whereas, only financial data is used in financial accounting.

Role of management accounting in an organisation

In Pavestone, management accounting plays a vital role which is described below:

  • It improves communication within the organisation which leads to better decision-making of the managers.
  • The information produced by management accounting is relevant which helps the managers to formulate effective policies.
  • It helps the firm to exploit market opportunities by generating value through critical analysis of information.
  • Management accounting helps to build trust in the firm as it promotes ethical practices within the organisation.

Different types of management accounting systems:

Organisations use various types of management accounting system which helps them to conduct their managerial operations effectively (Pavlatos, 2015). Types of management accounting system used in Pavestone and their requirements are described below:

  • Job Costing System: This system includes the process of assembling information about the costs used for a specific job. Such information helps in reimbursements of the cost in order to submit it to a client under specific contracts (Schaltegger, Burritt and Petersen, 2017). This system is best suited when manufacturing goods are different from one another. It helps the Pavestone managers to manage information and monitor and keep a record of  the cost required in each job. The cost flow in this system is mentioned below:
    • The cost of direct materials, direct labours and manufacturing overheads is determined.
    • Job cost sheets are prepared to track inventory of Work In Progress.
    • Inventory of finished goods is determined.
    • Finally cost of goods sold is acquired.
  • Cost accounting system:Managers of Pavestone use this system to estimate product costs to conduct a critical analysis of company's inventory, cost control and profitability. The methods used in the company is process and job costing.
  • Inventory Management System: Management and supervision of non-capitalized assets and stock of the firm is conducted by Inventory Management System. This system helps Pavestone to attain effictive and efficient flow of inventories both in the firm as well as at the time of sale. The firm applies this system to reduce inventory cost and enhance their profitability. The method used by the firm is ABC analysis. Under this, the inventory is divided into three categories- A: which denotes most valuable items, B: which denotes moderately valuable items and lastly C: which denotes least valuable items. This system helps the firm to categorize and manage its inventory according to priority of the products.
  • Price Optimisation System:This system determines the impact of price fluctuations on the demand in the market (Smith, Brännström and Jansson, 2015). Pavestone uses this technique to effectively evaluate their price rates and adjust this price according to the demand which could help raise their profitability ratio. It helps Pavestone to decide the price rate of multiple products at one time. It would help the firm to determine the structures of initial, discount and promotional pricing.

P2 Explain different methods for management accounting reporting

Managerial accounting concentrates on internal financial data which is used in an organization for various purposes such as evaluating manufacturing process (Trucco, 2015). Accounting experts use this data in making budgeting plans and controlling. It includes standards commercial statements, balance sheet, profit and loss report and so on. Here, narrating main methods for accounting report in management:

Budget reports: It assist to top management in analysing internal as well as external performance of an organization. Managers estimate a budget plan on the bases of current expenses from period of years (Agrawal and Cooper, 2017). Pavestone should consider on this accounting report technique to sustain their profitability. This principal helps in determining all financial sources for expenses for further manufacturing procedures. A company tries to attaining objectives and goals towards managing accounting reports.

Job cost reports: It shows expenditures which related to a particular project within a firm. In this process, accounting expert estimates receiving revenue and profitability from specific job. These additional efforts help in decreasing extra money during work by supporting to high earning plans. By this report, Pavestone can easily determine complete cost which will take place in future and current operational plans.

Inventory and manufacturing: This provides all relevant information about raw or product stock. In respect of Pavestone, accounting manager should concern on these aspect to ,maintain manufacturing procedures for increasing efficiency. This report indicates labour cost, raw material wastages, and per headed cost at working station. Therefore, if operation department does generate any related problem, manager can easily find out it along with proper solutions.

Thus, these reports help in executing budgeting plans whether it is operational functions or production activities. It provide better guidance in further financial planning by optimizing all organizational resources (Christ and Burritt, 2017).

M1. Benefits of management accounting system:



Price Optimisation System

It will help Pavestone in analysing behaviour of consumers towards different price sets  and also help them to identify best price to achieve higher profitability.

Job Costing System

Pavestone can determine many type of costs from production process. It will help in reducing replication of work and assist in analysing quality of work.  

Inventory Management System

Pavestone can increase efficiency of inventory with this system and it will also help them in preserving both time and money.


D1 Evaluation of how management accounting system and it's reporting integrated within organization process.

  Management accounting report integrated within organisational process:

Types of reporting


Budgeting Reports

By this Pavestone can complete organizational activities in order to achieve goals and objectives of business.

Job costing reports

This will help Pavestone to accomplish goals related to cost and assist in bring down the cost.

Inventory and manufacturing

With the help of inventory management system Pavestone can make attempts to manage the stock on timely manner and would help in optimisation of resources.



P3. Calculation of costs and preparation of income statement:

Cost refers to the amount used in production of a product or a service. It also includes a detailed monetary evaluation of resources, materials, risks, efforts and time consumed in the production and delivery of that particular product and service. There are two types of costs mainly which are described below:

  • Fixed Costs: These costs represent those segments of cost that are constant for a certain output level without fluctuating. However, with increase in production, the product's per unit fixed cost decreases (Christopher, 2016).
  • Variable costs: These costs are variable segments of cost that changes according to variation in the production. These costs share a direct relationship with production. It increases with increase in the level of output and vice versa. Labour and Raw material costs can be perfect examples of variable costs.

Marginal Costing: This refers to the system where fixed cost are fully written off for the period and only variable costs are accumulated. Cost per unit in marginal costing also remains constant. In this system, volume of output is changed with variation in cost.

Absorption Costing: In this costing, all the costs incurred in the production are treated as product cost. This costing focuses on all the expenses and resources used for production. Both fixed and variable costs are taken into consideration for inventory valuation. Direct material costs, direct labour costs, and overhead costs are included in this costing. However, with the variable manufacturing costs, each unit accumulates a part of fixed overhead costs (D'Onza, Greco and Allegrini, 2016).

For instance, Pavestone produces and sells a single product with selling price of £55. The unit costs are described below:



Direct Materials


Direct Labour


Variable Production Overhead

£ 2

Variable Sales Overhead



Fixed costs for the month are given below



Production overhead


Administration cost


Selling cost


The sales for a particular month are 600 units. The actual production was 800 units. There is no opening stock. So, according to this scenario, the income statements as per marginal and absorption costing are as follows:

Income statement as per marginal costing: 

Net income = (sales revenue – marginal cost of goods sold) = (contribution – fixed cost)







Sales revenue = (no. of units sold x selling price of each = 600 x 55)



Marginal Cost of products sold:



Production = (units produced x marginal cost per unit = 800 x 16)



closing stock = (closing stock units x marginal cost per unit = 200 x 16)






Fixed cost ( 3200+1200+1500 )






Net profit




Income statement as per absorption costing:

Net Incomes = (Sales revenue – Cost of goods sold) = (Gross profit – Selling and Administrative expenses)





Sales = (selling price x no. of units sold = 55 x 600)


Cost of goods sold = (total expenses per unit x actual sales = 23.375 x 600)


Gross profit


Selling & Administrative expenses = (variable sales overhead x actual sales + selling and administrative cost = 1 x 600 + 2700)




Net profit/ operating income



M2 A range of management accounting techniques

In today's era, there is a number of techniques are accessible which assist to an enterprise in collecting internal accurate information. By using such techniques Pavestone' managers can enable for making reports to operating decision making process. Here, some major techniques are explaining:

Standard Costing: Accounting mangers record all business transactions which assist to analyzing the gap between actual cost and standard in Pavestone.

Marginal Costing:  This technique helps in controlling cost and enhance profit level within an organization.  

D2 Analysis and Interpretation of data

From the above example, it can be interpreted that the per unit cost of firm's products can be effectively calculated by using tools and techniques of management accounting. Marginal costing takes only variable costs into consideration and fixed cost is written off to the contribution, whereas absorption costing considers all the costs costs in calculation. Thus, as per example, the net operating income as per marginal and absorption costing is £17500 and £15675  respectively for Pavestone.


P4 Explain budgeting control and tool for controlling

Budgeting control refers a process of determining actual income and expenses, so that company can easily coordinate with their departments (Jack, 2015). It compares to earning plans with the existing profitability for making changes in performance procedures. Throughout this function experts act upon achieving outcomes within an organization. This system thoroughly focuses with planning and controlling on selling commodities and production efforts. Pavestone can acquire better relief in day to day process according to organizational objectives.

This process plays many significant roles in budgeting plans execution for improving efficiencies. For Pavestone succession, it is essential to prepare and managing administrative budgets to cope up with future challenges such as natural calamities. Sound accounting gives adequate and reliable data for estimating future requirement in an enterprise. All employees' participation should be involved in successful budgeting plans. Therefore, company need to consider on budgeting planning tools as describing in below statements:

Forecasting planning: Forecasting refers to predicting an activity of the future by analysing past and present activities (Definition of forecasting, 2018). This technique provides proper assistance to predict future uncertain expenditures related to further activities. By using this Pavestone company can analyse cash flow during manufacturing process which overcome to shortage of money. Managers can easily identifies funding requirements and  cost for extra efforts which helps in strategic operational planning. Moreover, it has some disadvantages as well as better advantages for executing business plan:



It increases possibilities of accomplishing  Pavestone goals by reducing budgeting problems.

Forecasting tool consumes sufficient or sometimes extra time to anticipating related prospects in Pavestone.

This process helps in making actual reports to Pavestone's employees about how they are performing towards objectives.

It conducts extra efforts for which all employees may not be cooperate during high work loads.


Contingency plans: This budgeting tool prepares for predicting future risks that can be face by any organization. Throughout this assessment Pavestone's managers should create more sophisticated plans to managing future uncertainty. It addresses to all critical operations along with outline on reducing problems to an organisation. Moreover, this tool alert regarding to over planning which cannot be execute or not in adequate manner. It also have many benefits as well as drawbacks those are mentioning:



By executing contingency planning,  Pavestone employees learn handling crises without waiting for disaster.

For Pavestone, it can be typical to ensure all employees participation during their disagreement.

It helps in prevention from unnecessary loss in production department to an organization.

Resulting errors are occur from outside informations for Pavestone, for instance: legal, media and vandalism.


Scenario planning: This preparation provides relevant information about economic consequences, new competitors, impact on supply chain, cost structure and consumer buying patterns in market. Experts are using this tool for analysing all these aspects to assess and implementing in budgeting plans. In respect of Pavestone, managers should apply on this tact to  

create ultimate versions for their enterprise budge. It allows to maximum profits through transactions data so manager can easily generate accurate balance sheet.



It allows to create and upgrade multiple version for Pavestone enterprise by identifying critical uncertainties.

It involves brainstorming and need to explore different alternatives for future modifications so Pavestone need to hire professionals.

Scenario tool supports to internal and outside communication channel by following organization limitation.

In dynamic market, it create critical situations to predict a correct scenario for Pavestone.


Thus, budgeting plan can easily execute and controlled by company's superiors by following above mention techniques. Moreover, company need to consider on costing procedures for decision making programs over operational and other organizational process. Here, explaining three relevant costing system which will be useful for Pavestone:

Normal costing: It applies for actual cost of a product or service for instance: this can be related to cost of material, labour and allocation. In respect of Pavestone, managers use in the derivation of product price to determine budgeting plan. It can measure through this formula:

normal costing= direct material cost+ labour cost+ allocation rate

Actual costing: It refers to simple method of determining an amount or estimate cost of a product which is based on lobar and materials. These are the real cost and provide assistance in inventory management. It includes related producing items such as factory rent, electricity and so on.

Standard costing system: In this method, cost is predict by managers for advance production under given organization terms and conditions. Pavestone can take benefits by using standard tool to fulfil surplus demand in potential market.

  Therefore, all those were most common costing system which helps in making budgeting plans to Pavestone enterprise. Through these system managers can determine their product cost according to different market situations and organisational conditions. Although company need examine various cost activities which explaining here:

Job costing: This method is used where individual products are unique. Managers  records manufacturing cost in order to maintain operational data. Pavestone should apply on this system for tracking all expenditures which helps in knowing taxation need.

Process costing: It accumulates material and worker costs along with aggregate production expenses. Pavestone' managers can use for their large quantity of manufacturing products in respect of mass production plans. Experts uses for

Batch costing: It is similar with job costing, under this batch includes number of goods whose production cost cannot be isolate. In respect of Pavestone, managers should target by this system for their building material products for instance brick, wood, cement and concrete.

Balanced scorecard: Experts is used this technique to making strategic planning in management by following organizational objectives and vision. It improves many process such as communication and feedback among employees.

M3 Analyse the different planning tools and their application for preparing and forecasting budgets.

As per above explantation, those planning tools gives different kind of profits in budgeting plans. According to forecasting plan, Pavestone managers can observe all aspects of monetary terms and conditions which direct helps in estimating exact plan. Secondly, it covers through contingency plan that protect from uncertain circumstances. Another one highlights market trends and competitor's strategies that guides for up-gradation within Pavestone.


P5. Ways in which organisations are adapting Management Accounting systems to respond to financial problems

It is very necessary to use financial resources in an organisation to avoid under or over utilisation which possible could add to the cost of the firm. Management Accounting can help the managers to measure the performance of a firm based on the performance of financial tools and resources of the company. But sometimes, when priorities are given to other major issues in the firm, it indicates the rise of financial problems in the company (Joshi and Li, 2016). These problems can be a reason for organisation's downfall and its underperformance in the market which hinders is effectiveness and its position in the market.

There are two reasons because of which Pavestone suffered major financial problems. These reasons are described below:

  • Mismanagement: One of the key reason for rising of financial problems in any organisation is mismanagement. It refers to under or over utilisation of financial resources and results in inefficiency of the firm. In Pavestone, the responsibilities were wrongly distributed within the organisation. Employees neglect the responsibilities towards handling payments, taxes and bills which resulted in spread of misinformation to the upper management and wrong financial outcomes. Moreover leaders didn't effectively monitor the account practices and budgeting which increased these problems within the firm.
  • Expansion: Another severe issue which contributed in the increased financial problem is business expansion. Pavestone planned a business expansion project and to attain its objectives, brought expensive raw materials and technological equipments that immediately put a heavy burden on the company's financial department. Expansion of the company led to employment of new staff, buying up new premises, purchasing new raw materials. Over-trading also became a big contributing factor towards these financial problems arising in the organisation.

However, managers of Pavestone are using two effective techniques to eradicate these financial issues. These techniques are described below:

  • Key Performance Indicator (KPI): The company is currently using Key Performance Indicator to measure the performance of the current expansion plan with the expansion plan implemented in the past. How the previous managers successfully executed an expansion plan can set a powerful base for the current managers and they can easily find their shortcomings which are exerting the pressure on the company's financial resources. Moreover, this would help the managers to effectively measure the performance of each resource used in the expansion and how to effectively conduct the functioning of these resources at their highest potential.
  • Benchmarking: Pavestone is also using benchmarking as an effective technique to measure its business performance by a thorough comparison of its business processes with other competitive firms. Benchmarking would help the firm to determine the required quality of the product, necessary time schedule and the most accurate cost required to carry out these processes. The benchmarking is also used by the firm to compare the performances of various product lines within the organisation. This would help the firm in determining the reasons for underperformance of its units.

Comparison of Pavestone and Allen Block



This company uses KPI and Benchmarking as effective tools to measure the performance of the business processes.


Allen Block emphasises on using Comparative Ratios and 360 degree feedback to measure its business performance.

The advantage of using KPI is that the company can critically evaluate the performance of its resources and easily identify the factors that are the causes of underperformance of its business units

Comparative Ratios help Allen Block to compare its performance against these ratios and measure the outcome to determine its performance with its competitive firms.

Benchmarking helps Pavestone internally as well as externally. It helps the firm to measure its performance with its competitors and also compare the performance of its internal business units. This in turn enables the firm to formulate effective strategy to effectively achieve its business performance.

360 degree feedbacks help this company to measure its performance by gathering feedbacks from its stakeholders both internal and external. These results are presented to the employees of the firm and can be a contributing factors towards implementing effective training and development programs for them.


  Analysis on how management accounting lead to sustainable success

Management accounting concept plays essential role in leading firm towards sustainability. These is explanation which state this tactic use in Pavestone is stated below:

  • This system is used by management to frame different plans for execution of business activities in according to firm's objectives and goals. For this, manager and efforts of subordinates are integrated for success of Pavestone.
  • Management accounting system benefits firm in construction of different forms of reports that are inventories, cost, budget and many other. Thus, business operations are conducted in effective manner which result in attainment of business targets.

M4. Analysing how in responding to financial problems, management accounting can lead organisations  to sustainable success.

It is very essential for organisations to implement management accounting to attain sustainable success. It would help Pavestone to conduct their financial operations in a systematic manner. It would help them produce financial reports appropriately, thus, making their overall operations effective. In addition to this, it would help the firm formulate effective strategies to enhance the overall performance of the business.

D3. Evaluation of how planning tools for accounting respond to solving financial problems

Planning tools can be very useful for organisations to solve their financial problems. It would be very helpful for Pavestone if the firm implements these tools since the very beginning of their financial activities. Tools like Benchmarking, KPI's and 360 feedback would allow the firm a thorough look into their financial strengths and weaknesses. This would in the end help to cut the unnecessary cost which would add to profitability of the company.


Thus we conclude by the above report that management accounting is very essential for organisations to effectively manage their financial resources. Organisations are required to use different types of management accounting systems as it is necessary to maximize the performance of the firm. Different types of management accounting reporting help the firms to determine the accurate financial scenarios of the company. A range of management accounting techniques could help the organisations to develop accurate financial reporting documents. Planning tools are a crucial aspect of management accounting practices and encourage the managers to formulate flexible strategies for every situation that could affect working of the company. Lastly, companies can use effective techniques to eradicate the inevitable financial problems effectively and could easily achieve overall objectives of the organisation.



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