Learning And Development

Answer :


Consider a training intervention that you are familiar with and critically evaluate how its design, implementation and evaluation has been influenced by contextual, organizational and theoretical factors.

Learning and development is considered as essential for all the individuals since through this numerous skills and abilities can be acquired. In the present scenario, firms have been organizing diverse training sessions so that people's ability can be developed. In such context, example of UCL (University College London) has been taken into account which gives organizational and staff development training for personal and professional development. While organizing training for the staff members, UCL emphasizes on CPD approach which is also a planned process where in several things are included related to learning and development of staff members (Thorpe and Clifford, 2007). The CPD context states that there should be continuous improvement in quality aspects by looking forward towards knowledge enhancement and learning facets. While organizing learning and development sessions, UCL assumes that people will gradually learn things because of psychological differences. Main focus has been given towards increasing learning level of staff members by including diverse tools and techniques. In order to impart training, it is essential for the trainers and organizational members to consider organizational and ethical factors so that training can produce appropriate results (Lyons, 2010). Training is always organized after identifying its need in the subsequent area and according to the requirement, relative method can be applied for imparting training.

While organizing training sessions, the manager always ascertains why it is required and according to that, people are provided training. Proper procedure needs to be followed so that everything can be included in the schedule (Fleetwood and Hesketh, 2010). Hence, it can be said that the training schedule of UCL is directly emphasized towards employee development and learning; therefore for such aspect, adequate concern is given towards all essential facets of employee learning and development. Training session is designed for every separate department and for all the areas of concern and this also enhances the capability and efficacy of employees from different aspects. When people try to learn different things they should be more focused towards all the learning approaches so that continuous development may take place. At UCL, learning and training sessions are organized so that employees can develop their capability and this is also required in terms of enhancing their efficiency in managing diversified job roles. At the time of attending training sessions, human resource assesses their current skills and on that basis they ascertain the areas where improvements and developments are required (BUCKLEY and CAPLE, 2009). They also define expected learning outcomes and according to that, different learning activities can be conducted.

All the outcomes should be based on self reflection and individuals should have to conduct a self analysis on that basis so that the areas of improvements can be identified. Training should be continuously conducted and that should be applied to work practice so that positive impacts can be acquired. Afterwards, completing the training session, individuals have to assess its impacts so that it can be carried forward for other practices (Lee, 2010). Hence, it can be said that learning of an individual goes from a cycle so that development can take place from domains. Any learning activity should be evaluated in terms of its impacts because this is the only source through which ability level can be acquired. One of the most important tools for evaluating the beneficial aspects of training is through Dr Donald Kirkpatrick which has four different levels and that can change the learning and development aspects of the individuals. People at the initial stage give reactions to the training event and after that they start learning different things as required (Continuing Personal and Professional Development at UCL, 2015). Learning helps people to meet all the future and determined objectives and through that they should conduct all the activities. People must learn different things on the job to reach towards optimum and desired outcomes. This is also essential in terms of improving cost aspects.

At UCL, training sessions are organized on the basis of areas of requirements and chiefly it is provided to the employees so that they can contribute in organizational growth and prosperity. As per the theoretical aspects (Piagetian theory), an individual goes through different stages starting from birth to adulthood and in all such stages, he learns different things which changes his life (Willis, 2011). Similarly, this can be applied in individual's own life in which at the initial stage of learning, most of the things are not properly known; thus according to time, people try to learn more as per comprehensive ability. Hence, regarding this, when organizational managers organize training session, they do not expect outcomes at the initial stage because they know people gradually learn things. Managers should not expect more because sometimes individual resist to attend training sessions; therefore all the sessions and events are organized on the basis of long term objectives. This gives employees the opportunity to conduct all the job roles appropriately as per the efficacy level (Zviran and et. al., 2011). While organizing any event, managers ensure that resources are properly implemented and they are producing optimum outcomes for the employees.

Training can be provided through different methods such as on the job and off the job methods and both the types are effectual in terms of enhancing the capability of employees (Pike, 2003). Mangers of UCL evaluates training session because they desire to acknowledge the efficacy of managerial efforts in organizational practices. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of training session, managers of UCL conducts direct observation so that all the practices can be monitored and according to the same, changes can be made to the subsequent training event. Further, feedback are also acquired from the trainers and trainees in respect of the particular event; thus this is one of the effectual methods through which efficacy of training event can be found out. Apart from this, individual's own capability and potential can be identified afterwards when they acquire training on diverse grounds (Thorpe and Clifford, 2007). Analysis can also be made regarding the knowledge and skill development in the employee; hence according to the same, new action plans can be formulated. At the end of every programme, manager of UCL accesses all the reports from the learners.

Peer advice and opinion is another technique through which training event can be evaluated and the method is usually adopted because peers have direct idea regarding the performance and efficiency of subordinates. Thus, it can be said that direct observation, peer advice and expert opinion are some of the essential methods through which the capability of training event can be identified (BUCKLEY and CAPLE, 2009). UCL also facilitates direct and continuous monitoring because through that, the university analyze the areas of improvements. Efficiency of training event can be identified through ascertaining the skills and efficacy of employees. Managers always organize training events at UCL for the purpose of enhancing the level of learning among the employees. This is another strategy for talent development; however people do resist attending training events because of the comfort zone they have with the existing work processes (Continuing Personal and Professional Development at UCL). Along with this, they also have a sense of insecurity in which they resist themselves to adopt new and different things. This is vital in terms of improving learning ability and standard of the employees. Contingency plans are always formulated at UCL where in managers manage training for those people who sometimes skip attending the same.

Training methods should be adequately used as per the areas so that overall growth can be facilitated among efficiency of the employees (Fante, 2008). The most influencing aspect that affects the training programme is unavailability of proper support from the employees during the sessions. Managers of UCL have to make arrangement of diverse resources so that all the practices can be adequately managed. In order to access the efficacy of training session, managers and leaders of UCL have to get opinion from the experts and leaders so that accordingly changes can be made. Organizational factors also affects training events of the organization and it also changes the ways plans are formulated for employee development (5 EVALUATION METHODS TO EVALUATE STAFF TRAINING RESULTS. 2015). Thus, at the time of designing training event, it is crucial for the manager of UCL to ascertain availability of all the resources so that they can be used as per the utilities. While organizing the training event, it is essential for the managers to evaluate each and every thing so that generalized issues and constraints can be solved (Fleetwood and Hesketh, 2010). However, on the other hand, evaluation methods sometimes give vague responses; thus they can not be relied upon all the time. Hence, in such respect it is evident that direct observation is the adequate method of everlasting training programmes.

It is requisite for all the employees and managers to consider diversity and ethical aspects so that issues prevailing among the employees can be reduced. At the same time, people must have clear idea regarding diversity management at workplace and they should learn different aspects to manage people diversity (Freeman and Ceriello, 2011). Diversified employees should be recruited so that new and innovative things can be adopted because that makes the work processes more comprehensive and effectual. Ethical and diversity issues are most commonly prevailing in the organizations and in order to reduce the same issue, it is vital for people to treat all the employees in equal manner so that mutual respect can be maintained for all the organizational members. Hence, while imparting training it is vital for the organizational members to generate awareness among the people regarding ethical issues and diversity management. UCL has numerous students who are from different cultural and social background; thus it is essential for the management to treat all the staff members and students in adequate manner (GIBB, 2007). Having emphasis on cultural and social values assists people to promote the concern towards diversity management and through this, staff members can be retained for longer span.

Thus, for that purpose, the training session should include awareness of ethical and social responsibilities for the people. This is also significant in terms of reducing issues related to diversity and ethical aspects. People should be informed about different aspects for which they can maintain diversity in the organization (Jim and Clare, 2011). Under diversity management, it is crucial for the employees to learn different languages so that communication gaps and barriers can be reduced. At the same time, it will also assist the employees to develop multiple skills; thus they will be able to manage their competency ratio in prominent manner. Thus, training should be organized regarding different languages and ways of communication. Proper scheduling is required at this stage and there in each and every aspect should be clearly defined from starting to winding up stages. Thus, training related to diversity management and ethical aspects should be organized at UCL for more growth and development. This will also enhance coordination level among the employees and as a result, team building aspects can be facilitated in the university (Köksal, 2006). Apart from this, training session should also focus on maintenance of legal and regulatory aspects which are typically mandatory in the work processes.

At UCL, staff training and development events are organized on regular basis so that capability and efficacy of the staff members can be accelerated. Further, this also aids them to avoid discrimination among the students and as a result, organizational environment gets improved. Hence, from the discussion it is evident that learning and development sessions are imperative for employees of UCL because that guides them to deal with all the relative issues (Lee, 2010). People learn things continuously especially during the time when they are delegated multiple duties and roles. Supporting the theoretical content, it can be said that learning and development both helps the employees to manage organizational dimensions in adequate manner. Though, they learn things gradually; but then also development takes in them for talent updation. While implementing the training plan, UCL make arrangement of all the resources so that the purpose of training can be fulfilled (Lyons, 2010). During the period of executing any event, it is essential for the management to clarify the roles and duties so that event can be adequately work out. It is apparent that learning and development session enhances the personality of employees; therefore on regular basis, such sessions should be organized. Further, organizational policies and strategies are regarding as those facets that affects implementation of training session.

From the organizational analysis, it has been identified that training session of UCL are highly integrated with theoretical aspects where in proper time has been allotted to each and every activity (Pike, 2003). Theoretical framework says that there should be proper gap among all the schedules so that respective participants may not get bored. Thus, in such respect, training for the employees have been organized in proper way so that employees may not feel bored. The scope of boredom does not present in any of the session because proper gaps are maintained after every session. For instance- after every two hours, refreshment break is there for the trainees where they can fresh up their mind as required (Thorpe and Clifford, 2007). Similarly, this also helps them to attend the session regularly because activities changes in every schedule. Further, activities for entertainment are also organized in between the session so that participants can interact with each other. This will help them in generating team management when they get the opportunity to work as per the action plan formulated. Moreover, as per the theoretical aspects, it is crucial for the manager to consider the psychology of people during learning process (Timofeevich and Zhong, 2006).

Thus, on the basis of entire discussion, it can be said that training sessions should always be organized after comprehending the nature and interest of employees and on that basis, activities should be classified. All the facilities should be there for the participants so that they can attend the session regularly, in such respect adequate allocation of resources is required. People tend to think that learning and development session accelerates their efficacy level; therefore this is the main reason for which they attend training; hence all learning facets should be included while organizing any learning event (Willis, 2011). As per the present case, training events are required to be evaluated so that areas of development and improvement can be found out for future aspects. All the organizational members should participate in organizing training session so that they can give their suggestions also in making the training more effectual and beneficial for staff members. In such respect, according to theoretical aspects, UCL seems to evaluate the efficiency of all the training and learning sessions through acquiring feedback from the leaders and trainees. These are those people who have attended the session and who can actually give response regarding the efficacy of training event (Zviran and et. al., 2011).

In such context, David Kolb's learning styles can be taken into account as that can enhance the learning capability of the targeted learners. The model sets out four distinct learning style which are actually based on a four stage learning cycle. As per the model, learning is considered as the process whereby knowledge is created through transforming the experience. According to the views of Kolb, knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience and transforming it. All the dimensions are discussed in the below section:

Learning Cycle

Concrete experience

Here in learner can learn things from specific experiences by relating it to people; hence learners can be regarded as sensitive to other's feelings. Chief focus is given towards feelings of others.

Reflective observation

As per the style, learner observe things prevailing in the environment from different perspectives (Thorpe and Clifford, 2007). Moreover, they look chiefly on meaning of things so that knowledge can be implemented into practical work processes.

Abstract conceptualization

Learner here by logically analyzes diverse things to challenge own analytical thinking. Hence, learner emphasizes on new ideas and they act on intellectual understanding of the situations (Lyons, 2010).

Active experimentation

Learner here develops the ability to get the things done by influencing people. This is considered as risk taking approach because several dimensions are not known while applying things into action.


  • 5 EVALUATION METHODS TO EVALUATE STAFF TRAINING RESULTS. 2015. [Pdf]. Available through: <>. [Accessed on 1st March 2016].
  • BUCKLEY, R. And CAPLE, J., 2009. The theory and practice of training. 6th ed. London: Kogan Page.
  • Continuing Personal and Professional Development at UCL. [Pdf]. Available through: <>. [Accessed on 1st March 2016].
  • Fante, R. M., 2008. A Comparison of Three Training Methods on the Acquisition and Retention of Automotive Product Knowledge. ProQuest.
  • Fleetwood, S., and Hesketh, A., 2010. Explaining the Performance of Human Resource Management. Cambridge University Press.
  • Freeman, C. and Ceriello, V. R., 2011. Human resource management systems: strategies, tactics, and techniques. 2nd ed. Jossey-Bass Publishers.
  • GIBB, S., 2007. Human resource development: processes, practices and perspectives. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Jim, S. and Clare, R., 2011. Learning and Talent Development CIPD. Köksal, M. H., 2006. Export training: a preliminary investigation of Turkish companies. European Business Review. 18(5). pp.382 – 394.
  • Lee, B., 2010. Jump Rope Training. 2nd ed. Human Kinetics.
  • Lyons, P., 2010. Scenistic methods in training: definitions and theory grounding. Journal of European Industrial Training. 34(5). pp.416 – 431.
  • Pike, R. W., 2003. Creative Training Techniques Handbook: Tips, Tactics, and How-to's for Delivering Effective Training. 3rd ed. Human Resource Development.
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