Unit 3 Management Accounting Assignment HND

Answer :


Management accounting data is urgent for association to determine different issues and enhance its execution. In the current report, significance of management accounting and its several techniques has been systematically addressed with respect of Zylla Company. In addition to this, several types of management accounting methods and techniques has also defined in this report. Advantages and disadvantages of marginal costing and absorption costing defined in this report. The major objective of this report is to understand the significance of management accounting and its several methods in the business enterprise. Furthermore, in the cited venture, how management accounting system used to respond to financial problem has been also systematically discussed in this report. Moreover, advantages and disadvantages of planning techniques have been also discussed in this assignment.

P1 Concept of managements accounting and system of management accounting

Managements accounting:

Management accounting is considered as one of the effective mathematical tool which assist in analyzing the data set for determine the actual requirement in the company. Along with this it is effective enough for manager in order to make decision and for making a plan for the forecasted budgets. This technique help in making improvement in managerial efficiency in which targeted goal can be accomplished in an effective manner.          

Management accounting system:

There are different types of techniques which are required to be implicated in the Zylla firm by managers for managing all the business operations. All the techniques will assist the manager to make appropriate plan and allotted responsibilities which are need to be improved (Honggowati and,2017). In addition to this, manager can use these techniques in order to make improvement in company’s operations. Here below are provided different accounting techniques

Job costing:  For representing the cost which is incurred in each and every operational task of the firm there is required identification of transaction activities. Hence, this accounting system which provide support in keeping appropriate record of labor cost, direct material etc. It is important to shows the cost within the firm in each department (Turner and, 2017.).

Inventory management: Company need to keep all records related to the inventories which are exports and imports. This all will be done on the basis of level of inventories. Further it is important for production department to be more aware related to demand of customers and company’s profitability. Hence, it is essential for company to do production of goods on the basis of seasonal requirements and through identifying buyers behaviors related and carry out production activities. Through controlling overall production of Zylla company it will be easy for them to deliver goods to customers on time without any wastage.

Price optimization: In order to improve the operating profit of the firm, it is important to keep prices of products and services differently. Therefore, to manage the variation is done by manager as per the deliver of the products on provide consumer location. They fetch their behavior toward the prices. Along with this, company can keep one of the best price on the basis of customers buying behavior which can help company in gaining profit. Hence, through implementing this technique in business Zylla company can make good profit.

Cost accounting: Cost accounting technique is effective for Zylla company as because it shows the cost which can be incurred in each activities of business. In order to make a product and services company required high amount of fund. Therefore, with the help of analysis of investment company can easily carry out business activity without any expenses.

Auditing:  Internal audit can assist company to make improvement in their business and in work culture. It assists in gaining internal information which are accurate with the cost, operating expenditures and appropriate details which bound manager to make appropriate decision. Zylla company have a right administration which can make satisfactory improvement in the operations stability. Through the help of this company can easily analyses and make its assets, liability and profit.

P2 Implication of managerial accounting reports into business operations

A report incorporated all records in which detailed information is provided with the time and date. Company need to keep records of its cash inflow in particular activity and cost which incurred by day to day operations. These all records assist company to make managerial decision after analyzing the profitability and make effective decision which help in minimizing the cost. Here, below are the techniques that can used by Zylla Company

Inventory management report: In this all records related to the use of quality, quantity and cost of products are kept. These types of information are useful for making the effective analysis for measuring the demand of products in the market and efficiency of firm to fulfill all the demands. Along with this, it can be said that reporting system is effective in order to make improvement in the efficiency of business and for growth and development (Szychta and Dobroszek,  2017).

Budgetary reports: This will be effective enough for evaluating the performance of the firm which is effective for getting innovative ideas. Hence, forecasting is needed for the cost which can help company in controlling the expenses and improve business performance. Budgetory report is effective in order managing allocation of resources. Zylla Company is having appropriate information related to the use of budgetary system in an effective manner.

Cost accounting reports: It is comprises of computing the cost which can incur at the time of making products and services for customers. Through adopting this reporting system Zylla company will be effective in order to manage its business operations and to control unimportant activities. It determines various cost such as labor cost, overheads etc. Hence these all are the record that can bound company manager to get innovative ideas and provide alternative solution for minimizing manufacturing cost

Performance reports: These are known as the reports which are prepared by the company in order to measure the performance of its employees. Hence it can be stated that it is effective enough in order to generate adequate knowledge related to the market. These types of report lead to put positive impact in the operational practices of the firm. Along with this, report will assist manager of the Zylla Company to make effective analysis and make appropriate decision that can benefit the firm.

Hence adoption of all these effective reporting system Zylla Company can easily reduce its unnecessary expenses and improve its employees performance. Along with this it also motivate employees to improve their performance and work hard for the company.


Interpretation is actually by applying these costing systems it is finally suggested that absorption technique is suitable to unit as all expenses and costs are calculated of the business.  Costs related to labour, material and expenses regarding purchase of stock and goods of the company are analyzed. It is interpreted that cost system is more effective and effects all types of cost incurred in business activities (Alfirevic, Keeney,  Dowswell and Caldwell,  2016).  Marginal costing is defined as costing which differentiates between variable costs and fixed costs.  Absorption costing is much more beneficial as when the manufactured products are not sold during bookkeeping period, when the business have inventory of finished goods then every product of inventory has its own value which is measured. This includes per unit of fixed expense and the value has a fixed overhead. This results in good profits for the business. Thus, results from these methods are reliable and perfect if marginal costing method is compared. Absorption costing has an option of considering both variable cost and fixed cost. Here fixed cost comes under the section of production department and every product shares suitable fixed cost, thereby profitability of each product is affected by subjective allotment. Unit cost of production is affected by changes arrived in the closing stock and opening stock.  Interpretation also says that company is more interested in this method as it is profitable for the firm rather than marginal costing method. It provides accurate accounting regarding inventory and stock.  Additionally, for unsold products which are listed for reducing real expenses are calculated in unsold products. Thus, when it is compared to other method net income of organization is much higher. Absorption costing can be divided into fixed overhead costs: costs of goods sold and costs of inventory.

P4 various sorts of planning techniques and advantage and disadvantage

Management accounting is a valuable branch of representing the administrative work force of the firm with the goal that they might have the capacity to take improved choices in powerful way. This is basically required as business works in powerful condition where changes happens now and frequently (Renz and Herman, 2016). In such situation, expenses might be expanded for assembling specific item and in that capacity, income would be affected fundamentally. Therefore, business needs to settle on better choices with the goal that progressions can be dealt with in viable way and this can be conceivable in light of execution of administration bookkeeping in the association.

The different planning techniques and its advantages and disadvantages are recorded beneath

  1. Zero-based planning

This sort of planning technique is very valuable for organization as spending plan for new period is set up from the zero base. This implies needs and necessities of divisions are successfully examined and all things considered, spending plan is detailed without hardly lifting a finger. It is referred to as zero-based spending plan as no authentic information of past spending plan is taken and whole new spending plan is readied.


  1. This strategy is very helpful as no previous year's figures are measured for getting ready new year spending plan. Along these lines, assets are used totally.
  2. Another preferred standpoint of zero-based planning is that budget inflation can't happen as necessity of every single division is examined and spending plan is arranged as needs be.


  1. It isn't beneficial planning apparatus for Zylla Company as no verifiable information is embraced which expends parcel of time to get ready whole new spending plan.
  2. It is unacceptable as workforce is required in overabundance as whole spending plan is to be readied and accordingly, routine work of representatives is influenced.

Internal rate of return

IRR is stand for Internal Rate of Return is another viable strategy used to judge possibility of the interest in adequate way. It is utilizes reducing rate which makes NPV (Net Present Value) of money inflows of new venture to zero (Tappura and, 2015). This implies restore that will be produced from inner activities is completed by this planning technique. Higher the IRR, better for Zylla Company to put resources into the task.


  1. One of the primary favorable position of IRR is that it thinks about time estimation of idea in viable way. In addition, it examinations money streams that will create inward returns.
  2. Another value of this planning apparatus is that ascertaining IRR by taking marking down rate is a simpler errand to be proficient. Subsequently, possibility and adequacy of venture can be judged without hardly lifting a finger.


  1. The primary drawback of IRR venture measure isn't considered. In this manner, money streams are broke down and contrasted and the capital put resources into the new undertaking.
  2. IRR isn't reasonable as future consumptions are not engaged by any stretch of the imagination. This strategy just considers exhibit esteem.
  3. NPV

NPV is one of the normally utilized planning instrument by the business so as to judge how much productive is the new task. This implies productivity part of undertaking is examined and all things considered, firm can take choice whether venture ought to be made or not. Higher the NPV, better for the association as putting resources into venture is advantageous. NPV is contrast between money inflows and surges for a specific period.


  1. One of the primary favorable position of NPV is that time esteem idea of cash is considered while assessing gainfulness part of the task.
  2. It is helpful as cost of capital and hazard related while making estimations in regards to future is found out in viable way.


  1. It is disadvantageous as it depends on reducing rate which is hard to find out. Besides, projections on such premise may prompt off base choices (Quattrone, 2016).
  2. This technique isn't valuable as cost of capital is acquired with quite a bit of mystery and all things considered, comes about drawn on this premise may exceed great venture and wrong conclusion can be drawn.

M3 Use of different planning techniques

The planning apparatuses, for example, zero-based planning, NPV and IRR are powerful planning instruments which are useful in getting ready conjectures and spending plans. Zero-based planning help to get ready spending plan starting with no outside help base and in that capacity, no verifiable figure of past spending plans are taken and all things considered, new spending plan is readied. This planning instrument is generally utilized as a part of the business to figure spending plan (Turner and, 2017). Also, IRR is utilized to test probability of venture with the goal that task might be broke down whether satisfactory returns will be produced by speculation or not. Then again, NPV is broadly used to check whether new task would be beneficial for the firm or not. In addition, idea of time estimation of cash is used by NPV. In this manner, planning techniques are compelling approach to forecast budget.

P5: Organisations adapting management accounting to respond financial problems

Various performances and techniques are needed to improve financial environment of business entities.  So do their improvement different appraisal techniques are used to get a positive result in productivity of the firm. These techniques are applied in the operational and functional department of organization. There is always ray of financial instability or can be said as uncertainty regarding financial department. But efficiency can be brought through proper execution and development of the organization (Richards and Taylor, 2015).  By using financial and non-financial indicators, using benchmarks, identifying major financial problems and attaining budgetary targets variances and hurdles of the firm can be sorted out. Characteristics of an effective management accountant are defined.  Strategies and systems which require proper listing and reporting  financial positions and disclosure are governed by the department and responsibly tackled. Below are some techniques which are worth discussing to gain revenue as well as to achieve desired goal:

  1. Balance Scorecard: It is a kind of strategic activity that is performed to analyze and execute tools and techniques that can make control over administration department through proper work performance in the firm. Professionals here make efforts and complete execution is done through their level in their department as well as in business in the required state to get satisfactory results. Thus these techniques are useful for development of each every department of organization and helps entity in keep pace with their rivalries (Warren, Reeve and Duchac, 2015). Main aim is of the company is to implement techniques in efficient way so that performances of every level are admired and fruitful. It  helps in bringing out quantitative results because all information is collected by high authorities  which results in fine decisions.
  2. Bench-Marking: This technique where one’s own performance is measured with the performance of other organization (Ibarrondo-Dávila, López-Alonso, 2015)It works in the form of true motivator as it motivates employees because a competitive work culture is developed in the organization. New and innovative ideas are planned, implemented with new techniques that indicate profits of the company. Such techniques should be used for reaching desired goals and objectives.
  3. Financial Governance: Managerial professionals use this technique to get beneficial and impelling results. For better outcomes, they focus on evaluation of financial deals during financial period. Thus, auditors, accountants, managers and owners apply these tactics to improve capital stability as well as functional efficiency in the firm (Eldenburg , Wolcott,  Chen  and Cook,  2016). These techniques need to be applied by the firm so that organizational growth and development gets assured by the professional team and sufficient increment is also there in sales and profitability of the business.
  4. Variance Analysis: This is the most suitable technique which is used in controlling costs and other expenses incurred in the activities performed in the business. All organizations may not lead necessary variances but is enough to differentiate two or more variances. When the amount of variance is viewed on trend line then it is effective to review. Then outcomes are always a statement different from desired expectations and then finally it is interpreted as if why variance occurred. Variances explain about the fluctuations and the way to handle in management system. Purchase price variance, labor rate variance, spending variance overhead, fixed overhead, selling price variance, material yield variance are some of the variance analysis which are commonly used for financial interpretation. Main reason behind variances is fluctuation in market conditions for example. Shortage of raw materials which leads to rise in prices of suppliers. Another reason may be budgeting values that would be too idealistic and product and service delivery may not be appropriate.         


  • So through this report it is concluded that for the development and regular growth of business management accounting is very beneficial and effective in nature. It plays an important role in achieving financial targets of the firm. While financial techniques most importantly absorption technique is very useful f to ascertain the internal health of organization that influence managers and team leaders to evaluate targets in a right direction and consider each aspect of the operational area widely and smoothly. By applying these techniques all differences and fluctuation of the market get cleared up and appraisal tools provides increment in productivity of organization. Therefore, for organization managerial accounting is very necessary to ascertain and resolve financial aspects of firm.
  • Quattrone, P., 2016. Management accounting goes digital: Will the move make it wiser?. Management Accounting Research. 31. pp.118-122.
  • Renz, D. O. and Herman, R. D. eds., 2016. The Jossey-Bass handbook of nonprofit leadership and management. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Tappura, S. and, 2015. A management accounting perspective on safety. Safety science. 71. pp.151-159.
  • Turner, M. J and, 2017. Hotel property performance: The role of strategic management accounting. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 63. pp.33-43
  • Cooper, D. J., Ezzamel, M. and Qu, S. Q., 2017. Popularizing a management accounting idea: The case of the balanced scorecard. Contemporary Accounting Research. 34(2). pp.991-1025.
  • Honggowati, S. and, 2017. Corporate governance and strategic management accounting disclosure. Indonesian Journal of Sustainability Accounting and Management. 1(1). pp.23-30.
  • Kasravi, A., Ghasemi, M. and Zadeh, N. N., 2017. The Effect of Management Accounting, Financial Performance and Organizational Performance in Tafresh University. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerc., 22(3). pp.1-10.
  • Kihn, L.A. and Näsi, S., 2017. Emerging diversity in management accounting research: The case of Finnish doctoral dissertations, 1945-2015. Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change. 13(1). pp.131-160.
  • Lee, K. H. and Herold, D. M., 2018. Cultural Relevance in Environmental and Sustainability Management Accounting (EMA) in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Link Between Cultural Values and Accounting Values Towards EMA Values. In Accounting for Sustainability: Asia Pacific Perspectives (pp. 11-37). Springer, Cham.
  • Miller, P. and Rose, N., 2017. Political power beyond the state: Problematics of government. In Foucault and Law (pp. 191-224). Routledge.
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  • Parker, L. D. and Fleischman, R. K., 2017. What is Past is Prologue: Cost Accounting in the British Industrial Revolution. 1760-1850. Routledge.
  • Szychta, A. and Dobroszek, J., 2017. Academic aspects of management accounting and controlling in Poland since the 1990s. Zeszyty Teoretyczne RachunkowoÅ›ci. (93 (149)). pp.175-209.
  • Turner, M. J. and, 2017. Hotel property performance: The role of strategic management accounting. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 63. pp.33-43.

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