Quality refers to the standard of product without any defects or deficiencies. Measurement of quality is essential in construction business so to assure client that products delivered to him match quality benchmarks and does not possess any deficiencies (Tattersall, 2014). In relation with the concrete trader, it is essential deliver quality construction building or structure to client so that they can construct properly without any harm. BGC group is construction company provides concrete to the blue mountains projects. In this project quality manual is being prepared encompassing different elements such as framework, reinforcement and most importantly concrete.
It is essential for quality concrete job to ensure quality of raw material which are used in order to prepare high quality concrete so that construction of the building can be done appropriately.
Form work in construction refers to the structure which is prepared at the initial stage before constructing building (Mixing and Transporting Concrete.2018). Further these structure are filled with the concrete so that building can get constructed effectively. Form work of Blue mountains project includes various elements which are described as below:
Quality of material:It is required by the quality manager of company to maintain quality of form work as it is base of the construction. Quality measures for Blue mountains suggests that form work must be water tight and strong so that it could stay for longer duration and can handle the wait of concrete without leaving any space for leakage (Hack and Lauer, 2014). Along with this, quality of raw material for building framework is important as it can be utilized in future according to the requirement of work.
Storage on site: It is essential to store material of form work on construction site so that can remain safe and can be utilized in future projects There is a need to plan and allocate store material in the ideal manner considering the site layout plan so that it is able to adequately fulfill the requirement. It is extremely important to unload the deliveries in the designated area under supervision of eh competent person so that operations are carried out successfully This minimizes the usage of space at construction site and also secure form work appropriately so that it can be utilized by the company in future (Švec and et. al., 2014). This is can be considered as the best way to secure the raw material without chances of any misplace.
Progressive inspection: Inspection is essential for every construction in order to assure the quality of the building so that it can be used by the client without any risk of life. In relation with the Blue Mountains project, quality inspectors of BGC group inspect construction site at regular interval (Quinn and Gengnagel, 2014). Inspection of form work will be based on measurement of structure which is used by the supervisor so that standards of quality established by the government are complied with in an ideal manner.
Reinforcement is a way to establish a pattern of behavior. These are stimuli that can increase or decrease desired action to learn the same. It increases the chances of specific response as well as refers as instrument of completing the work by providing some incentives to specific person.
(Source: Reinforced Concrete, 2018)
Quality of steel: BGC group will choose quality steel in order to build strong buildings for Blue Mountains project. Quality of steel depends on its strengthening capability as if reinforcement for the building is not built with high quality it won't be able to handle heavy wait of concrete. As per the act ISO 9000:2008, Quality manager of the company have used high strengthen steel reinforcing bar according to the requirement of client. High quality is beneficial in reinforcement as it increases durability of constructed building and its easier to handle as well as transport.
Sequence of installation and concrete coverage: It is essential for the manager of BGC group to monitor its employees that whether they are installing reinforcing steel bars properly or not. It is important to install it in effective manner as it is done on the basis of project specification and its structure (Corr, 2016). Sequence of installation involves various steps like storage handling and procurement of material of reinforcement as per requirement, cutting and bending of steel bars, fixing of reinforcement as per project details so that concrete can be placed in it effectively and at last site installation. These are the most essential steps which are helpful in installation of reinforcement in effective manner.
Progressive inspections: The steel reinforcement needs an inspection relating frame prior to installation of the cladding and roofing materials. It is essential to carry out an inspection of the frame so that derivation from the actual plan could be identify mostly relating to size, type or spacing. It is the duty of the supervisior to make sure that strength of structure is appropriate, 100% water proofing is carried out along with use of materials which match established benchmarks.
It is a composite material made up of various constituents such as water, Portland cement, coarse aggregate, chemical mixtures and fine aggregate. In a building construction, concrete is used for the construction of foundation, columns, beams, slabs and other load bearing elements. Various types of cement are used for concrete works which have different properties and applications. Some of the type of cement are Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), rapid hardening cement, Sulphate resistant cement etc.
Quality of material: Under AS ISO 10006-2003 Quality management systems - Guidelines for quality management in projects. Concrete is the most ample man made and important material needed at the time of construction. Good quality of concrete depends on various constituents require while making and passing it through processes such as batching, mixing, transporting, proper placing in the form-work, proper compacting and proper finishing. In order to achieve high class quality concrete, proper attention has to be given on the selection of various constituents of the concrete which attain the international or local standards. The materials which are requires to make concrete are Portland cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. Each sack of Portland cement contains 94 lb. of cement and is equal to 1 cubic foot in volume (KrupiÄ‡ and et. al., 2016). Portland cement should be free of all chunk when used. Water should be clean and free of oil, acid and alkali. Fine aggregates consists of sand or other suitable fine material. A good concrete sand contain particles varying uniformly in size from very fine up to one-fourth an inch. In purpose of construction, two types of steels bars via mild and deformed are used. In reinforced cement, mild steel bars are used mostly because nature of concrete is brittle and this type of steel is highly ductile. Therefore, it can be easily welded as well.
On-site handling: On site handling is an important factor in construction industry as it helps in reducing wastage of material which results in sustainable building. This is the most vital factor for the construction sector as trucks, hooper and chutes. The construction materials should be selected on the basis of their manufacturing and designing which can be shipped with minimal packaging. There should be team designed on site in order to monitor the activities thus using the resources in most efficient manner thus minimising wastage.
Placement procedures: Placement procedure of concrete is an essential operation which is relatively creates its dependency on the final structure of building or structure. As it is stability quality of form work is equally important for the constructed building. The various approaches through which concrete could be placed are slip forming, preplaced aggregate and underwater placement. After this, position of the reinforcement is done properly according to the measurements. At last concrete is placed in the reinforcement in constant position so that it could be give effective shape as per the expectation of the builders.
Non conformance report consist of various barriers which are identified during the quality audit of the construction site. This report represents issues in the concise manner so that corrective action can be taken by the management of the company. In relation to BGC group, its non conformation report, it is essential for site engineers of construction site to maintain the records of each and every activity in order to execute project effectively (Genikomsou and Polak, 2015). These records include the work instructions, process requirements, appropriate standard clause etc as they are important to be analyzed at the supervision. Site engineer of every stage is responsible and answerable for their respective department. As it is instructed and monitored by them at the time of construction. As per non conformance report supervisor of concrete formulating department is responsible as per the identified problem. Therefore, in this regard, some control documents are:- Checklists, Quality manual, internal audit lists of materials, review and approval form etc. Under these techniques, engineers of BGC Group has used internal audit list of materials for ensuring quality.
This identified issue can be controlled by monitoring each an every stage of formulating concrete in effective manner as it is helpful in analyzing issue at the initial phase only. In addition to this, various controlling measures can be used by the auditor like controlling product.
Modern concrete majorly includes four components i.e. Portland cement, sand, gravel and water for moulding something into shape. Thus, when hydraulic cement reacts with water in a chemical process the changes to liquid state which can be further applied for achieving full strength (Li, Wu and Hao, 2015). Therefore, it includes some stages and process which are explained below for better understanding.
Mixing: This is an essential process and for this different kinds of tools and equipment are being used for doing the construction process in a better manner. Under this, all the ingredients which are being used are mixed in proportion with water so that effective solutions can be made.
Workability: It is the ability of fresh of filling the mould properly without reducing its quality Therefore, for increasing the workability of concrete worker can add appropriate proportion of water with chemicals.
Curing: After applying the concrete this must be kept moist during the process of curing so that solutions can be gain optimal strengths and durability.
There are many issues which can create problem in this process and these are Discoloration, scaling, crazing, cracking, curling.
Concrete is relatively very easy material to manage in proper manner. In order to overcome from all concrete related problems, there are different ways mention below:
Reduce water cement ratio- This concept refers to ratio of weight of water and cement used in a concrete mix. As less ratio leads to increase strength and durability of concrete while higher ratio impact on quality in negative manner.
Finishing of Concrete Surface- In slab construction, it is essential to use the proper finishing technique. It includes mixing, transporting as well as handling of concrete to be carefully co-ordinated with finishing and placing operations. Flat troweling as well as floating are necessary. The overworking can caused settle along with bleed water to rise.
Proper Curing of Concrete- For increasing strength of slab, it is necessary to allow proper amount of time to water cure. So, it is essential to cure slab for near about 3 to 7 days. Concrete on the slab sets its practice in order to make the boundary with mortar on slab and also keep fill with water (Limantara and et. al., 2018). In prevent to this, cover slabs with the cotton mats helps in soaked with water on curing prevent the water loss.
Proper Concrete Mix Design and use of Quality Materials- It is important that concrete should be mixed as well as proportioned in a proper manner. If water will be used more then concrete will be weak and it will lead to crack. By use of good quality materials like crushed or a coarse gravel rocks (limestone, granite, etc.) and finer particles (sand), concrete will be made better. Using the large top size aggregate along with optimize gradation of aggregate is helpful in minimize shrinkage of the