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ACF528 Department Of Law And Criminology Level 3

INTRODUCTION

Law is a cluster of rules and regulations which are designed and enforced through governing bodies for controlling various wrongful activities from societal place in order to establish a risk free environment (Savelsberg, 2010 ). In fact , their main objective is to prevent the rights of common people by guiding them about fundamental norms which is applicable of entire community. Beside this, crime is also increasing day by day which may harm the life of normal people such as; harassment, human trafficking, terrorism, rape, assault and so on. Thus, assignment is going to highlight the suitable laws which is enacted by legitimate bodies for resolving criminal acts from the society. Along with this, past cases related with particular issues is also describing in this report for making corrective decision on numerous wrongful acts. Hence, entire project is outlining the  policies, norms , beliefs , rules and regulations that are designed by legal department for reducing criminal a

EXERCISE 1

Key issues and its impact

European area is facing a number of problems and issues regarding wrongful acts which may create a risky environment amongst individual and it may hamper the life of common people. In fact, human beings are even not aware about their rights and various policies which is implemented by governing bodies to protect them from several dangerous attacks. As per legitimate bodies numerous of cases are identified at juridical court such as; rape, sexual harassment, discriminatory activities incurred at various business place  and so on. Therefore, court of justice get enforced to conduct several amendments in respect with cases for minimize the probabilities of mistakes in future ( Hogg, 2013). According to given case study it has been derived that Edward Kinsley is a prime minister who is engaged in conducting various societal campaigns for preventing entire community from fraudulent acts. Along with this, he plays a very eminent role in promoting education, employability and encouraging youth towards self development by introducing various sessions. Moreover, governing bodies is also supporting one of the most appropriate legislation that is “traditional” family life. At the same time Prime minister get a call from unknown source which says that “he caught Edward while involving in sexual liaison with male prostitute in public toilets”. Next action is that the person who is blackmailing the Edward is going to published this story in newspaper for destroying his reputation at societal place. Additionally, caller is also having pictures of minister while doing this shameful activity as well as seen him when he is coming out from that park which is popular for these kind of actions  (Stanley, 2013). 

After analysing this scenario it is identified that every individual have their privacy and no other member having right of interfering in person personal life. If a particular person don't want to share their personal detail with other then no one have such authority that they can interpret in others matter. Privacy and the Human Right Act 1998 as well this act integrated the European convention on Human Right into United Kingdom law. Article 8(1) of this convention render that everyone has right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence. On the other hand it is seen that acts which might be done by Minister is not yet proven is illegal as per the law because privacy act states that every member have authority to live their life on the basis of their terms and conditions. On contrary to this, one more thing must be observed that Edward is a Prime minister of nation and he is responsible for developing the nation of country. In order to maintain their positive image at societal place he is trying to take major actions by proffering laws and order ( Hafner-Burton, 2013). In the eye of law if his mistake is proven then Edward might go through major problem that is suspended from his position and hated by entire society as well as future is also get darken. Thus, Edward have various choices for resolving this problem in better manner by considering necessary terms and conditions. Some of the steps which might taken by Edward to control this unwanted circumstance is discussed below:-

Option 1:- After analysing the entire scenario it has been assessed that Edward Kinsley is a Prime minister of a nation who is having a lots of authorities and power as well as roles or responsibilities towards growth of society. It means, he must have contact with legal parties, government servants like guards, policemen and so on. After getting this kind of call from stranger he have the opportunity to contact with few major members or legal agents for passing this information that if anyone can get wrong information about minister then kindly avoid it. If any newspapers publisher get these type of data then kindly inform Edward in order to provide correct explanation on that content.

Option 2:- Second option is that Edward is a minister due to which he has the authority to give a public statement such as; “don't believe on strangers or any inappropriate evidence against the minister as it a strategy of some political enemies and terrorist to destroy the peacefulness of nation”. With these kind of speech on television and parliament helps minister to defend him from any sudden incident. In fact, he is saying that some of the strangers are disturbing by calling with unknown sources in order to interfere in private life ( Kim and  Sikkink, 2010) .

Option 3:- Third step is that according to law every one have their private life and no one have authority to interfere in personal matter . It means, minister must use Right of privacy act if anyone is going to disturb their personal matters and involving it. According to law it Edward have the right to claim against and file the case for punishing the unknown caller as he is observing prime minister without any reason. Along with this interfering the personal life of a person which is illegal in the eye of law. Therefore, Edward can easily defend him from this act but there  is also chance of mistakes or error.

Option 4:- Lastly, one more solution is that Edward might resolve this problem with a mutual understanding with caller by exchanging money with them in order to protect his image because goodwill is most indispensable factor for any government servant. Therefore, it is essential to have a healthy discussion with unknown person for acquiring actual information and to go in depth information.

Hence, by considering all the above options it has been assessed that Edward have the right to protect himself from this danger by taking confidence of legitimate bodies and tackle this problem very calmly. Along with this, it is essential to focus on each or every aspect before making any final decision because one single mistake affects the overall personality of Edward. However, right to privacy act is applied in this case because someone is interfering in personal matter of another members such as; Edward is going through this problem which is seen as wrongful act in the eye of law. Apart from this numerous other cases are also identified resemble with this only because UK is full of complex problems because people from other culture come across in Europe world to acquiring more revenue ( Beirne, 2013) .

Instead of all this English law is engaged in offering best suitable rights to their public by enacting several laws under Human right act section 8 and 10. Thus, as per article 8 every individual have the authority to prevent his personal and family life from others whereas article 10 says that common people is having power to express their views and opinion on certain subject area without any fear. In fact , natural person can easily claim for the misuse of property and it is illegal to publish information about an individual without his /her consent. As a result if anyone is misusing it then owner have the right to charge against this wrongful acts. It means Edward can easily protect his image from unknown source whomsoever is claiming or blackmailing to publish personal information in daily newspapers.

EXERCISE 2

Terrorism

World is full of danger, harmful acts and uncertainty which is not predict by common people because of that they are encountering a major traumas. In fact, an individual don’t have any idea about sudden accidents as future is unpredictable. Some people get hammed without any reason because terrorist are not having any sentiments or emotions because they believe in accomplishing assigned activities instead of thinking about result. Basically, entire world is going through several types of problem but terrorism is seen as one of most dangerous acts because it harm the life of individual ( South and  Brisman, 2013) .

            Terrorism:- It is a broader term whose main objective is to create terror amongst masses, public place and crowded area in order to attain their ideological motive. However, this word terrorism is originated from French revolution which was occurred around late 18th century but acquired popularity at the time of US presidency Ronald Regan. In other words, wrongful activities and violence on innocent people is known as terror which may harm the individual and his/her life. Every nation are having their own history on terrorism attacks due to involvement of country in some other activities which is hampering the society. Basically, laws and order are facing numerous of crime cases that are full of complexity , suspense, conflicts and so on. It means legal bodies are liable for making a very vague or difficult judgment

            Anti-terrorism legislation can be described as such rules or norms which are helpful to fight with terrorism ( Decker and et. al., 2015).

. Various kinds of terror activities are happened in all over the world and it is very necessary to take appropriate and strict actions against it. These kind of activities are harmful as they spoil things as wide range from which people cannot overcome easily. Various countries has established their laws to efficiently fight with problem of terrorism. Several nations has security agencies and safety forces to get rid of such issues. Europe has established  certain strategies to reduce terror attacks and damage groups of terrorists like ISIS. Some of policies in Europe are explained below:

            Response to foreign fighters:- They have accept an effective strategy to tackle with issue of those terrorists who are come from outside and then apply bombarded activities. These rules involve strengthened of norms to prevent fresh forms of terrorism. Strict checking on check posts or external borders through commandos or black cat forces. They have prepared certain strict norms to stop online hacking and many other terror aspects takes ace through internet.

            Counter terrorism coordinator:- They have appoint a counter terrorism coordinator to obverse and analyse properly each and every small to large activity of terrorism to stop them and catch responsible terrorist as soon as possible to protect country from such dangerous aspects. It is also important to monitor strategies or policies that were implemented to sop terrorism in nation  ( Aas and  Gundhus, 2014).   

            EU counter terrorism strategy:- This is really compulsory to prevent such terrorism, protect citizens of country and pursue things against such dangerous event along with respond strictly towards these terrorist communities. It is important for security agencies to catch them out and damage their whole community so that world will feel safe and free of terrorism.

            Fight against money laundering and terrorist financing:- There are different types of people who provides funds and money which is applied to render terrorism training to youngsters so that they will become dangerous terrorists. They have established several strict rules so that it will become possible to stop funding activities to these communities that are harmful for people of country. Those people who cheated with their nation and render money to terrorists then they should be identified and arrested then without funds, such aspects may automatically get stopped.  

            Passenger name record data:- There are different people who are fond of travelling outside the country to visit several tourist or historical places as per their interests. By taking benefit of such citizens, many of terrorist enter the nation through fake identity and do dangerous activities like bombarding, hacking, kidnapping, high-jacking etc. Europe has apply such norms of making records of passengers and maintaining them for future investigation and support.

The above factors are mandatory to be followed by Europe government and security agencies to monitor as well as control terror attacks, bombarded and many other activities to provide safe environment to people of country. As these are really harmful for everyone then legal rules should be strict to tackle with them.

Terrorism is defined as an act of violence in order to create terror among masses of people or to create an environment of fear, to achieve a financial, political, religious aim. Europe is facing terrorism from a long time and is a popular place form terrorist attacks. It is because, large number of population are Muslims and have been living in Europe for past two- three generations. It is easier for ISIS to radicalize people who are already Muslims than to convert non- Muslims to Islam’s and then radicalize them. Another reason is that, Europe has western civilizations and this is the greatest enemy of radical Islamist groups such as ISIS. A particular activity which brings joy to terrorists is publicity of their terrorist attacks. When a attack occurred in other countries, they don't react much and people of that particular country try not to think about it as they are used to terrorism ( Ellison and Boyd, 2013) . But in case of Europe, the media covers all the details of attacks with bullet headlines and wait for the responses generated by people after watching their news. This gives total enjoyment to the terrorists.

According to data, it has been identified that numerous of terrorist attacks are identified in great Britain which affects the peacefulness of entire society as well as harm the natural things. Along with this act as major barrier in development of a nation because these things demotivate multinational companies to establish their business because of life taking fear. Thus, some of the major attacks which was identified in a British are discussed below:-

  • 1605 Gunpowder plot:- Conspiracy of pro catholic was occurred for harming the king James IV at the time of opening of parliament where general assembly of England take place. Thus almost 36 barrels gunpowder was identified under the palace Westminster.
  • 1939-1940:- A major case of bombing was incurred against the military, army and economic infrastructure of Britain.

Consequently, it is assessed that these two attacks shows that nation are going through major trauma due to terrorist, fraudulent activities, wrongful conducts and so on. Along with this, all these acts effect the entire society from growth and development. Mainly, it is analyzed that overall world is going through this problem due to inappropriate working and fraudulent activities which may hamper the life of common people in distinct ways. Legal bodies are playing a very major role in reducing these kind of issues by enforcing laws for human rights whose main motive is to provide necessary information on necessary data such as; get updated about fundamental rights which authorize by governing bodies to protect them from harmful attacks. Almost every nation are encountering terrorism attacks because of some instability in their political norms, problems between members and misunderstanding between common people. Additionally, conflicts emerges at every community because individuals are having distinct opinions and thoughts towards specific subject due to which it create a chance of conflicting situations ( Metz, 2011).

European nation is encountering a major problem due to issue creates between various members which may affect the success of country.  Terrorism effects the nation or common people in various manner such as;

  • Create fear amongst society.
  • Major incidents and accident which resulted in a negative environment at nation.
  • Influence the education of common people like children’s, kids, teenagers and so on.
  • Harm the natural environment from distinct attacks.
  • Create major misunderstanding between human beings.
  • Maximize the problem
  • Life taking incidents.
  • Demoralize the public by decreasing the confidence level of each or every person.

It means terrorism is affecting the nation in various extent but at the same time governing bodies is also introduced numerous of laws and acts for defending members from fraudulent attacks. Along with this punish the criminals due to which entire society is getting affected and failed to live their life comfortably. For example; English law was enacted a particular department for handling a criminal cases.

CONCLUSION

From the above report it has been summarized that business laws are playing a very eminent role in facilitating consumers with useful acts and amendments. In fact, numerous of norms, policies, rules and regulations are framed by governing bodies to facilitate entire society. Main objective of the assignment is to show the human rights that is offered by legal bodies and level of crime increases at societal place. According to report, terror attacks are maximizing in coming time frame because every one becoming more greedy and trying to generate more revenue. Therefore, the above report was showing one of case study that is based on privacy act that means every individual of a nation is having authority to live their life as per their own terms and conditions. On the other hand, the project was also showing several acts that is framed by court of justice to prevent innocent people from terrorism.

REFERENCES

  • Savelsberg, J., 2010. Crime and human rights: Criminology of genocide and atrocities. Sage.
  • Hogg, R., 2013. Criminology beyond the nation state: global conflicts, human rights and the ‘new world disorder’. In Critical criminology (pp. 203-235). Willan.
  • Stanley, E., 2013. Towards a criminology for human rights. In Expanding the criminological imagination (pp. 180-209). Willan.
  • Hafner-Burton, E., 2013. Making human rights a reality. Princeton University Press.
  • Kim, H. and Sikkink, K., 2010. Explaining the deterrence effect of human rights prosecutions for transitional countries. International Studies Quarterly54(4), pp.939-963.
  • Beirne, P., 2013. Animal rights, animal abuse and green criminology. In Issues in green criminology (pp. 77-106). Willan.
  • South, N. and Brisman, A. eds., 2013. Routledge international handbook of green criminology. Routledge.
  • Decker, M.R and et. al., 2015. Human rights violations against sex workers: burden and effect on HIV. The Lancet385(9963), pp.186-199.
  • Aas, K.F. and Gundhus, H.O., 2014. Policing humanitarian borderlands: Frontex, human rights and the precariousness of life. British Journal of Criminology55(1), pp.1-18.
  • Ellison, N.B. and Boyd, D.M., 2013. Sociality through social network sites. In The Oxford handbook of internet studies.
  • Metz, T., 2011. Ubuntu as a moral theory and human rights in South Africa. African Human Rights Law Journal11(2), pp.532-559.

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