International Strategy


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For operating business in the international market, it is very important to have strategies which can be used internationally. As these plays, a vital role in evaluating the opportunities exist in the global market.

Tesco is a leading British multinational retailing company, headquarters in Hertfordshire, England, UK (Dixit and Skeath, 2015). It is the third largest in terms of earning a profit. This firm has its significant development effect in the economy. It successfully operates across Asia, North America as well as Europe. Due to the worldwide expansion, it influences all the factors regarding company such as financial status, culture, and organizational structure. Its international expansion strategies has acknowledge the need to be tactful as well as careful to the local possibility by merging into joint ventures with regional firms. For instance, Samsung in South Korea as Tesco home plus. It deals in products such as clothing, books, furniture, electronics, toys, software, petrol and services like financial, telecom and internet.

Company's vision is to be high esteemed in business were in the people they serve and also group were they function as well as the loyal members and shareholders.

                                                                 MARKET SHARE OF KEY PLAYERS IN FOOD RETAILING SECTOR

                                                                                      Market Share Of Key Players in Food Retailing Sector

1. PESTEL Analysis of the Macro-Environmental Factors of Tesco

Tesco, a multinational sustenance retailing organization, it's headquarter situated in the UK and has outlets in 12 nations over the world. It ranks second biggest retailer after Wal-Mart as far as benefits made and furthermore holds the title for the second biggest retailer considering incomes (Hitt, 2016). It is commonly known for offering nourishment and non-sustenance items, Tesco, now likewise gives back, mobile, protection, equipment administrations and significantly more.

Political Factor

As the retailing organization works around the world, international political variables significantly impact the execution of Tesco. These incorporate, tax rates, demonstrations of enactment, the dependability of the nation it works in. Because of progressing financial stability on the planet, numerous administrations urge retailers to make occupations for the domestic population. Because, Tesco has played for creating opportunities. Additionally, it enhances the need for its products and diversifies its workforce.

Economic Factors

These variables are the fundamental purpose of concern for Tesco, as they are well on the way to use costs, request, benefits and costs. In this way, the organization ought to know about any adjustments in approaches, for example, changes in tax assessment or whatever other variables which could influence the availability of back (Hillier and Titman, 2011). It is imperative to say that in spite of the fact that the business is developing universally, the organization is still very subject to the UK showcase where it has a piece of the overall industry of around 30%.

Social Factor

Because of an assortment of social changes, patterns show that clients in the UK have moved towards mass shopping and one-quit shopping. Consequently, Tesco has expanded the quantity of non-sustenance things offered available to be purchased. The sort of products and ventures requested by shoppers is for the most part affected by their convictions and states of mind which, thusly, are impacted by social molding. Since clients are ending up noticeably more mindful of medical problems, because of which their approach towards sustenances is evolving always, Tesco is adjusting to these progressions by obliging the interest for natural items.

Technological Factor

Innovation and technology played a significant role in the success of the company. In the present era, it can provide competitive advantage over others in the market. Tesco can be used various technological advancement in their operation activities. Apart from that, the cited business unit can use social media platform such as Facebook, Instagram, You Tube etc. in order to promote firm’s product and services in a cost effective manner.

Legal Factor

There are various laws and legislation which is required to followed by the company. These laws can be health and safety act, competition act, labor act, minimum wage act etc. Tesco is conducting their business in the United Kingdom where these laws having negative and positive impact on their business and its future performance. For example, if government can increase labor rate which can adverse impact on its revenue and profitability.

Environmental Factor

Today, customer is more concern regarding environmental and climate issues. Therefore, Tesco is required to use sustainable approaches in their operation process which can create an ideal image in the market. For example, cited business unit can be used green packaging which having less impact on the environment.

2. PESTEL Analysis of Singapore

Over 10 years, Singapore market has shown enormous growth. In present, it is reasoned as a high-income economy (Wild and Han, 2014). The growth is seen by various factors such as consumption expenditure, investments, demand both domestic as well as national and savings. The contribution by service sector is 75.5% to the total GDP (Gross Domestic Product), industrial sector by 24.5% and manufacturing by 18.3%. To increase the productivity, government has initiated and started developing the research and innovation work for the maximisation of the industrial sector. This will expand the partnership that is being built between the government and industry. Following are the factors that impacts the country :

Political Factors

Singapore is a democratic country, the political risk involved is quite low. In the continent, this is the only nation that enjoys the lowest risk. Being a democratic country, people elects the political party to lead. After the independence, it had political stability. This had lead to the good standard of living as well as peace also, it had transformed business threats to the opportunities. In this country, right to speech is restricted for the opposition parties. Value of free speech is controlled that is limited. The defamation laws, opponent group to be cautious that any comment could lead to suits or may be imprisonment. The concern of legal case restricts the prospect of right to say or speak from the other party. This had directed the debates between the party is low.

Economical Factors

This is a free market economy, and is running at a very fast rate. For the establishment of any business in this country, it is very good as the environment is corruption-free and this will support firms. Workers are educated and self motivated, this had strengthen the market. It is the most competitive nation also its legal as well as financial enterprise structure assist them. The country has the highest per-capita income in ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations).Also, the government of Singapore has invested in expanding the market in the economy. Due to this, many industries like pharmaceutical as well as tourism has developed and prospered and this is good for establishing a firm like Tesco, which is a multinational retailing company. One of the main causes for the success is its location. The active player in the economy is the government (Parmentola, 2011). It maintains the significant productive assets. With the support of neighbouring nations, lots of costs that is incurred on the labour is saved. Following are some of the restrictions on economic performance of the country are : Deficiency of labour, increased cost of labour, reduction in productivity.

Social Factors

Like the other eastern nation, Singapore also follows the classic and conventional family values. Today the new generation, has inclination more towards the western culture as well as values. To fulfil the desires and requirements, resident of the nation works very hard to achieve the same. This had motivated the them to increase the country's productivity. The purchasing power is expected to be high in the business area. It has very high literacy rate. In Singapore, it is very essential that every child should go the primary school. Government has made thing thing compulsory. It is for the parents to make sure that their child has regular attendance and also they should be very fluent in English and Chinese language. This is beneficial to every individual who lives in. it also assist to draw attention of the international trade as well as foreign direct investment.

Technological Factors

it is very important for the nation to have technical advancement, this is one of the key cause in the development of resident's standard of living as well as quality. For the advancement in the country's performance, internet plays a vital role. It simplifies and increases the communication and connectivity. This had encouraged the social networking and people are easily connected through this with rest of the world. Approximately 70% of the people uses internet. E-commerce has seen the enormous growth here. The speed of the broadband internet they are getting is more than 10 Mbps. This had motivated the multinational business entities to come and set up there business and government is operating regarding an electronic government period.

Environmental Factors

To control the air quality and other aspects of the environment, The Ministry of the Environment and Air pollution Unit works. The main problem of the pollution is transportation in urban region. This country has the highest carbon dioxide emissions (Vargas-Sánchez, 2015). Due to this thing, 30% of mangrove species were lost and many are in the verge of extinction.

The Water Pollution Control and Drainage Act, aids to prevent quality of water. This is also the main concern for the nation, as there is a lack of water to assist their requirements. The country is more likely dependent on Malaysia to supply water.

Legal Factors

There are certain legal rules and regulations that assist business development and also the market success. Government has initiated many favourable and transparent laws and regulations that increases the growth. The objective is to create services for e-commerce. Government has launched several policies regarding e-commerce.

FDI infows by industry in Singapore

3. Porter's five forces analysis

It is the assessment of the framework within an industry evaluating the level of competition, in order to determine the sources of the competitive advantage. It is to determines the attractiveness of an industry and also to know the competitive intensity by 5 forces that is Threat of entry of new competitors, threat of substitute products, intensity of competitive rivalry, bargaining power of supplier as well as bargaining power of buyer.

For evaluating the competitive environment of Tesco company, Porter's
five forces analysis is used :

The Threat of Entry of New Competitors

Entering of new competitor in the retail industry is very low. Heavy capital investment is required to be competitive in the market and also to set up the brand. Sainsburry, Asda, Morrisons are the contenders that exist and have grabbed the food retailing industry by 80% in United Kingdom. So to establish and occupy the share in the market, company need to produce products or services at low price or high quality.

The Threat of Substitute Products

The treat of substitute commodity in the retailing sector is low for food products and for non-food its medium to high. In the food industry, the substitutes of this is the grocery and organic shops, departmental and convenience stores these are not consider as competition to the Tesco company as they render high end products at a cheaper rate. However, non-food products like in clothing sector, threats of substitute is quite high as buyers are more attracted towards getting discounts (Hultman and Robson, 2011). Hence, the company is threat to the speciality stores.

The intensity of Competitive Rivalry

The intensity of the competitive rivalry is very high in the retailing sector. The cited company faces immense competition within the industry that includes Asda, Morrisons and Sansbury's over price, promotion and products/services. The main competitor in this sector that has grab the market share by 16.8% (approx.) which was earlier 16.6% and Sansbury's 's has 16.1% which in the previous year was 15.8% while Morrisons has 11.6% from 11.3% during the year 2009-2010. Tesco's market position has treat, from the competitors increasing share.

Bargaining Power of Supplier

The bargaining power of suppliers is quite low. It should be seen that vendors are more preference to the key grocery and food retailing business entities like big supermarkets. In order to acquire the lowest price probable from the provider, the positions of these retailing companies like Tesco, Asda, Sainsbury and Morrisons is strengthened the negotiation strategies in the positive form.

Bargaining Power of the Buyer

The bargaining power of buyer is reasonably high. The switching cost is too low, if the products have even a little differentiation or more standardised the consumer can easily switch to the other brand (Camisón, 2010). It has been projected that buyer are inclined more towards the products that has low price and with the online shopping as well as the availability, they can easily compare the price and the quality they are offered and thus can choose.

4. VRIO Analysis

VRIO Analysis is a business assessment framework that is used by the Tesco company to make the efficient decision making. This offers the knowledge and output gives the competitive advantage. It is analysing the company internally as it is used to determine the resources of the firm and what will be the competitive advantage be supplied to the business entity.

This analysis refers to the 4 indicators that is considered for the firms: Value, Rarity, Imitability and Organisation.


This analysis ask if the resources adds value to the cited company then, it is possible that it will render advantageous opportunities. This will reduce or banish the effect of threats. Value of resources are determined by the stakeholders that whether they are useful for the firm or not. These help in various regions, internally or externally as well that can be advantage to the technical, economical or social. Resources are important for the development, if these are useful in more than 2 areas. If the resource does not gives benefit to the firm, then they can invest their capital in somewhere else for the growth. It is a weakness to the business.


Resources are grabbed only when one or few entities, known as rare. These should be valuable as these gives the competitive advantage. If in the case, when more than few firms uses the similar capabilities of resources in the identical way then this directs to the competitive equality (Cantwell and Lundan, 2010). This can be due to the usage of same resources execute same strategies. In this way, no company can attain the best performance.

They should not ignore the resources even if they are common and valuable because losing the valuable resources as well as the abilities will have the negative impact to the firm as they are necessary for staying in the economy.


It is very expensive to make a copy of any resource. If any business entity does not have a resource, they cannot duplicate, purchase or substitute it at an affordable price. Imitation can be either by directly copying or by offering substitute products.

They has to be rare as well as valuable to imitate which accomplish continuous competitive advantage (Griffith, 2010 ). These are quite difficult to copy or follow, can be determined by 3 ground are as follows:

1. Historical circumstances: which refers to the development of the resources because of the vents happened in the past and are expensive to imitate.
2.Casual ambiguity: it is not clear for the company to determine or find out certain resources that have a reason of competitive advantage.
3.Social Complexities: resources and abilities that depends on the culture of the cited company.


The final indicator of VRIO analysis. It needs to identify the value, rarity and imitability. If the resources get through from all these three requirements then the above mentioned business entity has to be organised to gain all the benefits. They must manage all the system of management, its policies regarding to it, process, culture along with these structure of the organisation to realise the full potential of the resources. Then only they can attain the sustainable competing advantage.

                                                                                                is the resources or capabilty

5. Various Modes of Entry and also Recommendations

To enter into the foreign market has its own impact on the outputs. Expansion into the external market can be done in through 4 ways:

Direct Investments

It is the control of provisions in the target market as it includes the movement of the resources that basically involves the human resource, funds and technology. It is made by grabbing the current business or by setting up the new firm. It needs the high level of commitment as well as resources.

Joint Ventures

There are five aims that are included in entry in the market, sharing of risk and reward and also sharing technology. Advantages that include direct distribution channel as well as the political connections.


It is the direct selling of the products which are domestically produced and sold it to the other nation. It is the classic mode to enter into the foreign market (Harzing and Pinnington, 2010). The cost incurred in this method is in the form of marketing. There is no heavy investment is required in the production facility. For the exporting purpose 4 major players are necessary that are Government, Exporter, Transporter provider as well as Importer.


This is very important as it allows the firm to utilize the property of the licensor. These can be in the form of techniques of production, trademarks as well as patents.


From the above report, it can be concluded that the various international strategies adopted by TESCO are successful enough in expanding its business in the business environment. The cited company is effective in managing its operations globally as it has created a good hold in market. Pestle analysis shows that there are various policies of government which restrict TESCO to develop its market cross country. It has favourable conditions in Singapore as demand for cited companies product are more in this area. 


Dixit, A. K and Skeath, S., 2015. Games of Strategy: Fourth International Student Edition. WW Norton & Company.
Hitt, M. A., Li, D and Xu, K., 2016. International strategy: From local to global and beyond. Journal of World Business. 51(1). pp.58-73.
Hillier, D., Grinblatt, M and Titman, S., 2011. Financial markets and corporate strategy. McGraw Hill.
Wild, J., Wild, K. L and Han, J. C., 2014. International business. Pearson Education Limited.
De Wit, B and Meyer, R., 2010. Strategy: Process, content, context. Cengage Learning EMEA.
Parmentola, A., 2011. The internationalization strategy of new Chinese multinationals: Determinants and evolution. International Journal of Management. 28(1). p.369.
de Soto-Camacho, E. G and Vargas-Sánchez, A., 2015. Choice of entry mode, strategic flexibility and performance of international strategy in hotel chains: an approach based on real options. European Journal of Tourism Research. 9. p.92.
Hultman, M., Katsikeas, C .S and Robson, M.J., 2011. Export promotion strategy and performance: the role of international experience. Journal of International Marketing. 19(4). pp.17-39.

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