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Introduction

A business manages both its internal and external finance to execute the business plan properly. A business needs funds for many purposes, thus utilizes funds accordingly. In case if adequate funds are not available in the business, it can raise finance either from internal or external source. Raising funds from external source becomes complicated sometimes, thus it requires proper understanding of its implication, risk and cost. The thesis of the assignment is to evaluate the factors of finance (Smith, 2014). In addition, it is also aimed to project budgets and compute certain ratios to make a comparison and to measure future viability.

The study also aims to measure the financial performance of the recognized company and evaluate the components of its financial statements in comparison with other types of business.

TASK 1

Lo1- Understand The Sources Of Finance Available to a Business

1.1 Identifying the Availability of the Sources of Funds for the Business

In general, internal and external sources of finance are available to a business. Internal sources of finance are those finance that are available inside the business in the form of personal savings, retained earnings, profits, reserves and surpluses, assets held for sales, etc. A business can utilizes these resources according to the need of the business projects or other purposes like meeting its short-term liabilities, etc.

However, if a business makes an investment decision or carries out a business project, it requires huge funds and in this case, the internal source of funds sometimes becomes inadequate (Corsatea et al. 2014). Thus, a business goes for external sources of finance, which includes, raising funds from, bank (in terms of loan), by issuing debentures and bonds, raising funds from the public by issuing shares and securities, etc. Funds raised from the external sources carries certain risks and cost to the company. However, making the decision for raising funds from either of the sources is differs from business to business (based on the nature and capital structure of the business).

A large business generally raises funds from external sources (especially borrowing money from a financial institution or by raising funds from the public). On the other hand, a small business generally raises funds from internal sources (especially personal savings and business profit).

1.2 Assessing the Implication of the Various Identified Sources of Funds

Both internal and external sources of finance provide financial support to a business for different purposes. Use of finance from inside the business contains less risk and contributes to the growth of the business, but it does not help in making investment opportunities apart from meeting its short term or medium term liabilities. Assets held for sale will reduce the total asset of the business, but it will increase the liquid cash or cash equivalent that a business can utilize in liquidating its debts. Using personal savings and profit of the business will only help in the business expansion, but it will not create enough goodwill for the business to make investment opportunities (Odell, 2014).

However, use of finance from outside the business carries huge risk but contributes to the performance, expansion, and development of the business. It also helps in creating investment opportunities and meeting its long-term debts. Funds rose from banks and debentures carry huge risk to the business and funds raised from shares and securities carry less risk.

However, these funds will reflect the financial stability of the business, indicating its ability to bear the risk and cost of raising funds from external sources.

1.3: Evaluating and Selecting the Appropriate Sources of Fund for the Business Project

Based on the nature and size of the business, appropriate sources of fund is identified and evaluated. For a large entity, funds raised from external sources are considered suitable.However, the factors concerning risk and cost differ from one source of fund to another source of fund. Funds borrowed from any bank or financial institution carries huge risks to the business because it carries fixed rate of interest and the business cannot evade the payment of interest, whether the business earns profit or loss. Since it is a fixed debt-bearing fund, the cost to the company is low.

Funds raised from the public by issuing shares carries low risk to the business, also the payment of dividend is not compulsory in case of equity shares. Since shares are not a fixed debt bearing securities, the cost to the company is high.

If the company utilizes its internal source of finance like retained earnings, profits, reserves and surpluses, it will not carry huge risk to the business, but it will certainly reduce the financial stability of the business. Since the company can only invest £20,000 and cannot exceed the borrowing amount of £300,000, raising funds from both the financial institution and the public is the good option, because it will balance the risk and cost to the company largely (Odell, 2014). A business can raise 60% of £ 280,000 from the bank (in terms of loan) and rest by issuing shares. 

Lo2- Understand the Implications of Finance as a Resource Within a Business

2.1: Analysing the Cost of Each Identified Sources of Funds

The cost of each sources of finance is different. Funds raised by issuing debentures or borrowing money from any financial institution carries fixed rate of interest and the company must bear the fixed debt periodically, whether it earns profit or incur losses. For instance a loan (£ 200000) carries 10% interests to be payable annually. If the company earns profit or incur losses, it must pay £ 20000 annually as interest to the bank. If the company fails to pay the interest, bank can sue the company as a defaulter of payment (Jiang and Jiranyakul, 2013).

A fund raised by issuing preference share does not carry any fixed debt, but if the company earns profit, it must pay dividend to the preference shareholders. For instance, 20% preference dividend is announced at the end of the year and found that the company has incurred losses. Thus, payment of dividend does not become compulsory. Hence, the cost to company is moderate.

Funds raised by issuing equity share do not carry any fixed debt. Payment of equity dividend is not compulsory. For instance, 38% equity dividend is announced at the end of the financial year, and the company earned profit. In this case, if the company finds the payment of equity dividend is relevant, it can pay the dividend, but it is not compulsory (Jiang and Jiranyakul, 2013).

2.2 Role and Objectives of Financial Planning

Financial planning simply means the management of the funds available. In other words, it helps in deciding the nature and amount of funds to be spent for the specific purpose. In simpler words, it means deciding in advance that how, when and where to spend the funds in accordance to the need of the business. In the context of the needs of the business, financial planning becomes very important (Lusardi and Mitchell, 2014). The importance of financial planning is described below:

1. Collection of Optimum Funds is Ensured

It helps in estimating the precise requirements of finance by avoiding wastage and reducing the occurrence of over-capitalization situation.

2. Assists in Fixing an Appropriate Capital Structure

Funds raised from different sources are to be utilized appropriately. Financial planning helps in allocating the funds to be utilized in the appropriate place like, contributing long-term funds to the shareholders and debenture holders and medium-term funds to the financial institutions.

3. Facilitates Investing Decision in the Right Projects

It gives suggestions regarding the allocation of funds for different purposes by comparing different investment proposals.

4. Facilitates Operational Activities

It also helps in smooth functioning of production and distribution function of business.

5. Ensure Strong Base for Financial Control

It facilitates the comparison of financial activities between the actual and estimated revenue and cost.

6. Helps in Utilizing the Funds Properly

Since, finance is the blood of the business, all the business function is carried out by the flow of finance. Thus, financial planning helps in utilizing the finance properly, so that it cannot be misused (Lusardi and Mitchell, 2014).

7. Helps in the Coordination

Healthy coordination among various business functions like, production, distribution, sales, etc are organized by the financial planning.

The following steps undertake the process of financial planning.

  • Determining current financial situation
  • Developing financial goals
  • Identifying alternative courses of action
  • Evaluating the alternatives
  • Creating and implementing the action of financial plan
  • Re analysing and revising the plan

2.3 Describing the Information Required by Both the Internal and External Users for Making their Business Decision

The information needs of internal and external decision makers are different from one another. Internal decision makers include management, employee and owner, whereas external decision makers include Creditors, government, investors, customers and regulatory authorities.

The external decision makers communicate financial information generally in the form of annual report or the financial statements of the company. Profit and loss statement and balance sheet show the financial performance and financial position of the business, whereas, the cash flow statement shows the capability of the company to operate its various activities (Shepherd et al. 2014).

The external users always show their keen interest in these statements to make any investment decision in the business. However, the internal users especially employees shows keen interest in the annual report of the business to anticipate their growth in the company. If the company shows good financial stability and the operation of its business are flawless, employees expect growth in their career in the business.

2.4 Explaining How the Selected Source of Fund Influence the Financial Statements

Funds arranged from external or internal sources of funds, no doubt, put some impact on the financial statement of the company. Funds raised from the banks will contribute the increment in non-current liability in the balance sheet and the payment of interest on loan will increase the finance cost in the income statement.

Funds raised by issuing shares will increase the capital in Owner’s equity, also the dividend on the shares will increase the finance cost in the income statement.

Lo3- Be Able To Make Financial Decisions Based On Financial Information

3.1: Projecting cash and Other Relevant Budgets and Analysing them to Make an Appropriate Business Decision

Cash Budget

Cash budget

 

 

 

 

 

Month

 

 

 

Note

March

April

May

June

 

 

 

 

 

281600

309760

352000

394240

Collections from Trade Debtors

 

 

 

 

 

40 % In month of sale

 

 

112640

123904

140800

157696

55% in month following sale

 

 

Nil

154880

170368

193600

Subtotal

 

 

 

 

123904

278784

311168

351296

GST collected (on purchase)

 

3

21120

2112

3168

3168

TOTAL RECEIPTS

 

 

 

433664

619520

698368

784960

Payments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

To trade creditors for purchases [100%]

1

211200

21120

31680

31680

Direct labour

 

 

2

63360

6336

9504

9504

Factory overhead (100% on Direct labour)

63360

6336

9504

9504

Expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fixed

 

 

 

 

8000

8000

8000

8000

Variable (15% of sales value per month)

 

42240

46464

52800

59136

GST paid

 

 

 

 

28160

30976

35200

39424

TOTAL PAYMENTS

 

 

 

416320

119232

146688

157248

SURPLUS

 

 

 

 

17344

500288

551680

627712

Bank balance opening

 

 

Nil

17344

517632

1069312

Bank balance closing

 

 

17344

517632

1069312

1697024

Analysis

From the above analysis it can be found that the company able to generate cash position in the positive manner in each and every accounting years. At the initial in the month of March it generates $17344 which shows that it has higher bank overdrafts. In the month of April level of cash improves and reaches up to $500288 which indicates that expenses reduce and incomes enhance. After that cash position enhance on consistent basis in every month which is worth of $551680 and $627712 for May and June respectively. It can be assessed that overall cash position of it is effectual and profitable which helps to enhance the financial performance within industry.

Sales Budget

Sales budget

 

 

 

 

Month

 

Note

March

April

May

June

Forecast sales units

1

22000

24200

27500

30800

Selling price per unit

2

12.8

12.8

12.8

12.8

Total sales $

 

281600

309760

352000

394240

Analysis

On the basis of sales budget it has been analysed that at the constant selling prices for every month which is worth of $12.8 sales increases which is sign of improving the profitability of it. At the end of March it generates sales worth of $281600 which enhance over the each and every month. Increasing trend of the sales indicate that firm has effectual strategies to attract more number of customers towards it. In the month of June level or amount of sales is worth of $394240 which lead make it more financially strong.

Production Budget

Production budget

 

 

 

 

 

 

Month

 

 

Note

April

May

June

March

Forecast unit sales

 

 

24200

27500

30800

22000

Plus: Finished goods stock closing

 

4840

5500

6160

4400

Total units required

 

 

29040

33000

36960

26400

less: Finished goods stock opening

 

26400

29040

33000

nil

Equals production units required

1

2640

3960

3960

26400

Cost per unit in $

 

 

8

8

8

8

Cost of production in $

 

21120

31680

31680

211200

Analysis

From the production budget it can be visualised that level number of production units firm requires 29040 at the end of April which increase over the three months. In the month of June the company needs to generate 36960 units at where cost of production will be worth of $31680. Apart from this, at the end of March the firm having lower number of production which is like 26400 units at which position cost is worth of $211200. In short overall business performance of it is in the beneficial and well within industry.

3.2 Explaining the Calculation of Cost Per Unit and Making Pricing Decision with the Help of Relevant Information

Computation of cost per unit

Total production unit = 30000

Total cost = total fixed cost + total variable cost

Total cost = £50000 + £250000

Total cost = £300000

Cost per unit = total cost / total production units

Cost per unit = 300000 / 30000

Cost per unit = £10

Based on the cost per unit, a pricing decision or profit margin decision is made. In the cost-plus pricing method, the management on the cost price of the commodity adds a profit margin.

Average fixed cost = total fixed cost / total production unit

Average fixed cost = 50000 / 30000

Average fixed cost = £1.67

Average variable cost = total variable cost / total production unit

Average variable cost = 250000 / 30000

Average variable cost = £8.33

Total unit costs= £1.67 +£8.33=£10

Selling price = total cost + (desired profit margin)

Selling price = £10 + £2.5 (25%)

Selling price = £12.5 

 3.3 Assessing the Viability of the Chosen Contract using Different Investment Appraisal Techniques

Years

Cash inflow

Cumulative cash flow

Payback

period

Discounting factor

PV

0

-8.6

-8.6

 

1

-8.6

1

1.6

-7

 

0.877192982

1.403509

2

2.8

-4.2

 

0.769467528

2.154509

3

3.4

-0.8

 

0.674971516

2.294903

4

3.6

2.8

 

0.592080277

2.131489

5

4

6.8

 

0.519368664

2.077475

6

4.2

11

 

0.455586548

1.913464

 

 

3.222222222

3.2 years

 

3.375348

Average rate of return = 38%

Payback period = 3 years

Net present value = £ 3.38 million

Findings and Recommendations

From the above calculation it can be determined that the project will take 3.2 years to cover the amount of initial investment which is worth of $8.6. On the basis payback period value the project is beneficial. Apart from this, net present value as well as average rate of return of the current project is worth of £ 3.38 million and 38% respectively which are the profitable for company. On the basis of such values it can be recommended to the management that it should adopt the project within firm and make investment in it.

Task 2

Lo4- Be Able to Evaluate the Financial Performance of a Business

4.1 Evaluating and Interpreting the Financial Statement, its Components and Explaining their Purposes

A financial statement is an integral part of the annual report of the business. A financial statement in simple terms is a record of the accounting activities and the financial stability of the business. The financial information is described the structured manner and in accordance with the GAAP or IFRS. The components of financial statements are income statement, cash flow statement, statement of changes in equity and statement of financial position. The income statement shows the financial performance of the business. Net profit or loss of the business can be identified by preparing profit and loss statement and it is the main purpose of preparing an income statement.

However, the sales or revenues, other income, expenses and finance cost are recorded in the income statement (Ball et al. 2015). After computing net profit or profit available to the equity shareholders, EPS is then calculated.

Both internal and external users show their interest in the performance of the business by looking at the income statement.

Cash Flow statement shows the inflow and outflow of cash and cash equivalent or generating and using cash through the activities of the business, namely, operating activity, investing activity and financing activity. From operating activities, the information related to the operation of current assets and current liabilities can be gathered. From investing activities, information related to the operation of investment or fixed assets can be gathered. From the financing activities, information related to the operation of long-term liabilities like payment and receipt of loans, etc. can be gathered. Both internal and external users show their interest in the capability of the company to use and generate its liquid cash by looking at the cash flow statement.

The balance sheet shows the financial position of the business. Balance sheet comprises of assets, liabilities and owner's equity. If the total asset is greater than the total liabilities, except total equity, it shows the good position of the business. Both internal and external users show their interest in the financial position of the business by looking at the statement of financial position, to make their investment decision (Boland et al. 2015).

4.2 Demonstrating and Making Comparison of the Formats of the Financial Statements

The preparation of financial statements is compulsory for a registered business. A registered business includes a public or large private company operating in the large area in a public interest. The unregistered company, on the other hand, includes, partnership business, joint ventures business, sole trader or sole proprietor, etc, which only sets objectives of earning the profit. An unregistered business can prepare the financial statement in accordance with the GAAP or IFRS, but it is not compulsory.

They can simply make an annual report containing income statement, cash flow statement and balance sheet, for their own understanding, since the external users except taxation authority do not have any potential interest in their financial statement. A registered company must prepare an annual report in accordance with the GAAP or IFRS because it should be understandable by its users. A registered company like J Sainsbury Plc must follow certain accounting standards and policies while preparing the financial statement, in order to maintain the concept of relevancy and reliability (www.j-sainsbury.co.uk, 2017). Both internal and external users have their potential interest in the annual report of the company because based on the understanding of the financial information provided in the annual report, they will make the further business decision.

The annual report of the registered company contains comprehensive income statement, cash flow statement, statement of changes in equity, statement financial position, Auditors report, directors' report, management report, etc. The Income statement is prepared vertically, where, Sales, cost of goods sold, administrative expenses, other income and expenses are illustrated along with the finance cost. Net profit or loss of the business can be identified by preparing profit and loss statement and it is the main purpose of preparing an income statement.

Moreover, the earnings per share on the profit available for equity shareholders are also calculated in the income statement. However, on the balance sheet, assets, liabilities and owner's equity are shown to demonstrate the financial position of the company. Net profit or loss generated in the income statement is transferred to the owner's equity. Both internal and external users make use of the financial statements to anticipate the return and viability of their investment in the business (Boland et al. 2015). In addition, the auditor's report contributes to the acceptability and actuality of the annual report prepared by the company for its users.

The users of the financial statement certainly look for the unqualified auditor's report to believe the actuality of the financial statement. In addition to these, the remuneration report present in the annual report is helpful for the internal users (employees) to anticipate their growth in the company.

In the books of profit and loss account of partnership company taxation amount is transacted and recorded which lead to reduce the profitability position of it. When talking about the sole trader company then there is not any kind of requirement to show and record the taxation amount in income statement. Apart from this in terms of equity capital it records in the balance sheet of the partnership company because it raises fund through issuing shares. Sole trader company cannot issues equity or any shares in the market for raising fund and due to such reason entry of this not comes into consideration. At the last in case of the profit withdrawal highly compulsory to make entry in the partnership business because it provides information that which partnership withdraw how much money. Further, on the basis of this final profit is distributed among all the partners. In the case of sole trader not necessary to show it in legal manner but for keeping record of the financial position it transacts in the profit and loss account.

4.3 Interpreting the Financial Statements of J Sainsbury Plc with the Help of Appropriate Ratios

 

 

2016 £ 000

2015 £ 000

Return on assets

Profit / average total assets

(548 / 16973) * 100

= 3.2%

( -72 / 16537) * 100

= -0.4 %

Return on equity

Profit / average equity

(548 / 6365) * 100

= 8.60%

(-72 / 5539) * 100

= -1.30%

Net profit margin

Net profit / sales or revenue

(548 / 23506) *100

= 2.33%

(-72 / 23775) *100

= -0.30%

Efficiency Ratios

 

 

2016 £ 000

2015 £ 000

Asset turnover

Net sales / average total assets

23506 / 16973

= 1.3 times

23775 / 16537

= 1.4 times

Inventory turnover ratio

COGS / Average inventory

22050 / 968

= 22.78 times

22567 / 997

= 22.63 times

Fixed-asset turnover ratio

Net sales / total noncurrent assets

23506 / 12529

= 1.87 times

23775 / 12032

= 1.97 times

Liquidity Ratios

 

 

2016 £ 000

2015 £ 000

Current ratio

Current assets / current liabilities

4413 / 6720

= 0.66:1

4505 / 6923

= 0.65:1

Quick ratio

(total current assets - inventories) / total current liabilities

(4413 - 968) / 6720

= 0.51:1

(4505 - 997) / 6923

= 0.50:1

Average collection period

(Average receivables * 365 days) Sales

(508 / 23506) * 365

= 8 days (approx)

(471 / 23775) * 365

= 7 days (approx)

Gearing Ratios

 

 

2016 £ 000

2015 £ 000

Debt ratio

Total liabilities / total assets

(484 / 785) * 100

= 61.6%

(470 / 746) * 100

= 63%

Equity ratio

Total equity / total assets

(6365 / 16973) * 100

= 37.50%

(5539 / 16537) * 100

= 33.49%

Debt to equity ratio

Total liabilities / total equity

(3884 / 6365) * 100

= 61%

(4075 / 5539) * 100

= 73%

Financial Ratios of Sainsbury Plc and Tesco Plc along with Interpretation

Name of ratios

Formula of ratios

Sainsbury Plc

Tesco Plc

 

 

2016 (Amount in £'000)

2015 (Amount in £'000)

2016 (Amount in £'000)

2015 (Amount in £'000)

Net profit margin

Net profit / sales or revenue

(548 / 23506) *100

= 2.33%

(-72 / 23775) *100

= -0.30%

(138 / 54433) * 100

= 0.25%

(-5741 / 62284) * 100

= -9.22%

Asset turnover

Net sales / average total assets

23506 / 16973

= 1.3 times

23775 / 16537

= 1.4 times

54433 / 43904

= 1.24 times

62284 / 44214

= 1.41 times

Inventory turnover ratio

COGS / Average inventory

22050 / 968

= 22.78 times

22567 / 997

= 22.63 times

51579 / 2430

= 21.23 times

64396 / 2957

= 21.78 times

Current ratio

Current assets / current liabilities

4413 / 6720

= 0.66:1

4505 / 6923

= 0.65:1

14828 / 19714

= 0.75:1

11958 / 19810

= 0.60:1

Quick ratio

(total current assets - inventories) / total current liabilities

(4413 - 968) / 6720

= 0.51:1

(4505 - 997) / 6923

= 0.50:1

(14828 - 2430) / 19714

= 0.63:1

(11958 - 2957) / 19810

= 0.45:1

Debt to equity ratio

Total liabilities / total equity

(3884 / 6365) * 100

= 61%

(4075 / 5539) * 100

= 73%

(10623 / 8626) * 100

= 123.15%

(10520 / 7071) * 100

= 148.78%

Interpretation and analysis

It has been analysed from the above mentioned calculation that Sainsbury company performs well in the industry of retail at the end of FY 2016 as compare to 2015. In the FY 2015 net profit of Sainsbury Plc was -0.30% which increases and reaches up to 2.33% and along with this current ratio also raise from 0.65:1 to 0.66:1. When talking about the debt to equity ratio then it reduces from 73% to 61% at the end of FY 2016. Apart from this the Sainsbury Plc firm is more efficient to generate revenue using the stock level because inventory turnover ratio increases from 22.63 times to 22.78 times in the FY 2016.

When comparing with the Tesco Plc which is competitor of the Sainsbury Plc and involved in the retail sector it can be found that performance of Tesco is poor. At the end of FY 2016 Sainsbury generates 2.33% net profit whereas rival firm has NP ratio only 0.25%. Gearing ratio of the Tesco is also too much higher as compare to the selected company. Apart from this, in terms of liquidity position both companies having on an average same performance. Moreover, overall financial performance of the Tesco Plc is poor in comparison to the Sainsbury Plc.

Conclusion

In the study, efforts have been made to evaluate the factors of finance and to measure the financial performance of the recognized company and to evaluate the components of its financial statements in comparison with other types of business. By the exhaustive research on the topic "managing financial resources and decisions", various sources of finance available to the business is understood and the implication of these resources ascertained. Based on the available and relevant financial information, financial decision was made, with the help of various types of budgets and investment appraisal techniques. Finally, with the help of accounting ratios, internal and external analysis of J Sainsbury Plc has been done.

Reference

  • Ball, R., Li, X. and Shivakumar, L. (2015). Contractibility and transparency of financial statement information prepared under IFRS: Evidence from debt contracts around IFRS adoption.Journal of Accounting Research,53(5), pp.915-963.
  • Boland, C.M., Bronson, S.N. and Hogan, C.E. (2015). Accelerated Filing Deadlines, Internal Controls, and Financial Statement Quality: The Case of Originating Misstatements.Accounting Horizons,29(3), pp.551-575.
  • Corsatea, T.D., Giaccaria, S. and Arántegui, R.L. (2014). The role of sources of finance on the development of wind technology.Renewable Energy,66, pp.140-149.
  • Jiang, J. and Jiranyakul, K. (2013). Capital structure, cost of debt and dividend payout of firms in New York and Shanghai stock exchanges. International Journal of economics and Financial issues,3(1), p.113.
  • Lusardi, A. and Mitchell, O.S. (2014). The economic importance of financial literacy: Theory and evidence.Journal of Economic Literature, 52(1), pp.5-44.
  • Odell, J.S. (2014).;US international monetary policy: Markets, power, and ideas as sources of change. Princeton University Press.
  • Shepherd, D.A., Williams, T.A. and Patzelt, H. (2015). Thinking about entrepreneurial decision making: Review and research agenda.;Journal of management,41(1), pp.11-46.
  • Smith, W.K. (2014). Dynamic decision making: A model of senior leaders managing strategic paradoxes.Academy of Management Journal,57(6), pp.1592-1623.
  • www.j-sainsbury.co.uk, (2017). Available from: https://www.j-sainsbury.co.uk/media/3169495/sainsburys_ar_2016_2005.pdf [Accessed on 8 Mar. 2017].

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