Identification of sources of information on VAT


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An indirect tax is a tax which is collected by one entity in the supply chain process and paid to the government of the country, but it is passed to the customer as part of the purchase price of a product or service. The customer ultimately pays the tax by spending more for the goods and services. Value-added tax, service tax, goods and service tax etc. are some examples of indirect taxes. Value-added tax (VAT) was introduced in 1973 and it is now the third largest source of revenue for the government after income tax and national insurance. The given project is divided into four tasks. The first task involves information regarding VAT sources, registration requirements etc. The second task includes information regarding VAT returns, the third task involves VAT penalties and adjustments for earlier errors and the last task contains the details regarding the communication of VAT information.

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1.1 Identification of sources of information on VAT

VAT is levied on most of the goods which are provided by registered entities in the UK and some of the goods and services which are imported from outside the European Union. For levying the VAT and other legal requirements, it is very important to identify the various sources of information on VAT. The sources of information on VAT are taxpayers' registration information like tax identification number, information from tax returns, reports and statements like VAT returns with annexes (input tax, turnover and IC acquisition), information on tax payments like payment acknowledgement, information on the actions which are taken by the administration of tax like risk analysis, information from the tax administration departments like criminal cases, explanation registry like organization's economical activities which are given by the officials of the risky companies and registry by the fictitious companies like tax administration assumed some companies as risky ones and meeting the certain criteria (examples- registered, using the documents of the third person etc.)  


2.1 Extraction of relevant data for a specific period of accounting period

In the UK, VAT returns can be submitted either monthly or quarterly. Most of the returns are completed on a quarterly basis. Once registered, a business will be assigned to a “VAT stagger group”. Let us assume a staggered group in which quarters end in March, June, September and December. Following are the details for the extraction of relevant data for filing the return of the VAT for the quarter ending 31st December 2018:

Accounting Information

For VAT payable:

Sales Book              Â£ 256658

Less: Credit Note    Â£ 2762

Total                       Â£ 253896            

Cash Book              Â£ 9858

EU Acquisitions     Â£ 21630

Correction of error £ 1763

Grand Total                                          Â£ 287147

For Input VAT:

Purchase Book       Â£115680

Less: Credit Notes  Â£ 1860

Total                       Â£ 113820

Cash Book              Â£ 7950

Petty Cash Book     Â£160

EU Acquisitions     Â£ 23650

Bad Debt Relief     Â£ 6960

Grand Total                                              Â£ 152540

2.2 Calculation of relevant inputs and outputs

VAT payable:


Sales Value (£)

VAT Payable (£)

Standard Supplies



Exempt Supplies



Zero Rated Supplies







Sales Book              Â£ 18110.50

Less: Credit Note    Â£ 275.00

Total                       Â£ 17835.50            

Cash Book              Â£ 960.50

EU Acquisitions     Â£ 2110.00

Correction of error £ 175.69

Grand Total                                          Â£ 21081.69

Input VAT:



Purchase Value (£)

VAT Input (£)

Standard Supplies



Exempt Supplies



Zero Rated Supplies







Purchase Book       Â£10500

Less: Credit Notes  Â£ 175.00

Total                       Â£ 10325.00

Cash Book              Â£ 750

Petty Cash Book     Â£15.95

EU Acquisitions     Â£ 2110.00

Bad Debt Relief     Â£ 675.00

Grand Total                                              Â£ 13875.95

Input Tax:

  • Purchase Day Book contains £10500 of total input and the figure of £175 is the input VAT total of purchase return day book out of which £10325 whole is standard supply input.
  • Cash Book contains £ 750 and Petty Cash Book contains £ 15.95 taken from the total of the VAT analysis column of the cash book.
  • EU acquisitions are the purchases made from another EU state.
  • Bad debt relief is an amount owing that a supplier writes off in the books because the bad is unlikely even to be paid off- the buyer may have 'gone bust' for example.

Output Tax:

  • Sales Day Book contain £ 18110.50 of total output and the figure of £275 is the output VAT total of sales return day book out of which £ 17835.50 whole is standard supply output.
  • The cash Book contains £ 960.50 which is taken from the total of the VAT analysis column of the cash book.  
  • Correction of error is the case in which the business owes a net £ 175.69 which could be caused due to amount of input VAT included has been too high or the amount of output VAT included being too low.

2.3 Calculation of the VAT due to or from the relevant tax authority

The authority for VAT and customs in the UK is HM Revenue and Customs. The VAT due to or from is analysed by HMRC only. The calculations of VAT due to or from HMRC in the given case are as follows:


Amount (£)

VAT output:




Cash Book


EU Acquisitions


Correction of error


Total VAT output


VAT Input:




Cash Book


Petty Cash Book


EU Acquisition


Bad Debts Relief


Total VAT Input


Net VAT Payable to HMRC



2.4 VAT Return with associated payment within the statutory time limits

                                     VAT Return


Amount (£)

VAT due in on sales


VAT due on acquisitions from other EC Member State


Total VAT due


VAT input including acquisitions from the EC


Net VAT to be paid to HMRC


Total value of sales and all other output


Total value of purchases and all other input


Total value of all supplies of goods and related costs, excluding any VAT, to other EC Member States


Total value of all acquisitions of goods and related costs, excluding any VAT, from other EC Member States



Return for the quarter that ended 31st December 2018 will have to be submitted to HMRC by 7th February 2019 and the payment of £ 7205.74 is also required to be by 7th February 2019 otherwise penalties will have to be paid by the organization.

3.1 Implications and penalties in case of failure to abide by VAT regulations:

Following are Implications and penalties in case of failure to abide by VAT regulations, as follows:

  • Late filing: In the US tax system there are no penalties are provided in case of late filing of VAT returns however there is a penalty for non-payment or late payment of VAT.
  • Late payment: A Surcharge Liability Notice may be issued if there is one return is missing, if this problem remains, a penalty will be charged. If the criteria of a Surcharge Liability Notice are not met a surcharge of 2% of the VAT due will apply and it will increase to 5%, 10% or 15% in case a mistake is repeated or an extended Surcharge Liability Notice will be issued.
  • Late registration: There is no penalties are prescribed in case of late VAT registration. Late VAT payment penalties for time duration in which you are not VAT  registered will be fined as follows: Less than 9 months late: 5% of VAT due, 9 to18 months late: 10% of VAT due and more than 18 months late: 15% of VAT due.

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3.2 Adjustments and declarations for any errors or omissions identified in previous VAT periods:

There are following are major ways in terms of Adjustments and declaration required in case of any error or omission, as follows:

  • Error correction in case of any previous year return is done through form VAT 652, This is available on government' official site website or users can use VAT Helpline numbers.
  • Rectification of errors related to claiming excessive input credit can be claimed through transitional arrangements.
  • Some of the government also give relief by introducing temporary schemes for the correction of particular errors to an extent.

4.1 Impact of VAT payment on an organisation's cash flow and financial forecasts:

Following are The major impact of VAT payment on an organisation's cash flow and financial forecasts, as follows:

  • Due sudden imposition of any penalty for an error about which management is unknown can affect cash flow or financial forecast.
  • The imposition of an increased VAT rate on products can affect the financial forecast of managers.
  • In the case of an organisation that has a large number of credit sales and purchases, the liability of VAT payment affects its cash flow because of late payment or receipt from or to parties.
  • Any sudden Demand notice from the VAT authority also increases the payment towards consultants and legal charges which also affects cash flow of organisation.
  • Due to regular payment of VAT times, organisations may face working capital requirements which may lead to a decrease in cash flow.
  • Carry forward of inputs and outs in the VAT system from one quarter to another quarter creates uncertainties for management while preparing cash flow and financial forecasts.

4.2 Advise for relevant people regarding changes in VAT legislation affecting organisation:

The government create changes from time to time by issuing circulars or notifications, which affect various interested persons in an organisation such as accountants, managers, related parties, suppliers etc. Accounts should be aware of recent updates, changes in VAT legislation amendments in filing dates etc. in order to avoid any errors and difficulties in filing VAT returns. It is advised to managers to keep a provision for any sudden possible financial burden in the context of VAT and also managers should make an analysis to identify any possible liability of VAT due to changes in VAT legislation. Suppliers associated with the organisation should make proper arrangements to make easier the way of filing while avoiding any mismatch in input and output under the VAT system. Coordination between organisations and suppliers is necessary in order to avoid any discrimination.

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