To undertake the change and leading the business behaviour in proper management are among the major challenges that required to be managed by firm. An effective management and implementation of change measures and leaders have a deep and significant role in the process of business operations and activities (Doppelt, 2017). This supports in suitable management of changes and the operations that are taken in consideration by an organisation. The managers and other directors including employees of company will see through appropriate management of business operations and actions that will cause the firm to have a good market share and effective growth. For the current report, Marks and Spencer and Sainsbury are taken in consideration. Both are UK based organisations that are operating in retail sector.
For the report, a rationale will be presented for reason behind selecting a specific firm. The response of these firms to drivers of change and their similarities and differences will be analysed. Besides this, different drivers of change are identified. The internal and external drivers are taken in consideration along with potential impact of the changes in consideration with various theories and models. Different barriers to organisation and various factors of force field analysis are being considered. Various leadership approach and its extent has been analysed with the effectiveness of these models and approaches.
PART A: TASK 1
Introducing chosen organizations and a brief rational behind choosing them
For report and analysis purpose, Marks and Spencer and Sainsbury have been selected in present report (Van der Voet, Kuipers and Groeneveld, 2015). Both are the retail organisation and are UK based. As both are the major players in the retail industry of UK, they have to be adaptable and inclusive in nature to have the proper changes within their outlets and organisation that will help in the effective management of operations and setting of the effective plans to have a better growth in an organisation.
Marks and Spencer is one of the largest retail organisation within UK with a large number of loyal customer base which helps the firm to have a significant development and growth of the firm. On the other hand, Sainsbury is emerging gradually in the UK and is impacting the market share of M&S to a greater extent. This has affected the business operations that will help the firm to grow and develop (Yoder-Wise, 2014).
Both the firms has a good market share and profitability, the firms will look after the proper management of the various driving factors which will lead the firm to have the good growth and development. This will help the firm to undertake the operations and action plans that will lead the organisation to have a good management of the business operations and action plans that will help the organisation to have a good and effective growth and development (Espedal, 2017). The assessment of the business activities and operations will lead the firm to carry out the significant operations that will help the organisation to adopt suitable change factors that will help the firm to carry out the business operations and activities in much effective and significant manner. Besides this, the proper management of business operations and setting up of the activities causes the firm to have the better management of change processes that are been carried out at the workplace. Both the retail enterprise will see through the adoption of effective business operations and activities. M&S and Sainsbury, both will see through the assessment of the key drivers of the changes or alteration factors that will impact the business operations and activities in much suitable and effective manner (Wylie and et.al., 2017).
Comparing how each organization has responded to the drivers for change and types of organizational change they have affected
Various drivers of changes that are being considered are as follows:
The firm is known to have been affected by the employee mismanagement. This had lead the organisation to carry out the business operations and activities (Drago-Severson and Blum-DeStefano, 2018).
The firm is required to have the better management of the work force in order to meet the operations and thus will help the organisation to carry out their business activities.
The change in customers taste and variation in their requirement is the major factor that leads the firm to have changes and variation in their process.
Customers’ requirements will lead the firm to adopt and offer new range of products and services. That will help the firm to carry out the business operations and activities (Glass and Cook, 2016).
Any sort of technological change may hinder or foster the performance of the firm in a very significant manner.
As this firm, Sainsbury will look after the adoption of the technological changes in order to have a good rise in the customer satisfaction and maintaining their revenue.
This is the key driving factor for the operations and led the firm to have a good growth and development and rise in the setting of the new business strategies and operations and activities as per their competitors (Ramanathan Subramanian and Parrott, 2017).
Competitive advancements and action plans are required to be managed in order to have a good assessment of the needs and demands of customers to carry out operations in an effective way by setting new strategies.
M&S has seen the stagnant growth rate in recent years due to lack of proper strategies and operations which are analysed by firm.
Sainsbury has seen the tremendous market growth due to adaptability to new changes and effective management of its retail operations.
The suitable and effective assessment of these key driving factors will help the organisation to carry out the business operations and activities to a greater extent. This will not only affect the setting up of the business operations and action plans but will also help the firm to have a significant management of the retail activities and assimilate innovative changes to meet the operations of the organisation in an suitable and significant manner. This will lead to the development of effective strategies and action plans which will help in meeting the business operations to a greater extent.
Evaluating the ways in which internal and external drivers of change may affect leadership behaviour and the behaviour of teams and individuals
In both the organisations, M&S and Sainsbury respectively, there will be certain internal and external factors which will impact the business operations and activities in a suitable manner. The development of a business intelligent is essential with a motive to conduct assessment of the operations and activities that been conducted by retail enterprises for significant leadership (Gardetti and Torres, 2017). The managers, operators and other significant stake holders in both the firms will see through the suitable management and thus will help the organisation to carry out business operations according to retail activities. Some of the major internal and external change drivers that will impact the leadership and behaviour of a team and individual of the organisation are as follows:
Internal Change Factors:
- Capabilities: The capabilities and business operations will help the firm to carry out the business operations by an employee or any stake holder in the management of M&S and Sainsbury (Clark and Wójcik, 2018). A good capability to perform a business operations and function will lead to the development of a suitable and efficient leadership that will assist in execution of the business activities and operations in a suitable and significant manner.
- Resources: The availability of resources to carry out the business operations that will help both the firm to enhance the business operations and carrying out the suitable measures to have a good leadership and performance of the firm to meet growth factors of M&S and Sainsbury.
- Communication: A good and effective interaction and communication process will help the organisation to handle the leadership measures and developing a good understanding with the person that will help M&S and Sainsbury to enhance the qualities of a leader, an employee or a team as a whole. This will also help in setting up of the effective operations and activities and thus will lead the organisation to carry out a good behaviour and effective growth (Daft and Marcic, 2016).
- Satisfaction level: This is the key role that is required to be analysed by the company. A good satisfaction level will help in developing an effective planning of the action plan that will help the organisation to carry out the business activities and meet leadership constraints in much effective manner.
- Motivation: This is required to be owned by an organisation to have a good scope of management. It will help in the setting up of the proper leadership measures and thus will lead the development of a good behaviour of M&S and Sainsbury. A motivating environment at both the retail firms that will support a good rise in the business activities and operations.
External change factors:
- Customers: the needs and requirements of customers is required to be managed in a significant manner to have a good leadership and development of a positive behaviour among the employees and managers that will help the firm to have a good management of the business operations and developing of a positive behaviour that help in generation of the goodwill (Allen, 2018).
- Competitors: The market and business strategies that are been undertaken by the organisation that will help the firm to carry out the business operations and thus will help in suitable management of the business and other functions of retail operations that are being considered by the organisation.
- Investors: Both the firms are required to have a good relation with their investor as he will look after the proper execution of business operations in an effective way. A good leadership with positive and supportive behaviour will lead the organisation to have a good management of business operations to a greater extent.
- Technology: The technological operations and the other requirements are required to be fulfilled by the organisation that will help in the suitable management of a business operations in an effective manner. Besides this, it will lead to a good range of communication and thus will lead the firm to enhance the interpersonal relationship (Coghlan and Shani, 2015).
- Government: The governmental policies and action plans are required to be effectively managed that will help the firm to enhance their business performance and thus will lead the organisation in an effective manner. Besides this, the leadership measures that are been undertaken by M&S and Sainsbury will lead the firm to manage the change measures to be followed.
Evaluating measures that can be taken to minimize the negative impacts of change on organizational behavior
A wide range of operations and action plans are analysed by both the retail enterprises that will not only help the firm to carry out the business operations and activities but will also lead the firm to have a significant amount of impact on the organisational behaviour of various stakeholders and other operational factors that are been taken in the consideration by the organisation (Nelsonâ€Brantley and Ford., 2017). The negative impact of changes in both the firms like failure of negotiation process due to lack of proper communication, non-supportive governmental policies, dumping of project due to financial crisis or conflicts at the work place may affect their performance. Thus the management of the organisation have to effectively undertake the suitable measures to enhance the quality of services that are been undertaken and thus minimize the conflicts and misunderstandings that will be taken at the place at the organisation. This is required to be done as this will help both M&S and Sainsbury to improve their market performance and will cause the organisations to have a good growth. Some of the effective measures are:
- Preventing improper leadership: As the organisation will have to see through the proper management of the business activities and operations that will be evaluated to have a good leadership (Rogers and Marres, 2016). A poor and misleading leadership will cause the organisation to carry out the business operations and action plans in a negative way. Effective and efficient person is required to be placed as a leader that will help in carrying out their business operations in much effective manner.
- Improving employee’s morale: The reduction in the motivation and satisfaction level of the organisation which will help the firm to carry out the business operations and activities in a significant manner. An organisation is required to undertake suitable measures to accept and implement the effective ways to encourage its employees.
- Setting up an effective change plan: This is been followed by the organisation that will help the fir m to carry out the business operations in an effective manner. A proper planning and scheduling of the action plans and meeting of the suitable measures will lead the firm to adopt and implement the changes in much effective and appropriate manner.
- Accepting the changes in a positive manner: The management and the leaders working at both the firms will help the organisation to have a good management of business activities and action plans that will help in setting the business operations and action plans in much significant manner (Glass and Cook, 2016). The work force in both the rival retail organisations is required to make its employees understand the benefits of changes that will be taken at the firm.
Applying appropriate theories and models to critically evaluate organizational response to change
Various theories like Scientific theories, Administrative, Human relations theory and the models like Kurt Lewin’s change management theories will help the fir to carry out the business operations and activities that will help the organisation to carry out their change related operations in much effective and significant manner. This will help the organisation to enhance their business activities and this will help the firm to improve the quality of operations that are being considered. All these measures and models will lead the firm to carry out the business operations and activities in much suitable manner. Some of the major theories and models that are been taken in consideration by both the selected firms are as follows:
Frederik Taylor Scientific theory
Also, knows as the classical management theory, this theory emphasises the use of effective utilisation of the work efficiency of their staff within the organisation (Drago-Severson and Blum-DeStefano, 2018). The theory states that the proper management of the business operations and the activities that will help the firm to carry out effective planning of strategies and action plans that will lead to motivate the employees to perform better at both the organisation. A good management of excellence will help the firm to meet their operational requirements. It helps the firm to delegate the responsibilities and train its workers to have a good management of the business activities and action plans to have the effective change management.
Administrative theory by Henry Fayol
This theory will help both the firm to look after the effective management of business activities and action plans that will lead to the rise in the effective management of the application of various change related concepts within the firm (Wylie and et.al., 2017). It includes various principles, precisely 14 in number that are required to be followed at the work place by the organisation to have a suitable focus over the operations and activities that will lead to the management of different change related operations in an organisation.
Kurt Lewin Change theory
This theory is known to provide the high level change management within an organisation like M&S and Sainsbury. It helps the organisation to develop the suitable framework to implement proper changes at the work place (Espedal, 2017). It basically involves 3 major steps which are analysed by the firm to analyse, implement and sustain various form of changes that are been undertaken to have a good growth and thus will lead to the significant management of the various operations and action plans. Other than this, the measures will help the firm to carry out the business operations and action plans that will lead to manage different form of action plans and activities at the work place. The three major steps of Change theory is as follows:
- Unfreeze: This is the stage where the organisation look after to have the proper management of change factors and measures that are been undertaken at the organisation (Yoder-Wise, 2014). This will lead to the assessment of the effective practices and techniques that are irrelevant and can influence the performance of the organisation. This will help the fir to replace this actions with more effective and efficient tools and techniques that are being analysed in much suitable and effective manner.
- Change or implementation: This is the process where both the retail organisations will incorporate the enhanced and advance change management tools and techniques that will lead to the rise in setting up of an efficient and appropriate work measure to be taken at the work place (Van der Voet, Kuipers and Groeneveld, 2015). This will involve the measures that are been undertaken to the reduction of the chaos and misconceptions related to the change or alteration process that has been considered. The resources related to the change process are been undertaken with the implementation of a proper structure and action plan that will lead to the imbibing of appropriate changes within the firm.
- Freeze: This is the finalising of the change management processes that are been undertaken to carry out the business operations and thus will help in improving the processes and actions that are been taken in consideration by the firm to adopt and implement an effective structure that will help in setting the criteria’s to maintain and follow that will catalyse and will create a platform for the changes or enhancements that will be made in the organisation in the future (Doppelt, 2017). Besides this, it will help in placing proper enhancement measures to meet the business operations and have the good rise in the action plans and business activities in an effective manner.
Explaining different barriers of change in influencing leadership decision making
The change is replicated as vital part of life where business should be capable for embracing it with absence of excuse. In the similar context, top level will formulate idea for certain change which should be implemented for enabling Marks and Spencer to set stratgeic objectives. Barriers are replicated as creating gap in aspect of recommended and recent practices. Marks and Spencer is having negative impact with regular process of production. The common barriers to alter implementation is as follows:
- Lack of Employee involvement: With context of change management, it is very usual barrier. The employees of Marks and Spencer has fear of change along with involvement in process of change. In this context, very loyal employee would direct resist particular change. The main reason for failure is absence of employee engagement in process of change (Verhulst and Lambrechts, 2015). From this, leader is not able to connect with employees and hence its decision making is hampered with respect to managing change.
- Lack of effective communication strategy: With absence of effective strategy of communication, assumption of leader is that one announcement of change adjust people and it will lead to innovative development. Hence, this assumption is the ineffective method for introducing change in Marks and Spencer. Also, with poor communication, vision and decision of leader is not able to share with subordinate and hence appropriate change is not able to implement in business.
- Unknown current state: Change is replicated as very difficult for Marks and Spencer with lack of idea of current state. Trying for implementing and introducing change with absence of conducting assessment along with appropriate understanding of recent blueprint of Marks and Spencer.
- Bad culture shift planning: The planning team has absence of idea where change will directly impact people. On the present state, it would directly concentrate on administrative structure of planning of Marks and Spencer along with job, work area responsibilities with work reporting structure.
- Complexity: The scenario where Marks and Spencer have developed complex process by making planning process and implementing appropriate alteration is highly complex. The complexities consist of complex products, systems and process as it will provide contribution to change barriers but they are difficult for Marks and Spencer's members for understanding aspect.
Application of force field analysis for analysis of resisting and driving forces for influencing decision making
There is presence of issue for holding balance through interaction of two sets of opposing forces such as seeking for promoting change and to attempt for maintaining status quo. Marks and Spencer would be using Force Field Analysis for dealing and evaluating forces which helps in bringing alteration in its business (Shrivastava, Shrivastava and Ramasamy, 2017). Its understanding helps in gaining knowledge for explaining requirements of change with context of its impact. There are two main forces in action such as:
- Driving force
- Restraining force
The driving force of Marks and Spencer helps for sustaining alteration and restraining forces are replicated which are directly restraining alterations. If consumer has need of innovative product then it is considered as driving force for Marks and Spencer. On the contrary, if organization has inability for handling technology for future than it is considered as restraining force. The driving or restraining forces are determined through Force Field analysis. If stronger force is chosen then Marks and Spencer could take effective decision for change (Emmrich and et.al., 2015).
The completion of analysis of force field helps for providing better explanation of decision as it is important tool with context of actual process of decision making. With identification of these forces they are strengthening alteration, as decision could be undertaken with proper support of forces. This movement is similar to restraining forces. If strategies are identified then it could be replicated as for appropriate management (Visenack and et.al., 2014). The example of forces are undertaken during performance of analysis with resource availability, organizational structures, relationships, regulations, institutional policies and norms along with traditions as well. It consists of three steps such as:
- Unfreezing: Decrement in strength of forces for purpose of maintaining current equilibrium.
- Moving: Development of innovative organizational attitudes, behaviours and values for helping Marks and Spencer.
- Refreezing: It stabilizes Marks and Spencer after alteration which are presence in innovative equilibrium.
Critical evaluation of application of force field analysis for accomplishing objectives
Force field analysis is referred as one of the great change management tool which is used for managing change in Marks and Spencer for obtaining successful organizational strategies of change management. It helps organisation in various aspect but it is double edge sword with presence of both advantages and disadvantages for accomplishing objectives (Hoover and Harder, 2015).
It helps in giving visual summary of different forces which are against or in favour for particular alteration, where whole information is gathered on basis of potential decision in single picture of Marks and Spencer. The obstacles could be determined for strengthening forces which supports the decision for evaluating decision to take actions for decreasing or reducing forces preventing it. In the similar aspect, it is visual aid and to simplify communication among Marks and Spencer staff along with break down communication barriers (Van der Voet, Kuipers and Groeneveld, 2015). This analysis helps in assisting group for purpose of developing common understanding of subject as all members of group will depict clear concept related to opinion and options on basis of situation of Marks and Spencer.
However, it is not similar to other methods where full participation is not possible and it is very hard to reflect whole picture of various restraining and driving forces. It has huge requirement of participation of every group member so that it will reflect requirement of information for perspective of better analysis as it is very hard for accomplishing objective of Marks and Spencer. The potential issue of this force field analysis might reflect worse influence on team work as it will lead to division in particular group among those with proper support to alteration along with ones who are not in favour to change (Swanson and Creed, 2014).
Different leadership approaches to deal with change in M&S
Various leadership approaches and measures are been taken in consideration by the organisation that will help the firm to carry out their effective change management operations and thus will help in managing the business operations and action plans of the organisation (Lopez and Wise, 2015). The leaders or directors in the management will see through the proper handling of the business activities and thus will lead the organisation to enhance the quality of services that are required to be taken at cited retail enterprises. Some major leadership approaches that can be adopted by the organisation are as follows:
- Autocratic leadership approaches: This is known as the Victorian approach of leadership as the decision making authority of the firm is been held by only one person and the concerning groups in the firm have no involvements and inputs in it. This sort of leadership may lead to the dissatisfaction among the workforce at the organisation and thus can cause the failure of the organisational structure of the firm. However, through this style, change can be implemented in quicker manner as there is no intervention of subordinates in it. Through this, ultimate motive to change can be attained faster.
- Democratic leadership approach: This is a leadership approach that is better than the Victorian or autocratic leadership approach as it involves the employees or the staff to have a good decision making and thus will help the firm to have a god decision making approach at M&S. This style of leadership is appropriate is required change is not of strategic level and is just of operational level. Through this, better suggestions is received from employees and hence decision can be made accordingly.
- Situational leadership approach: this is the form of leadership approach that alters from time to time depending on the decision-making and situations prevailing at the work place of M&S. This leads to minimize and mitigate the risk factors associated with the changes within the firm (Laureiroâ€Martínez and et.al., 2015).
For the selected organisation, the implementation of democratic and situational measures are been taken in consideration that will help the firm to carry out their business operations and thus will lead to the effective implementation of the change measures by the organisation. This will also help the firm to carry out business operations and activities that will help the organisation to manage development of selected retail enterprises.
Evaluating the extent to which leadership approaches can deliver change effectively
The leadership approaches that are been taken in consideration by the organisation will impact its operations and activities in much suitable and effective manner that will help the organisation to carry out the business operations and change management approaches of the management in a very effective way (Van der Voet, Kuipers and Groeneveld, 2015). The measures that are been taken in the consideration by the selected retail enterprises will help the firm to have a good growth and development by applying suitable measures and setting up of the business operations activities.
The leadership measures and approaches that are been implemented within the organisation will lead the firm to enhance the change management measures that are been taken in consideration by the firm. Various leadership models and approaches are been undertaken in consideration by the organisation such as:
- Transactional model: It is the leadership model that is been taken in consideration by the firm to improve the change related communication process within the selected retail enterprise. His model will lead the organisation to enhance the service quality and thus lead the organisation to have a better growth and development (Glass and Cook, 2016).
- Fore running model: This is the model that helps the firm to lead the organisation to carry out the operations and action plans that will help the organisation to enhance the quality of services that is been offered by the organisation to their customers. The leaders set the standards of change management that are required to be met by all the operations and activities that will help the organisation to enhance the quality of services in much efficient and significant manner.
Both the models with the incorporation of various leadership approaches and theories will lead to have a good share of operations that will lead the organisation to enhance the quality of products and services that are been adopted and implemented within the firm.
Critically evaluating the effectiveness of leadership approaches and models
The various leadership approaches and models like democratic approach or forerunning model that are been taken within the consideration by the selected retail enterprise M&S will help the firm to enhance the quality of services and thus will lead the organisation to carry out the change management process within the organisation in a very effective way (Solomon and et.al., 2014). This will help the firm to enhance the measures that will help the organisation to enhance the quality measures that will help the organisation to enhance the change management measures and thus will lead to rise in the quality measures in a very effective manner. This will also help the firm to improve the quality of services that they offer to their customers and thus will lead the organisation to meet the customers’ needs and requirements in a very effective way.
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On the basis of the evaluation process that is been carried out at M&S and Sainsbury, this is been concluded that the proper management of change function helps the firm top grow and develop effectively. The complexity programs and the change management activities are been taken in the consideration that will help the firm to carry out the business operations and activities more effectively. The response of the teams towards the change measures and the different sort of measures that are been undertaken by the organisation will help the firm to meet the steps top deal with various sort of changes. The assessment of the leadership behaviours and appropriate theories are been taken in consideration by the firm with stages to minimise its negative impact. Various barriers to changes and effective decision making process is been taken in consideration by the organisation. Their influence of decision making is been evaluated with the proper assessment to decision making processes are been taken in consideration on the basis of force field measures. Also, different leadership approaches are been evaluated to identify their impact on the change management process and the effectiveness of these measures are been discussed in reference to the selected retail firm.