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Data analysis and design helps in creating foundation for the purpose of delivering BI application (Jonathan, 2008). By conducting data analysis business need of data and information can be understood. Likewise, by using design approach business information needs can be converted into data structure which is extensible and adaptable. This report will provide detailed description regarding concepts that are associated with data models and database technologies.

Task 1

1.1 Critically Comparing Different Data Models And Schemas

A comparison has been drawn between different data models and schemas which are depicted in below given table:

Data model arranges data element and forms relationship between them. This model is used by the organization with an aim to manage all its information.It is the blue print of data structure which basically represents the logical of entire database.

Data model arranges data element and forms relationship between them. This model is used by the organization with an aim to manage all its information. It is the blue print of data structure which basically represents the logical of entire database.
It is the high level design implementation which helps in making the about the data that can be presented in schemas (Difference between database model and schemas, 2015) However, in comparison to these data schemas gives specification regarding the field as well as its type that will be presented in the database.
It formulates overall structure of data which can be relational where whole data are arranged in set of tables. Schemas isolate both users and database object owner. However, with respect to relational model schemas would be set of attributes.
The data model is of three type such as logical data model, conceptual data model and physical data model etc. Physical and logical database schemas are being regarded as two basic types of data schemas.
In order to formulate the suitable design database, designer has to cover all the data aspects. Here, designer faces complexity in the process when the design of data moves from conceptual data model to physical one (Collins, Buhalis and Peters, 2003). Data schemas give thorough description regarding entities and the relationship that exist between them. By using this, database designer provides help to programmers and thereby it raises understanding of them regarding all the aspects.

In order to clarify the difference between different data models, following table is formulated:

AspectsConceptual data modelLogical data modelPhysical data model

Aspects Conceptual data model Logical data model Physical data model
Entity name Defined Defined  
Entity relationships Defined Defined  
Attributes   Defined  
Primary Keys   Defined Defined
Foreign Keys   Defined Defined
Table Names     Defined


1.2 Critically Discussing The Benefits And Limitations Of Varied Database Technologies

Following are the benefits and limitations of varied database technologies:

Entity relationship model

It is being regarded as one of the type of database technology. This model is the graphical representation of system where it shows the relationship that exist between people, process, places and event that works within system. This model is used as the foundation of statistics relational database.


  • It represents relationship between entities straightforwardly.
  • This model is flexible as it easily converts itself into hierarchical and network data model (Singh, 2011).


  • This model is useful when high level designing will be performed.
  • There is no industry standard notation with an aim to carry out the development of entity relationship model.

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Data flow diagram

It is the graphical representation of flow of data by using information system. Data flow diagram is the starting stage for creating overview of whole system. This database technology is also used for visualizing data processing. This diagram provides description regarding the information which will be inputted and outputted from and within system.


  • It assists in describing the boundary for whole system.
  • It is an easily recognizable approach as it uses straightforward graphical technique.
  • This technique can be easily understood by both technical and non technical audiences.


  • This diagram lacks in physical consideration (Rosenblatt and Shelly, 2011).
  • It is a very time consuming approach.

1.3 Analyzing Varied Approaches To Database Design

Top down and bottom up are being regarded as two basic types of approaches which are used with an aim to design the database. Both the given approaches work upon the common goal such as uniting the system by clarifying the relationship that exists between data. The structure of the firm is affected through different type of factors such as scope and size of the enterprise.

Data Design

Top down database design starts from the general approach and gradually it moves on to the specific approach. On the other hand, it can also be said that in the given form of designing, designer will form general idea about the data which is needed in the system. After that, designer will move on to more specific details in which it basically defines that how system will interact (Wasson, 2006). Thus, in the given process designer will basically identify varied entity types and after that it gives definition regarding each entities attributes. It is most effective way of designing data as it split large team into several subsystems. Furthermore, it uses encapsulation with an aim to encourage the object oriented programming.

Data Analysis

Besides this, bottom up is another type of database designing approach. This form of database designing initiates with specific approach and gradually it moves on to general approach. Here, in the given form of designing system analyst will conduct inspection in which it inspects all the interfaces which database possess. Here, analyst works backwardly through system where it analyzes that what data should be stored in the database. In addition to this, in the given model at first the designer will identify the data element and then it will group them together in the form of data sets (Collins, Buhalis and Peters, 2003). In the given type of system, team can perform code functioning of subsystem in a very fast manner. Both given approaches are popular form of data designing. However, there are some companies which use centralized and decentralized form in order to design their data in an effective manner.


It can be concluded that, by carrying out the comparison between different data models and schemas, the selection of the best approach will be carried out by the manager of firm. In addition to this, by selecting suitable database design proper arrangement of firm's data can be made.


  • Difference between database model and schemas. 2015. [Online]. Available through: <>. [Accessed on 8th October 2015].
  • Jonathan, F., 2008. The UK's faster payment project: avoiding a bonanza for cybercrime fraudsters. Journal of Financial Crime. 15 (2). PP. 155–164.
  • Rosenblatt, J. H. and Shelly, B. G., 2011. Systems Analysis and Design. Cengage Learning.
  • Singh, K. S., 2011. Database Systems: Concepts, Design and Applications. Pearson Education India.
  • Wasson, S. C., 2006. System Analysis, Design, and Development: Concepts, Principles, and Practices. John Wiley & Sons.