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# Comprehending English Phrases in the Text | Essential Ideas

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• Unit No: N/A
• Level: High school
• Pages: 7 / Words 1649
• Paper Type: Assignment
• Course Code: N/A

## 1. Proposition In The Passage

[1] The very low temperatures on the Earth under the equator, at a height where the barometer stands at about three times as high as on Mars, prove that (from the scantiness of the atmosphere alone) Mars cannot possibly have a temperature as high as the freezing point of water.

[2] Langley's found that the lowest temperature of Mars is not far from the temperature of space and Thus the temperature of Mars is wholly incompatible with the existence of animal life.

[3] Dr Storey finds that in order to retain water vapour permanently a planet must have a mass at least a quarter that of the earth.

[4] The mass of Mars is only one-ninth that of the Earth; therefore, unless there are some special conditions that prevent its loss, water vapor cannot exist on Mars, and therefore, the first essential of organic life - water - is non-existent.

[5] Animal life, especially in its higher forms, cannot exist on Mars. Therefore, it is not only uninhabited by intelligent beings but absolutely uninhabitable.

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## 2. Use of Proposition In The Structure Diagram

YES [1] The very low temperatures on the Earth under the equator, at a height where the barometer stands at about three times as high as on Mars, proves that (from the scantiness of the atmosphere alone) Mars cannot possibly have a temperature as high as the freezing point of water.

YES [2] Langley found that the lowest temperature of Mars is not far from the temperature of space and Thus the temperature of Mars is wholly incompatible with the existence of animal life.

YES [3] Dr. Storey finds that in order to retain water vapor permanently a planet must have a mass at least a quarter that of the Earth.

YES [4] The Mass of Mars is only one-ninth that of the Earth; therefore, unless there are some special conditions that prevent its loss, water vapor cannot exist on Mars, and therefore, the first essential of organic life - water - is non-existent.

YES [5] Animal life, especially in its higher forms, cannot exist on Mars and is absolutely uninhabitable.

## 3. Suppressed Premises

Inference [1 to 2]:

[6] Mars cannot possibly have a temperature as high as the freezing point of water and thus its lowest temperature is not far from the temperature of space which makes Mars wholly incompatible with the existence of animal life.

Inference [3 to 4]:

[7]   The mass of Mars is only one-ninth that of the earth which is less than the optimum requirement of having mass at least a quarter for permanent retention of water vapor, making water non-existent at Mars.

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## 4. Argument's Conclusion

[5] Animal life, especially in its higher forms, cannot exist on Mars and is absolutely uninhabitable.

## 6. Verbal Evaluation of Inferences

1.) The inference from [1] and [6] to [2]

This inference is deductively valid because supporting facts and arguments are also given in the passage.

2.) The inference from [3] and [4] to [7]

The inference is deductively valid.

3.) The inference from [7] and [2] to [5]

The inference is deductively valid.

## 7. Verbal Evaluation of The Initial Premise

Premise  [1]: The very low temperatures on the earth under the equator, at a height where the barometer stands at about three times as high as on Mars, proves that (from the scantiness of the atmosphere alone) Mars cannot possibly have a temperature as high as the freezing point of water.

The premise is less plausible and seems to be false. It only gives a possibility that the maximum temperature cannot reach to even the freezing point of water. However, at present several experiments and studies have been conducted which prove that the maximum temperature of Mars can even reach high temperatures. The premise is based on the study from the year 1907, however presently in 2020 more advanced and accurate research has been developed which indicates that the premise is partially false.

Premise  [6]: Mars cannot possibly have a temperature as high as the freezing point of water and thus its lowest temperature is not far from the temperature of space which makes Mars wholly incompatible with the existence of animal life.

The premise seems to be less plausible because a comparison has been made between the highest and lowest possible temperatures at Mars. Since the maximum temperature of Mars is still questionable from the above premise, the given premise is partially false. It may be possible that the temperature of Mars may be incompatible with animal life and its existence but Mars can have a higher temperature than the freezing point of water.

Premise  [3]: Dr. Storey finds that in order to retain water vapor permanently a planet must have a mass at least a quarter that of the Earth.

This premise seems to be absolutely true as high-level scientific research has been conducted to support this argument.

Premise  [4]: The Mass of Mars is only one-ninth of that of the Earth; therefore, unless there are some special conditions that prevent its loss, water vapor cannot exist on Mars, and therefore, the first essential of organic life - water - is non-existent.

The premise is true as supporting evidence is also present in the premise to reflect its relevancy and trustworthiness.

## 8. Conclusion Or Argument

On the basis of the above discussion in question 7, I am not sure about the judgment on-premises [1] and [6]. It means on the basis of inference [6] argument [2] cannot be endorsed. And when the validity of argument [2] is not possible then it cannot lead to the final conclusion [5]. Out of 4 initial premises two of the premises cannot be considered fully accurate and thus they cannot be used as the basis for evaluating final conclusion. In order to build or lead a final conclusion there is a need to perform a more detailed evaluation of the premises so that their validity can be assured and a conclusion can be drawn.

## My Perspective On The Argument

In my opinion, the argument leads to a false dilemma mainly due to the irrelevancy related to time. I have stated above that premises one and six are not correct. The premise [1] states that the Earth under the equator has a very low temperature because at that height barometer has three times higher readings than the height on Mars.  This basis is used to draw the argument that there are higher possibilities that Mass cannot have a high temperature even equal to zero degrees Celsius. However, the claim cannot be considered as scientific evidence which validates the accuracy of the fact. Contrary to this I believe that at that time in 1907 when Alfred Russel Wallace produced the work 'Is Mars Habitable' the given claims may have appeared to be correct.

However, from 1907 to 2020 considerable changes have been made in technology and space research. Thus there is evidence that puts the mentioned premise into debate. Though it cannot be fully claimed to be inaccurate the fact can also not be denied that there may be some possibilities for the claim to be true. In a similar way premise [6] completely discards the possibility of the existence of animal life on the planet. However just on the basis of one parameter a single conclusion cannot be made. Similarly, I feel that the inference [7] puts a stronger argument that since it is not possible to retain the water vapor on Mars the foremost and most important organic element of survival water does not exist on Mars. However, I believe that in the context of 1907, the statement can be considered as completely correct but at present the conclusion may vary. Currently, scientists and research agencies are putting great efforts into exploring the life possibilities on Mars. Thus still no conclusion can be drawn for the life possibilities.

The premises used in the above questions lead to a conclusion that a higher form of animal life cannot exist on Mars and thus the planet is absolutely uninhabitable. In my opinion, one of the key strengths of the arguments is that each and every argument is supported by a necessary claim or fact. I do not hold the ability and expertise to deny the relevancy of presented arguments but I believe that they need more improvement and modifications as per the current scenarios. Further, the argument seems to be probable only instead of complete accuracy. The included premises provide a one-by-one sequence of all necessary claims indicating that life is not supported on Mars. Thus there were no adequate counterarguments were presented that could challenge the premises or answer the question â€œIs life possible on Marsâ€. I think the use of such counterarguments could have helped to develop better premises and conclusions.

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