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CHAPTER 1: Introduction

1.1 Background

Domestic violence against men is experienced by boys or men in an intimate relationship such as dating, cohabitation and marriage etc. On the other hand, women who suffer from domestic violence are encouraged to report of the same to their respective authorities. However, men suffer many issues while doing the same as they need to prove it with lot of efforts along with evidence. It is has been heard that violence between men and women is very common into domestic relationship. Most of the studies reveal that men are more violent than women but there are some areas where women behave in a more aggressive manner with their partners. It can be in several ways under which women are likely to be killed by their former or current partners due to severe injury. Furthermore, majority of the cases reflect that women do kill their partners during the phase of domestic violence (Wilson and Jasinski, 2004). This kind of domestic violence covers emotional or psychological abuse, sexual and physical violence.

There are several studies reflect that women and men are about equally contributing towards initiate domestic violence on almost similar causes. However  outcome of such kind activities might be severe for any of the parties and accordingly create disturbance in entire family (Men and domestic violence: what research tells us, 2017). Also, it has become personal problem rather issue related to society. However, it is highly ignored by the society due to several unveil issue of abuse related to women. It is considered that normally in every society men are more dominating and stronger gender who usually not allow female to dominate. Another fact is that male victims generally do not freely admit that are being violated from the female side (Swan and et. al., 2008). It is the major reason they do not go for professional assistance. At the same time, information societal control too affect such kind of practices where it take time to get that male is abused by female.

At this juncture, it is important to shed light on point of view of nursing, policy and society so that appropriate action can be taken against such kind of practices. However, pre-defined belief that male are more aggressive, sometimes becomes typical as they cannot go to report for the abuse. It is because in-depth inquiry leads to get them a label of aggressor even in case of domestic violence against men (Domestic violence against men, 2017).

1.2 Rationale of the study

Domestic violence is prevalent in a general community and it is affecting all  individual in term of  socioeconomic status, age and sexual orientation. Along with that, race, religion and  nationality are also covered. Generally lack of understanding become the common reason and accordingly individual or partners face issue in living together. It is the main reason that physical violence also take place along with emotionally abusive and controlling behavior as part of a systematic pattern of control and dominance. It is very important to conduct research in this areas and find out potential causes behind the same so that appropriate action can be taken to resolve such kind of situations among partners. Furthermore, these kind of activities affect individual to a great extent and they cannot leave their relationship due to several reasons.Buy dissertation Help Online

The cases of physical or emotional abuse against men is increasing day by day which create indiscipline into the society. This has direct impact on personal as well as professional life of male partners and they cannot focus on their routine activities. Also, such kind of personal life tend to increase stress level. Owing to this, current study is being conducted to find the reasons behind domestic violence against men and potential ways to stop the same. It would be effective to discover several factors and meet the requirement of all associated parties.

1.3 Research aim and objectives

The research aim and objectives of the study are stated as follows which shed light on actual requirement of the study. This is helpful for scholar to access appropriate source of information and accordingly draw valid outcome for the study-


To analyze the scenario of female-on-male domestic abuse in context of public services and society


  • To identify the reasons behind domestic violence against men
  • To examine the consequences of domestic violence against men for both partners; male and female
  • To recommend different ways to reduce domestic violence against men

1.4 Structure of the study

The structure of dissertation must be effective to present its findings and focus on results of the same. For this purpose, appropriate structure of the dissertation is selected to present the outcome effectively. The structure of current dissertation has been explained as follows-

  • Chapter 1: Introduction- The chapter of introduction consists of information related to topic under investigation. It broadly covers background, research aim and objectives, rationale of the study etc so as that readers can clarify the scenario by referring even the first chapter of the study. It proves detail overview behind the rationale of the study and potential benefits of the same.
  • Chapter 2: Literature review-The literature review section of the study is considered as the most important chapter as it is completed by referring previous studies on the same topic. This helps researcher to develop deep understanding of the study and adopt the effective procedure for completion of the same bring valid outcome. It consists of major portion of entire dissertation by dissemination of valid outcome regarding the selected topic.
  • Chapter 3: Research methodology-Third chapter of dissertation is of research methodology under which all important information related to methods of data collection, research design, philosophy and data collection as well as analysis are added. This chapter is completed with detail discussion of methods and justification of the selected one.
  • Chapter 4: Data analysis-After the completion of research methodology section, research moves to the next chapter as of data analysis. Under this, all collected data are analyzed in the light of research aim and objectives. Furthermore, in-depth analysis is done to reach the reach aim and present the findings in a more effective manner.
  • Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations-It is the last chapter of the dissertation which provide the conclusive form in the line of research objective. This chapter is summary of data analysis and literature review. Furthermore, suggestions art also covered to meet the last objective of the study under which scholar propose ways to reduce the domestic violence against male.


2.1 Introduction

Literature review chapter provide detail overview about the selected topic as varied previous studies are considered for the same. Here, sources like journals, books and online articles are referred for collection of data. The current study also use varied source of information in order to develop deep understanding of author and enable him to explore appropriate source so as to produce valid outcome. However, researcher can effectively explore the valid information in accordance with collected information. This proves to be the most effective for researcher to extract valid outcome. In addition to this, literature review is done with the help of framed research aim and objectives. This aids to construct appropriate themes and  accordingly complete the entire chapter of literature review. Moreover, this chapter also includes that theoretical framework and models for exploring more information about the topic.

2.2 The reason behind domestic violence against male

As per the view of Bowyer, Swanston and Vetere (2015) over the past few years, there has been a significant increase in the domestic violence carried out by females against their male partners. Furthermore, the main problem associate here is that the assaults faced by men in terms of domestic violence are completely ignored by police.  According to the data published in the Sun, it has been observed that more than 5500 girlfriends and wives has been convicted in terms of carrying out domestic violence or assaulting their male partners. On the other side, the issue has emerged as Taboo because majority of the male victims feels ashamed in context of taking and sharing their experience about the domestic abuse and violence which they have faced.  Most of the time, biasness is carried out among men and women and this has also become a major challenge which needs to be overcome. Has explained that most of time women thinks that they have right to control their partners and for this purpose they often make use of practices such as domestic violence and abuse.  On the other side of this, has critically argued that the increasing consumption of drugs and alcohol among women and this can be termed as another major cause behind the domestic violence against male.

According Lichenstein and Johnson (2009)the dangerous pattern of behavior of women should be understood at first in order to identify the cause behind such kind of issues. The first one is violence prone behaviour women are actually the victim of their own aggression and violence. At this juncture, they show all their aggression on male partners and pressurize them to follow whatever they order for. This kind of practices affect their relationship to a great extent. At this juncture, it is important to shed light on behavior of individual or female in a relationship so that effectively its impact can be seen on relationship. It proves to be effective for individual to focus upon having peaceful life. On the other hand, abused as child is another important fact which shows that a person who is abused in the childhood will definitely behave in certain manner. Such kind of circumstances do affect the human behavior to a great extent where they need support from each other for managing the situation in a more effective manner.

In some of the relationship men consider the attack of female as funny or cute. It is because they hit through things in some complicated situation which are generally considered as the more common. It can be critically evaluated women with alcohol and drug make huge difference and problem of conflicts between partners. Owing to this, such kind of situation is resolved with the help of taking medication. Though, inappropriate situation tend to affect human situation in a very bad manner. Apart from this, eating disorder among female also become the potential reason behind their higher level of aggression and affect them in completing all related task. Kracke and Hahn (2008) asserted that border line personality disorder on the hand affect the relationship of individual. Here, women do not have idea regarding their work and they are doing worst with their partners. It would affect their living badly and accordingly they find issue in managing their personal life in a most appropriate manner.

According to Walby and Allen (2004) other mental illness which consists of bipolar disorder and malignant as well as attention deficit disorder have direct impact on the violent behavior of an individual. Such kind of situation might prove very difficult for male partner to tolerate the aggression of his own partner. This is because female partner who is suffering from such kind of disease tend to behave in a very abnormal manner which become the potential reason behind their higher level of dissatisfaction. This must need suitable solution for effective bonding of both partners and ensuring well being of each other. Worcester (2002) further argued that Psychopaths female partner is another potential reason behind increasing the domestic violence against men.  It can be understood with the help of three common indicators where men is at risk from psychopathic partner in terms of paranoia, psychostimulants, and weapons. Here, common factors of such kind of partners include pathological lying, grandiosity and short attention span as well as manipulativeness etc.  However, generally many of the women suffer from the issue of  emotional feelings. This in turn they seems that their partners are not understanding their feelings and accordingly get dissatisfaction from the same. These kind of situation make their relationship more critical and effect them.  Though, emotional problem of female partner forces them to opt abusive and violent behavior. In this situation domestic violence occur with male partners and again they get in contact with depression and higher level of tension.

According to Miller and Meloy (2006) there are many other forms of female aggression include money and jealousy through which they hurt their male partner. Here, the first point of money is considered under which it is observed that aggression level of women increased by throwing things or hitting.  Most of the time, there remain a common issue of money. Here, most of the time, they feel scarcity of money and they start taking tension which then again reduces their mental balance and affect their stable life in a very bad manner. It reflects that financial stability matter a lot for better relationship of male and female. This is because when a person find issue when he or she cannot manage the expenses and income effective for having better life style. Generally female expect money from their partner to complete their routine activities. It can be critically evaluated that, most of the female find their source of income at their own and manage the same accordingly. Though, many of the times they do not get the good job and might leave because of personal reason. Such kind of situations tend to disturb life of male partners and other related affairs of their personal life.

On the other hand, jealousy on the hand, force women to attack on men in several manner. For example, if a male partners is talking to another female for the purpose of business and personal issues then it might make the women more aggressive. It is because they cannot tolerate the excessive talking of male partner with another one. Such kind of situation tend to affect their life to a great extent and make it more impossible for them manage the normal life in an effectual manner. However, these kind of reasons are not identified by the society as they considered as the most common.

2.3 Publicly available services for male victim

The study of Grady (2002) revealed that domestic violence is constructed socially as acts done by female are generally ignored. He stated that crime which is taking place is society is stereotype.  It can be critically evaluated that legislation are framed on the basis of external principles through which social belief is developed that crime is not social acceptable. However, it is found that injury cause to both partners during the domestic violence but still the cases reported for the abuse is less for men. It can be critically evaluated that they are suffered a lot from abused relationship. Furthermore, Grady reported that female are getting advantages in term of violence because of assumption of society that male always considered as dominant partner. However, criminal system must initiate to adopt appropriate procedure in order to protect the physical abuse among partners and support their peaceful life. Here, public services such as police and social services are considered that how effectively they are contributing towards securing right of an individual. However, crime is initiated on the basis of pressure group, social idea and media where focus is laid on on the violence of male against female only. Here, the fact remains non discovered which tend to affect life of people to a great extent. It is the major reason that crime is increasing and male face issue in getting the advantage of public services effectively.

At this juncture, people should be supported with the regulations and appropriate public services. However, they face issue related to providing evidence of the fact in order to promote their better life. For this purpose, efforts are put to show the evidence and accordingly resolve the critical situation which is being faced by particular male through their female partner. On a critical note, violence must be noticed by public services also so that male do not feel shame to report for the same. It would be effective to reduce the level of stress they have. In addition to this, study conducted by Grady reflects that availability of public services make the procedure of fair treatment with male victim. At this juncture, necessary services related to police, justice or court related provided for men in order to protect their right and get rid  of abusive relationship. However, many of the times it happens that services are not provided properly due to lack of evidence and stereotype of domestic abuse do not allow people to file their complaints. For this purpose, appropriate regulations can be formed for betterment of people or other parties to promote good relationship and freedom of both partners. On a critical note, Hoyle and Young (2002) police fail to notice the issue related to female on male domestic violence. Although, both are equally liable for the conflicts which is taking place between them. It is because of lack of understanding among both of them. Furthermore, female partners become more aggressive for their self defense in case of conflict between partners. It is the major reason that men have to suffer from abusive relationship. At this juncture, it is important to have necessary legislation which support effective relationship among partners and prevent the criminal aspects among them.

2.4 The consequences of domestic violence

It can be stated that domestic violence can impact the overall health and well being of a person to a great extent. On the other hand, Jewkes, Flood and Lang (2015) has expressed that domestic violence can results in different kinds of mental, physical and sexual injuries to male. In some cases domestic violence carried out by women also results in bring up different types of social economic problems. The serious consequences of domestic abuse also includes loss of earnings and sometimes employment. As per the view of Pain (2014) the mental health condition of males can be triggered with such kind of violence and abuse by their female partners. Apart from this, the feeling of depression is another major  consequences of such kind of abuse. Males suffering from domestic violence suffers in both personal as well as professional life. Changes in appetite, weight loss, loss of interest and energy level in different activities are some other consequences which has been faced by males who suffer from domestic violence (Modi, Palmer and Armstrong, 2014).

According to Kracke and Hahn (2008) domestic violence against men tend to affect the personal life of both partners. In this manner, their personal life get affected to a greater level which in turn do not support them to manage the life events in an effectual manner. Generally higher level of aggression against male make them more disturbed towards their personal and professional life both. Owing to this, they become less able to manage their personal and accordingly they find issue in reducing the work load in a most effective manner. Here, the work load can be understood in context of conflicts in a family and burden in office or professional life. However, study conducted by Hines, Brown, and Dunning (2007) revealed that male victims faced physical abuse due to their female partners. They further found that 90% experienced controlling behaviors through, many of them  reported frustrating experiences in term of criminal justice system. However, they reflected that history of domestic violence is persistent just because of mental illness, alcohol and drug related issues of partners. At the same time, in case male partners try to control the situation then they face issue related to  suicidal acts of female partners. This actions create sense of fear among them and threaten their entire experience to a great extent. Owing to this, suitable actions cannot be taken by them and they face the greater level of stress in managing their personal life effectively.

On the other hand, Hines and Douglas (2009) explained that there is regulation for arresting responsible partner in case of domestic violence incidents. For example,  certain policies are formed by jurisdictions had adopted a policy for mandatory or preferred arrest. It can be critically evaluated that, issue is faced in arresting the female partners as the incidents are not reported on time just because of different perspective of individual. However, the number of cases are very high which reflect that both are suffering from severe issue related to conflicts and unable to manage their personal situation effectively. Though, results have not  been drawn due to complex cases and lack of promote solution of the same kind of situation. It shows that female part got the advantages of the same in performing their task effectively. This reason is also increasing the domestic violence against the male.

Here, male feel greater level of depression and they do not find their place to be more effective and supportive for his life. Still, they survive in abusive relationship due to several reason. The first and foremost reason is of blame and dependency of male on abuser for the sake of survival. The another critical factor is attached with their children under which male find it is easy to stay their kids and for their better life. However, they suffer from pain and stress still they decide to live in the abusive relationship. Hines and Douglas (2010) critically evaluated that, they have right to leave the relations but they want to accompany their partners for better life styles and supporting each other. Furthermore, hope of having everything good is also the another aspect which enable them to stay in abusive relationship. This in turn they focus on the similar approach and try to compromise such kind of situation. It tends to bring two kind of results where the first can be favourable and other can be worst. Here, favourable outcome is extracted with the help of mutual understand. Through, the same cannot be possible without cooperation of male partners. In this manner, wait for longer time span might become very typical for male partners.

According to Miller and Meloy (2006) victim of abuse relationship or male partners many a times come in the contact of physical or mental health state just because of domestic violence. Here, they just want to move out of such kind of relationship but boundation affect them to stay in the same. This is the major reason such commit suicide and some switch to another country to get rid of their abuser or female partner. However, physical abused male suffer from internal bleeding, bruises and broken bones as they got suffer from their female partners. At the same time, trust issue develop among them and both start avoiding each other for their own peace of mind. Kracke and Hahn (2008) asserted that impact of domestic violence are very bad under which panic attack and anxiety occur to male partners. This in turn they start to get addict with bad habits of taking more liquor and night out for many days etc. This in turn become another potential reason behind conflict among both partners. Apart from this, health risk factors of domestic violence consists of several risk such as chronic pain, suicide attempt and brain damage etc. At the same time, sexually transmitted disease do have impact on male partners as they might become wild doing the same. In this manner, their level of dissatisfaction increases day by day. Worcester (2002) reported that abused man start feeling the need of care home and it incur cost for the government of nation. It is because lack of financial resources and health related issues tend to access free treatment for such kind of people. For this purpose, higher cost is incurred on different kind of activities. Thus, increased cost of health care is the negative sign for entire economic of particular nation. It is because such cost is increased intentional which affect common citizen or community. In this manner, it becomes important to shed light on varied issues which are being faced by male partners. Though, the focus might not be fruitful due to higher level of aggression among female. Moreover, abused men are generated suffered through several factors such as depression, stress and  psychological perspective effect. This tend to affect their entire lives and do not allow them to explore their career opportunities in more effective manner. Among all these factors, depression remains at top whereby people are highly affected from several kind of disease.


3.1 Introduction

Research methodology refers to systematic plan for conducting the research by considering the qualitative and quantitative methods.  Without application of effective tools for data collection and analysis research cannot draw valid outcome. Owing to this, research methodology chapter is very important which shed light on procedures and methodology selected to reach the fruitful results along with justification of the most suitable strategy. Basically, research methodology covers research design, philosophy, data collection as well as data analysis methods. The methodologies covers for current study has been explained a