Introduction to the Research Process


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Difference Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research

Research or investigation is a systematic process of evaluating and examining a selected problem or issue thoroughly. There are two types of investigation that can be conducted by a researcher such as quantitative and qualitative research. In the former, researcher aims at gathering numerical data, figures and values that can be converted into meaningful statistics. It is especially used to quantify the opinion, variables, thoughts and attitude of the participants in order to find out uncover facts and patterns (Mackey and Gass, 2015). On the other side, qualitative investigation is regarded as an exploratory study that is incorporated to gain an in-depth understanding of people’s opinion so as to address the formulated research questions effectively. Both the research techniques are distinguished from each other in the following terms, presented below:

Qualitative Research

Quantitative Research

This techniques uses focus-group, observation, interviews, Group discussion and other unstructured techniques (Flick, 2015)

Surveys (field, online and mobile), structured observation, face to face interviews, online polls and others

It follows inductive research design

It prefers deductive design to create hypothesis

It is a subjective area of investigation that describes chosen problem in detail

It is more objective, in which, researcher observed facts through interpreting numerical data gathered (Flick, 2015).


Highly structured  

Validity and reliability is greatly depends upon the researcher quality and skills

Validity and reliability highly depends upon the instrument used for investigating gathered data

No statistical tools are used

Statistical tools such as SPSS and others are used to interpret gathered information

Identify the Type and Purpose of the Research

In the selected research, scholar has applied qualitative study, in which, different type of non-numerical information have been gathered to assess the effectiveness of systematic palliative care for the people with dementia. In order to gather required information, scholar has conducted a semi-structured interview as a research instrument. However, a sample of national policymaker experts, service rendering organizations and patients has been selected through using a snow-balling technique. The reason behind selecting semi-structured interview is that it will allow participants to display and represent their understanding clearly in the front of interviewer. Telephonic interview has been organized because it was considered as more convenient way for the informant. However, in order to analyse and examine findings, pragmatic thematic approach has been incorporated, in which, themes have been formulated for every research objectives to evaluate the findings. The main aim of the study was to design a palliative care model for the dementia capturing both commonalities and differences. In order to fulfill the aim, the objectives of the research focuses towards reviewing current services offered to dementia people in 5 European nations that were Norway, Italy, Germany, England, and Netherland. On the basis of the findings, an appropriate palliative care model has been designed to provide better cure services to the people with dementia.


Contribution of the Study Towards Development of Theory and Practice

This research proves highly beneficial and successful to develop a palliative care model for those people suffering from dementia. Critical interpretive synthesis enabled investigator to find out barriers or difficulties in delivering top-quality care services to the patients with dementia. It helps to apply appropriate policies and changed practices so as to render best palliative care to cure dementia by overcoming barriers. Moreover, investigator also analysed the existing health care system of all the five European nations so as to identify all the factors that shape effectiveness of palliative care such as complex payment system and others. Further, investigator has gathered data from healthcare practitioners and professionals regards to the delivery of primary, secondary and tertiary care services to people with dementia. Based upon the findings, a model has been designed representing the entire process of delivery of palliative care.

The generic model clearly described the actual delivery practices that how healthcare professionals, therapists, generalists, pharmacists and other staff such as family doctors, nurses, care workers and others take necessary steps and actions to cure dementia. The model highlighted that professional first identify the requirement of the patient and tailor intervention action to mitigate the same, henceforth, they follows an iterative process and highly focuses towards delivering excellent services. While getting treatment, people have different experience phases such as comprehensive diagnosis, treatment alternatives/self-care, high support requirement, end-of-life care and death at the last stage. Moreover, the study discovered that during the entire service delivery process, each and every patient experiences grief, loss and bereavement from others hence, it has been presented as a base layer.

Investigator also discovered Gold Standard Framework practice, in which, patient need high support. At this stage, service providers have to pay attention to psyco-social needs, PEG/NG tube uses, nutritional requirement, infection management and deploying prognostication tools as well. Further, the report also founded that appropriate skills of the healthcare staff, training and continuous learning, leadership and other also have a significant impact upon the quality of care services to people with dementia. Furthermore, study discovered that labour division, coordination and cooperation and responsibility among practitioners also have a strong effect towards service delivery system. Henceforth, it is essential for the practitioners, therapists and other healthcare staff to alter the process so as to maintain effective coordination and thereby render top-quality cure service to patients with dementia.

Other Question that can be Asked in Chosen Area

In this study, interviewer can also ask questions from the family members of the patients, because they are more knowledgeable about the behaviour, attitude and symptoms of dementia. Moreover, scholar can asked questions directly to the therapists and healthcare practitioners that what are the main barriers and causes that affect the quality of care services. Further, suggestions and appropriate policies can be asked from the professionals to overcome the difficulties and barriers associated with overall system of service delivery process. Further, it also can be asked from the staff that what changes should be introduced in the national healthcare policies to render more effective and qualitative services to cure patients from dementia so that they can live a healthier and happier life.


The Methodology used in the Research

In the present study, qualitative investigation has been undertaken by the scholar to analyze the extent to which palliative care helps in the deal with people with dementia. Hence, according to such investigation deductive approach and interpretivism philosophy has been undertaken by the scholar. All such tools and techniques are highly appropriate which in turn helps in doing qualitative investigation more effectively. Besides this, semi-structured interview has been conducted by the scholar to gather primary data. Hence, researcher has organized interview with the aim to assess the viewpoints of health professionals regarding the aspects of palliative care.

This method of data collection is highly effectual which helps in assessing the viewpoints of care personnel in-depth. However, on the critical note, it can be said that such method of data collection is highly time-consuming. Besides this, in such method there is also the possibility that respondents do not give suitable answer of each question. Hence, chances of biasness limit the significance of such data collection method to the large extent (Panneerselvam, 2014). In this, researcher can also collect the data from health professionals through the means of questionnaire. This method of data collection offers opportunity to the researcher to get all such valuable information within the suitable time frame.

In addition to this, thematic analysis has been done by the scholar with the motive to present the suitable solution of issue or problem. In this, responses of interviewees have been analyzed by the scholar by preparing the individual themes. Thus, on the basis of such aspect suitable solution or outcome of issue has been presented by the scholar. However, it is to be critically evaluated that SPSS technique is highly effectual which in turn helps in analyzing the issue in the right direction. Moreover, by using the regression, chi-square, descriptive statistics tool researcher can find out the highly realistic and suitable solution. The rationale behind this, under thematic analysis researcher makes analysis in accordance with his/her understanding level which in turn indicates the possibility of biasness. Thus, effectiveness of such study can be raised by the scholar by applying the scientific tools and techniques (Blumberg, Cooper and Schindler, 2014). By considering all such aspects it can be said that research tools and techniques which have been employed by the scholar is appropriate to the middle extent. The reason behind this, quantitative investigation and SPSS tools help researcher in determining the level to palliative care helps in improving the situation of people with dementia.

Evaluating the Validity and Reliability of Research

The present study and its outcome are highly valid because researcher has gathered data from several sources such as books, journals and scholarly articles. Before reaching on conclusion data of several years from 1991 to 2014 has been gathered by the scholar. Hence, after making evaluation of all such books and articles brief thesis has been developed by the scholar to analyze the issue in an effectual way. Along with this, proper citation of the sources has been made of the respective sources. This in turn shows that all data has been rephrased and it is not copied. Along with this, researcher has recorded the views of interviewees without any biasness.

In addition to this, to make the study more valid and reliable secondary data regarding dementia has been collected by the scholar from the sites which are protected from copyright. Moreover, authentic websites provide scholar with the highly reliable information and thereby helps in analyzing data in the right direction. Besides this, to ensure the validity aspect researcher did not force the respondents to take part in the interview. This aspect shows that all the care professionals who were selected as sample has provided their views without any compulsion. Further, in order to make data highly confidential password has been generated by the scholar. This in turn enables researcher to restrict the access of others in relation to making use of data (Mackey and Gass, 2015). Along with this, there was no manipulation has been made by the scholar in the data gathered from interviewees. Thus, by taking into consideration all such aspects it can be said that study which was conducted by the scholar on palliative care for the people suffered from dementia is reliable and valid to the large extent.

Assessing the Ethical Concern of Research

In order to maintain the ethical aspects researcher has taken permission from the interviewee before initiating the interview. This aspect shows that researcher did not compel care professionals to give their views. Moreover, sometimes potential respondents are not interested in taking part in research activity. This in turn closely influences the effectiveness of research in the negative direction. Along with this, researcher has properly cited the source from which data has gathered. Hence, by considering all such aspects it can be stated that researcher has followed ethical aspects to the large extent.


I have learnt several aspects from this assignment which in turn helps me doing research activity more effectively and efficiently. Such assignment has developed my understanding in relation to the several tools and techniques which are associated with the research aspects. Moreover, proper knowledge is highly required about research type, design, approach, philosophy, data collection and analysis method. Moreover, in the absence of such information it is not possible for the researcher to conduct study in the best possible way. Hence, I have learnt also the manner through which study can be conducted in a highly structured format. Moreover, research project contains the step in which whole study can be conducted. Hence, by following such aspects I would become able to derive the suitable solution of issue. Besides this, my understanding level also has been developed regarding the people who suffered from dementia. In this way, my knowledge level has been enhanced in the field of health and social care to a large extent. Thus, by following all such aspect I would become able to conduct investigation in the near future more effectively.

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