Determinants of Health & Illness

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Question :

This assessment will cover following questions:

  • Explain the concept of Health and illness. What are the risk factors associated with Health and illness?
  • Analyse the basic fundamentals of Health promotion.
  • Examine the significance of health sector in providing primary care to an individual.


Answer :
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Health is multi magnitude or dimensional thought which exceed the specified lack of illness. Status in the physical, economic, environment, social, medical surroundings in which people are live, work, born or age, consider as accession to health care. Components are general, social community network, individual & life style factors, living and working conditions (Fisherand et. al., 2016). This essay will focus on the concepts of health and illness which follow as several possibilities or theories like biomedical, conflict, ecological models. Along with this concept of health promotion like disease prevention, infection control, health choices, healthy eating. It will also consider the risk factor in health and illness such as surveillance, substance misuse , cultural lifestyle etc.


Discuss The Concept of Health Promotion

Improving Lifestyle

The lifestyle plays an important role in terms of maintain better health condition. It includes various habits like eating and way of spending whole day which is responsible for maintenance of own physique. However, it is observed that people are fond of eating junk food on daily basis which is good in taste but not has much nutrients which are required human body. It has been analysed that regular intake of fast food can reduce the immunity of people which is important to fight with various health problems (Reading and Greenwood, 2018). On the other hand, some of individuals has daily job of sitting for 8 to 10 hours continuously which can create issue if obesity, high blood pressure, slow metabolism etc. It is necessary to improve lifestyle by making citizens aware to avoid unhealthy habits and prefer regular exercise to remain fit as well as disease free. Moreover, healthy eating should be improved in order to make an individual physically, psychologically and socially well-being.

Reducing Health Inequality

The factor of inequality is a major threats among society which create problem of some of individuals to gain proper health care facilities. It is 9observed that few of communities get discriminated by society in evert sector including education, employment and health care due to which they are nit bale to fulfil their basic needs of life. However, it is very important to promote equality in society to improve condition of suffered people so that they can maintain their health status properly. It is essential for government authorities to make strict legislations and provide special services to discriminated communities to overcome with their poor condition. Moreover, reducing the inequality can be done through support of government and legal authorities of the nation to improve health condition of vulnerable of individuals.

Infection Control:- The purpose of health promotion in context of infection control is to promote the prevention of disease. The infection can be controlled by various methods which are below.

  • The major aspect to control the infection among children is the proper immunization should be done at the appropriate age and time.
  • To prevent the infection, the proper education regarding infection are should be given in the schools, colleges and in the communities (Raphael, 2016).
  • The public health providers must educate the people about how the infection can be spread and what precaution are be taken to control it.
  • In order to promote health at the time of treatment, the use of unused needle and syringe for one patient should be considered.
  • When visiting any patient the other individual must to keep distance as they have chance of get infected.

Nutrition:- To promote health, the nutrition is the most important key to keep healthy of the human health.

  • The nutrition should be equally adaptive between the people and and the environment.
  • In order to promote health, the healthy choices among services, and goods opportunities are to be provided.
  • In aspect of nutrition to promote health, the information and services which are providing have the power to enhance the health.

Disease Prevention:- To promote health, it is necessary that the environment should be prevent from disease. There are some ways by which disease can be prevent.

  • To provide the information about the cause, dispersed of diseases.
  • In order to promote the mental health, there is necessary to provide supportive condition in economical , physical and cultural environment.
  • In hospitals and public toilets should be clean so that the disease cant spread from one person to another.

Outline General Concepts of Health And Illness

The illness of health is the condition of poor well-being. Health or illness can be determine as positive, negative and atomistic. Just for example, pain or distress as well as not having any symptoms and indication of diseases. There are some outline of health and illness concepts consider as:

Medical Model of Biomedical:

It centring on the biological physical aspects of illness and diseases. It is also called medical model of care practitioners by health professional or doctors is related to treatment, diagnosis and cure of diseases. Example are Scans, Blood test, surgery, X-rays, Smear test etc.

This model is convey that the pathology of the person in their social and physical environment, it is focus on ill individual who doesn't need have to including sick. It centred on strictly biological factors and get rid of environmental, social, psychological determinants (Hertzman, Frank and Evans, 2017). By this model people are getting more aware, in which body worked in collaboration to assure good health to consulting with doctors and take better attention as well as treatment, because of this it became more famous. This is also scientific treatment which doctors doing by this theory they want to search and find out the causes and reason for a particular diseases.

The Ecological Model:

The determinants of this given model is depend on health upon that life depends with respect at the basic and normal level equal to the amounts of water, oxygen, food etc. Eco means environment friendly which living in black- green- green- black- green. The green is referred as the conservation of biology than ecology. In context of ecology this development is called ecological model (Russell and et. al., 2017).

The ecology is the division of science consider as population, human science, biosphere. It is the stud of environment, organism or how they act with each another. The factors are Biotic and abiotic. The term comes from the Greek oikos, it means home, household or a place where organism are live in the environment. The living thing include both other being or physical surroundings.

This model view the consideration of actions of policy, social, institution, community, interpersonal etc. It shows that family, peer group, culture all of them are influence development of organisms. All living things, no matter what have different sizes, various species of any breed, as well as where they live and how they interact with each other in the their neighbourhood or environment for the survival.

Social Model:

It centred on the policies, health promotion, education. This model goes on the far side to the focus on the behaviour, lifestyle and necessary for change in social to gives requirement for health (Cassel, 2017). This model is the community concept to prevent illnesses and diseases.

This is based upon the understanding regarding social, economic, health gains to occur and environmental component should be addressed. It consider the problems and issues about equality, trade and human rights for the individuals including many kinds of diseases.

For example- Cardiovascular, maternal and mental health, sexual and reproductive problem, tuberculosis, violence and injuries.

It affects on the social inequities, in this they promote equity for overall persons to get social determinants for the inequality like gender, culture etc. In the environmental scheme includes the society that the person was educates or lives in or people and organization with whom they act each other. It makes community to prevent illness or diseases.

Conflict Theory:

This theory refer of eternal conflict because of rivalry for limited resources. It focusing on the contention between units within society over limited origin. Issues of equality is an crucial postulate of this model is that human human relationship and social structures all experience inequalities of power in mental and illness (Hansen, Braslow and Rohrbaugh, 2018). Yearly prevalence among adults by status of major depressive episode, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder etc.

The stigma in mental illness is overcoming. It is when person views in a destructive manner because personal attribute that thought to be or actually, a liability in a negative stereotype.

The Life Expectancy Model:

It shows the normal number of years that individual can evaluate to live calculate on the years they were born. This model is also the statistical measure of average time. An organism is based on year of its birth and the organism is expected for life. Demographic component and actual age and some other including gender and sex.

The gender differences in determinants of biologically consider as differential genetic vulnerability to illness, reproductive and hormonal factors.

Discuss The Risk Factors in Health and Illness

The are number of risk factors which are affect on health and well being. These factors are linked with poor health, disease, unfitness, etc. The risk factors are categorised into some of the following cause and they are below.

Air Pollution:-

The air pollution can affect the number of system and organs. There are number of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, monoxide, nitrogen oxide that affect the parts of respiratory tract. The factors through which air pollution cause adverse effect on human are below.

  • The air pollution mainly cause the infection of upper respiratory infection such as coughing, sneezing, etc.
  • By increasing the air pollutants in environment it increases the risk of respiratory health. The effect range occur from minor upper respiratory infection to chronic respiratory infection.
  • When the human comes in contact with air pollutant then it trigger immune function and can cause allergic diseases.

Water Pollution:-

There are number of infectious disease can be spread by water pollution. The water can be contaminated by various sources such as urbanization, chemical discharge from industries & unprocessed raw sewage from households, maximum use of synthetic organic substances., acid rain, human trash, etc.

  • It is considered as a risk factor because from infected water there is number of infectious disease can be spread Dysentery, Jaundice, Cholera, Typhoid, etc.
  • The use of pesticides can harm the nervous system which cause cancer and the discharge of chlorides cause the reproductive damage (Batbaatar and et. al., 2017).
  • From the human and animal discharge, the waterborne pathogens which are bacteria and viruses can cause major illness.
  • Due to the increase growth of algal bloom in marine surroundings by consuming many nutrients, the oxygen level in water decreases which cause the water to drink unfit.

Food Waste Pollution:-

The food waste highly affect the environment and people. The food waste is highly increase because the need for food of individuals is increasing day by day, so this cause the wastage of food. The wastage of foods include the wasting the resources in the form of uneaten food.

  • The breakdown of food waste in environment cause the methane and greenhouse gas.
  • The food waste impacted on biodiversity loss on a global level. It occurs fom burn, deforestation, etc.
  • The primary use of fossil fuels to produce can also cause the change in environmental and climate change.
  • The impact of food waste also cause the disease in lower class people as due to the unreachable of proper resource of food among them and they use of that waste food which cause disease in them.
  • The continuously production of greenhouse effect is bring climate change.

Use of Medication:-

There are many risk factors can developed with in the human body from the use of medication. Many people don't use the prescribed medicines which are related to their disease, so it can cause adverse effect on their body.

  • The incorrect use of medication can also a risk factor for patient.
  • When the patient are know to be non-adherent with their medicine can also be a risk factor.
  • The changes in significantly plan to use of medicine while during treatment can also cause the adverse effect on patients.
  • The improper use of medication can cause the certain disease which involves the risk of adverse drug reactions.
  • The over use of drugs also cause the severe drug reactions.

Also read:- Cardiovascular Care Essay Sample

Toxic Substances:-

There are a number of toxic substances are present which are basically depends on number of factors. The intake or use of any toxic substances can cause severe risk factors in their life. Toxic substances can be affected and cause various responses.

  • These toxic substances can be produces by many hazardous waste. It can produce from trucks, cars, households, and from other waste.
  • There is lot of toxic chemical can produce from these factors in the form of many gases like methane and other gases.
  • The exposure of these gases to the different individuals cause many diseases like respiratory disease, skin irritation, etc.
  • the toxic substances can also developed from soil and dust which produces allergies to the people.

The dosage is important factor in toxic substances as there is a limit of any ingestion of any product or medicine. If that can be used overrated then it can produce toxicity in the body.


From the above essay, it is concluded that in order to promote health there are some precautions and prevention are should be adapt by the communities and individuals. There are lots of theories that stated that health can be promoted by using different strategies. A lot of factors are responsible to cause disease in human health and illness. The concept of health promotion can be promoted by developing a better environment. To get more details about the online assignment help you can ask our experts.

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