Determinants of Health & Illness

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Question :

This assessment will cover following questions:

  • Explain the concept of Health and illness. What are the risk factors associated with Health and illness?
  • Analyse the basic fundamentals of Health promotion.
  • Examine the significance of health sector in providing primary care to an individual.


Answer :
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Health is multi-magnitude or dimensional thought which exceeds the specified lack of illness. Status in the physical, economic, environmental, social, and medical surroundings in which people live, work, born or age, is considered as accession to health care. Components are general, social community network, individual & lifestyle factors, and living and working conditions (Fisherand et. al., 2016). This essay will focus on the concepts of health and illness which follow several possibilities or theories like biomedical, conflict, and ecological models. Along with this concept of health promotion like disease prevention, infection control, health choices, and healthy eating. It will also consider the risk factors in health and illness such as surveillance, substance misuse, cultural lifestyle etc.


Discuss The Concept of Health Promotion

Improving Lifestyle

Lifestyle plays an important role in terms of maintaining better health conditions. It includes various habits like eating and way of spending the whole day which is responsible for the maintenance of own physique. However, it is observed that people are fond of eating junk food on a daily basis which is good in taste but does not have many nutrients which are required human body. It has been analysed that regular intake of fast food can reduce the immunity of people which is important in fighting various health problems (Reading and Greenwood, 2018). On the other hand, some individuals have daily jobs of sitting for 8 to 10 hours continuously which can create issues if obesity, high blood pressure, slow metabolism etc. It is necessary to improve lifestyle by making citizens aware to avoid unhealthy habits and prefer regular exercise to remain fit as well as disease-free. Moreover, healthy eating should be improved in order to improve an individual's physical, psychological and social well-being.

Reducing Health Inequality

The factor inequality is a major threats in society which create problems for some individuals to gain proper health care facilities. It is 9observed that few communities get discriminated against by society in every sector including education, employment and health care due to which they are not able to fulfil their basic needs in life. However, it is very important to promote equality in society to improve the condition of people so that they can maintain their health status properly. It is essential for government authorities to make strict legislation and provide special services to discriminated communities to overcome their poor condition. Moreover, reducing inequality can be done through the support of the government and legal authorities of the nation to improve the health condition of vulnerable individuals.

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Infection Control:- The purpose of health promotion in the context of infection control is to promote the prevention of disease. The infection can be controlled by various methods which are below.

  • The major aspect of controlling the infection among children is that proper immunization should be done at the appropriate age and time.
  • To prevent the infection, proper education regarding infection should be given in schools, colleges and in communities (Raphael, 2016).
  • Public health providers must educate the people about how the infection can be spread and what precautions are to be taken to control it.
  • In order to promote health at the time of treatment, the use of unused needles and syringes for one patient should be considered.
  • When visiting any patient the other individual must keep their distance as they have a chance of getting infected.

Nutrition:- To promote health, nutrition is the most important key to keep healthy of human health healthy.

  • Nutrition should be equally adaptive between the people and the environment.
  • In order to promote health, healthy choices among services and goods opportunities are to be provided.
  • In an aspect of nutrition to promote health, the information and services provided have the power to enhance health.

Disease Prevention:- To promote health, it is necessary that the environment should be protected from disease. There are some ways by which disease can be prevented.

  • To provide information about the cause, and dispersed of diseases.
  • In order to promote mental health, it is necessary to provide supportive conditions in economic, physical and cultural environments.
  • In hospitals and public toilets should be clean so that the disease can't spread from one person to another.

Outline General Concepts of Health And Illness

The illness of health is the condition of poor well-being. Health or illness can be determined as positive, negative and atomistic. Just for example, pain or distress as well as not having any symptoms or indication of diseases. There are some outlines of health and illness concepts considered as:

Medical Model of Biomedical:

It centres on the biological and physical aspects of illness and diseases. It is also called the medical model of care practitioners by health professionals or doctors and is related to the treatment, diagnosis and cure of diseases. Examples are Scans, Blood tests, surgery, X-rays, Smear tests etc.

This model conveys the pathology of the person in their social and physical environment, it is focused on ill individuals who don't need to including the sick. It is centred on strictly biological factors and gets rid of environmental, social, and psychological determinants (Hertzman, Frank and Evans, 2017). With this model, people are becoming more aware, in which body works in collaboration to ensure good health consulting with doctors and paying better attention as well as treatment, and because of this it has become more famous. This is also scientific treatment which doctors do by this theory they want to search and find out the causes and reasons for a particular disease.

The Ecological Model:

The determinants of this given model depend on health and life with respect to the basic and normal levels equal to the amounts of water, oxygen, food etc. Eco means environment friendly which living in black- green- green- black- green. The green is referred to as the conservation of biology rather than ecology. In the context of ecology, this development is called the ecological model (Russell and et. al., 2017).

Ecology is the division of science considered as population, human science, and biosphere. It is the study of the environment, organisms or how they act with each another. The factors are Biotic and abiotic. The term comes from the Greek oikos, it means home, household or a place where organisms live in the environment. The living thing includes both other beings and physical surroundings.

This model views the consideration of actions of policy, social, institution, community, interpersonal etc. It shows that family, peer group, and culture all of them are influence the development of organisms. All living things, no matter what have different sizes, various species of any breed, as well as where they live and how they interact with each other in their neighbourhood or environment for survival.

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Social Model:

It centred on the policies, health promotion, and education. This model goes on the far side to focus on the behaviour, lifestyle and necessary for change in society to give requirements for health (Cassel, 2017). This model is the community concept to prevent illnesses and diseases.

This is based upon the understanding regarding social, economic, and health gains to occur and environmental components should be addressed. It considers the problems and issues about equality, trade and human rights for the individuals including many kinds of diseases.

For example- Cardiovascular, maternal and mental health, sexual and reproductive problems, tuberculosis, violence and injuries.

It affects social inequities, in this, they promote equity for overall persons to get social determinants for the inequality like gender, culture etc. The environmental scheme includes the society that the person was educated or lives in or the people and organization with whom they act each other. It helps the community to prevent illness or diseases.

Conflict Theory:

This theory refers to eternal conflict because of rivalry for limited resources. It focuses on the contention between units within society over limited origin. Issues of equality is a crucial postulate of this model is that human relationships and social structures all experience inequalities of power in mental and illness (Hansen, Braslow and Rohrbaugh, 2018). Yearly prevalence among adults by status of major depressive episode, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder etc.

The stigma in mental illness is overcoming. It is when the person views in a destructive manner because personal attribute that is thought to be or actually, a liability in a negative stereotype.

The Life Expectancy Model:

It shows the normal number of years that an individual can evaluate to live and calculate the years they were born. This model is also the statistical measure of average time. An organism is based on the year of its birth and the organism is expected to life. Demographic component and actual age and some others including gender and sex.

The gender differences in determinants of biologically are considered as differential genetic vulnerability to illness and reproductive and hormonal factors.

Discuss The Risk Factors in Health and Illness

The are a number of risk factors that affect health and well-being. These factors are linked to poor health, disease, unfitness, etc. The risk factors are categorised into some of the following causes and they are below.

Air Pollution:-

Air pollution can affect a number of systems and organs. There are a number of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, monoxide, nitrogen oxide that affect the parts of the respiratory tract. The factors through which air pollution causes adverse effects on humans are below.

  • Air pollution mainly causes the infection of upper respiratory infections such as coughing, sneezing, etc.
  • By increasing the air pollutants in the environment it increases the risk of respiratory health. The effect ranges from minor upper respiratory infections to chronic respiratory infections.
  • When a human comes in contact with air pollutants it triggers immune function and can cause allergic diseases.

Water Pollution:-

There are a number of infectious diseases that can be spread by water pollution. The water can be contaminated by various sources such as urbanization, chemical discharge from industries & unprocessed raw sewage from households, maximum use of synthetic organic substances., acid rain, human trash, etc.

  • It is considered as a risk factor because from infected water there are a number of infectious diseases that can be spread Dysentery, Jaundice, Cholera, Typhoid, etc.
  • The use of pesticides can harm the nervous system which causes cancer and the discharge of chlorides causes reproductive damage (Batbaatar and et. al., 2017).
  • From the human and animal discharge, the waterborne pathogens which are bacteria and viruses can cause major illness.
  • Due to the increased growth of algal bloom in marine surroundings by consuming many nutrients, the oxygen level in water decreases which causes the water to be unfit.

Food Waste Pollution:-

The food waste highly affects the environment and people. Food waste is increasing because the need for food of individuals is increasing day by day, so this causes the wastage of food. The wastage of food includes the wasting the resources in the form of uneaten food.

  • The breakdown of food waste in the environment cause methane and greenhouse gas.
  • Food waste impacts biodiversity loss on a global level. It occurs from burning, deforestation, etc.
  • The primary use of fossil fuels to produce can also cause the change in environmental and climate change.
  • The impact of food waste also cause disease in lower-class people due to the unreachable of proper resources of food and they use of that waste food which causes disease.
  • The continuous production of the greenhouse effect has brought climate change.

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Use of Medication:-

There are many risk factors that can develop within the human body from the use of medication. Many people don't use the prescribed medicines which are related to their disease, so it can cause adverse effects on their bodies.

  • The incorrect use of medication can also be a risk factor for patients.
  • When the patient is known to be non-adherent with their medicine can also be a risk factor.
  • The changes in significant plans to use medicine during treatment can also cause adverse effects on patients.
  • The improper use of medication can cause certain disease which involves the risk of adverse drug reactions.
  • The overuse of drugs also causes severe drug reactions.

Also read:- Cardiovascular Care Essay Sample

Toxic Substances:-

There are a number of toxic substances present which basically depend on a number of factors. The intake or use of any toxic substances can cause severe risk factors in their life. Toxic substances can be affected and cause various responses.

  • These toxic substances can be produced by many hazardous wastes. It can be produced from trucks, cars, households, and other waste.
  • There are a lot of toxic chemicals that can be produced from these factors in the form of many gases like methane and other gases.
  • The exposure of these gases to different individuals causes many diseases like respiratory disease, skin irritation, etc.
  • the toxic substances can also develop from soil and dust which produces allergies to the people.

The dosage is an important factor in toxic substances as there is a limit to any ingestion of any product or medicine. If that can be used overrated then it can produce toxicity in the body.


From the above essay, it is concluded that in order to promote health there are some precautions and prevention measures that should be adopted by the communities and individuals. There are lots of theories that stated that health can be promoted by using different strategies. A lot of factors are responsible for causing disease in human health and illness. The concept of health promotion can be promoted by developing a better environment. To get more details about the online assignment help you can ask our experts.

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