Lever 5 Diploma in the leadership for Health and Social Care among children and young people.
Unit -32: Understand the procedure and the Experience of Dementia
- Explain the range of causes of Dementia Syndrome
- Explain the various types of memories impairment commonly experienced by individual with dementia.
- Evaluate the ways in which individual process information in context to the abilities and the limitations of individual with dementia.
- Evaluate how the other elements can make change in individual condition which may not be attributable to dementia.
- Explain the abilities and the needs of the individual with dementia may fluctuate.
- Explain the impacts of early diagnosis and follow up that diagnosis.
- Provide the importance of the recoding possible signs of dementia in agreed ways of working.
- Explain the procedures of reporting possible signs of dementia in agreed ways of working.
- Generate the possible impacts of receiving diagnosis of dementia on: - the individual, and the family and friends.
- make comparison on the person centred and non- person-centred approach to dementia care.
- Explain the wide range of techniques which can be used in meeting the fluctuating abilities and the requirements of the individual with dementia.
- Explain how myths and stereotypes related to dementia which may influence the individual and carers.
Elaborate ways in which individual and the carers can be supported in overcoming their fears.
Dementia is an overall term for conditions of memory loss, problem solving skill and thinking skills (Livingston and et.al., 2017). It can also be said that dementia is a combination of several diseases which affects different parts of the brain and damages to brain cells. This study is based on nursing home whose focus is to work with elderly people and improve their health by providing them excellent and appropriate services. This study is going to show some causes of dementia syndrome and types of diseases in dementia such as Alzheimer's, Pick and vascular. It will also show affected areas by different types of diseases and causes of dementia syndrome. One of the main common area which get effected in dementia is memory and the part of brain which cause memory loss. It is called the main type of memory impairment the most experienced by people with dementia. Further, it will show the way that individual process information of individuals with dementia as how affected areas of brain causes dementia and to which extent. Early diagnosis also have impacts on the dementia in improving their health in a timely manner. Person centered approach also plays an important role in dementia care as it helps people with dementia in treating their health and make them able to identify and recognize things.
1.1 Causes of dementia syndrome
Dementia refers a group of symptoms which affect memory, social abilities as well as thinking process of an individual. It can also be defined as memory loss, decline in problem solving skills, languages identification and thinking skills. There are several causes of dementia syndrome which include: Alzheimer's, vascular, Pick's disease and Huntington's disease.
1. Alzheimer's: One of the most common and important cause of dementia syndrome is Alzheimer's. It is caused by some progressive changes as well as damages in brain. When brain damages than it affects the way of communication of an individual due to dying of brain cells and decelerators of connectors (Sheets, 2017). Alzheimer's disease which is the main cause of dementia is found and accounts for approximate 60-80% of cases. There are several regions and parts of brain which perform several functions like movement, memory etc. But when cells of a particular part of brain got damaged then it stops functioning and it becomes the reason of dementia and memory loss. Pick' disease is as like Alzheimer's which is the main cause of dementia but it is somehow far less common. It affects those parts of the brain which control human behaviours and emotions, personality and identification of languages. Mood changes, poor social skills and repetitive behaviours are some symptoms of this disease or cause of dementia.
2. Vascular: In addition, it can be said that vascular dementia is other cause of dementia syndrome. Vascular disease is being caused by a lack of oxygenated blood which creates come barriers and path to reach blood into the brain (Uwagbai and Kalish, 2018). It directly affects some parts of brain which stops functioning. In regard to this disease and causes, it can also be said that it does not only impact on some parts of brain but also become the reason of heart diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes as well as dementia with Lewy bodies. Lewy body protein directly affect the way in which brain functions. There is no specific cause of dementia with Lewy bodies.
1.2 Types of memory impairment experienced by individuals with dementia
There are several parts of brain which affect the most in cases of dementia. 4 main types of memory impairment which are being experienced the most with dementia include: decline in memory, changes in behaviours, movement difficulties and loss of skills. Rather all these main areas there are some other types of memory impairment such as: abilities of people that fluctuate and communication problems.
1. Memory loss or decline in memory is one of the important type and the most experienced area which people with dementia face. There is a part of a brain which remember some events which occur in the life and in the whole process of recognizing events, people take different types of new informations, identify and remember different and new people, separate facts from fiction. In most of the cases of dementia, this part of the brain got affected and damaged which directly become the reason of memory loss (Parikh and et.al., 2016). In this type, people with dementia find difficulties in identifying people, languages, taking new informations etc. So, it can be said that it is one of the most obvious symptom in dementia.
2. Behaviour changes: In some cases in dementia, people undergo with behavioural changes at the time of disease. In this type, people with dementia mainly ask the same questions in a repetitive manner and become anxious. Changes in behaviours can be more stressful. As the disease of dementia people increase, their closed one's behaviour may seem inappropriate as they become frustrated and stressed. They also lose their skills of expressing as well as understanding themselves.
3. Judgement: It is other main symptom which happen in moderate type of dementia. People in this type become confused and frustrated, so they cannot judge and identify the difference between the right and wrong. They also need help in performing their own daily works such as bathing and dressing (Hill and et.al., 2019). They cannot make effective decisions.
1.3 Ways that how individual process information with to the limitations and abilities of individuals with dementia
There are several ways by which individual process informations such as; long term memory, short term memory, information processing etc. In this context of ways of individual process informations, it can be said that human brain is made up of approximate 100 billion cells and the main cells which is responsible for individual process information is neurons (Wolters, Kelly and Kilgour, 2016). There is a process and way of functioning of neurons cells which complete individual process information. When these cells are on then it sends electrical pulses down the axons and the body which is like a fibre. At the end of this part or fibre, there is a small part from where chemicals are released which are known as neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters travel between the gaps of neurons. All 100 billion cells split into 2 main halves of the brain which is known as the right and left hemisphere. Those people who are suffering from memory loss and dementia, if damages right hemisphere face difficulty in getting new informations as well as putting existing informations together effectively. On the other hand, people with dementia affected left hemisphere face difficulties in using appropriate knowledge as well as organizing themselves in an efficient manner. They are more likely to suffer from depression (Windle and et.al., 2018).
Parietal lobe is one of the main amongst four lobes of the cerebral cortex which is mainly responsible for functioning sensory informations, spelling, calculations and understanding body awareness. If it got affected than people with dementia face problem in identification of languages, interpreting informations as well as recognition. On the other hand, occipital lobe is responsible for visual processing and ability of an individual to identify the differences between colours, shapes and others. So, it can be said that individual process information works accordingly.
1.4 Factors that cause changes in an individual's condition and not be attributable in dementia
There are several factors which become the reason of dementia rather such as brain stroke, brain injury, stress, poor diet, medication, lack of sleep etc. all these factors change an individual's condition. When an individual do not get proper diet and sleep than they cannot perform activities in an efficient manner and become frustrated. It can cause fatigue and this fatigue direct affect their social skills, coordination. They also find difficulties in having trust on others. So, it can be said that lack of sleep and improper diet is one of the main factor which cause changes in an individual's condition and become the reason of dementia (Boyle and et.al., 2019).
One of the other main factor which cause changes and reason of dementia is medication. There are several types of medications which have side effects. Some medications have direct impact on some parts of brain which can cause individuals to become disoriented and affect their memory to the great extent in a negative manner. It can also be said that some people with mild cognitive impairment have increased risk of dementia as compared to those people without mild cognitive impairment. In addition, it is also stated that people with the age of 65 who were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment developed dementia and become victim of dementia in the 3 years.
Stress is also identified one of the main factor which affect immune system. Poor immune system affect the physical and mental health. People with poor immune system are more likely to become victims of diseases, and they take time to be cured. Stress is closely related to depression and anxiety. People with anxiety and depression become restless and it affects some parts of their brain. So, it can be said that stress, medication, poor diet, lack of sleep are some major risk factors of dementia (Irwin and Vitiello, 2019).
1.5 Why abilities and needs of an individual with dementia may fluctuate
In the context of dementia, it can be said that needs and abilities of person with dementia may changes or fluctuated because of the progression of diseases. When an individual suffers from any type of disease then they become frustrated and in the case of dementia, people become stressed and it may change their behaviours because it affects their some parts of brain. They find difficulties in sleep and when an individual does not take proper rest and work on continuous basis then it is natural to become frustrated (Holle, Turnquist and Rudolph, 2019). So, lack of sleep is one of the main reason of fluctuation of needs and behaviours of people with dementia. In addition, it can also be said that it does not only make them frustrated but also increase memory difficulties. It makes the worst condition related to memory and identification of things.
In the later and critical stage of dementia, people become dependent on others who care for them. For example, in later stage, people with dementia find difficulties in identifying the difference between the right and the wrong, so they find difficulties in bathing and dressing. Person who care for them also become frustrated which somehow effect their performance and improving their health. People with dementia even face problem in communication because they lose the ability to speak and exhibit unusual behaviour. So, in this context, it can be said that changes occur in physical appearance, weight loss, lack of sleep direct impacts on their mental health. These changes have impact on mental health which make them frustrated. It can also be said that person with dementia become more demanding and restless, and they find difficulties in believing that what is right, real and what is wrong (Ashton, 2016).
2.1 Describe the impact of early diagnosis and follow-up to diagnosis.
Early diagnosis is considered to be an important aspect as it gives the better understanding and chances to the patients and respective family to take the necessary level of actions which is happening in uncharacteristic life. It has been strongly evidenced that the early level of diagnoses in case of dementia helps in more manner to love independently in their respective home for longer period. The early diagnosis makes thing easier at longer perspectives as the patients suffering for dementia is able to be more level of participate in having more level of decision making. The important of it as it helps in gaining access amount of information along with resources and support to patent which suffering dementia. The early diagnoses makes demystify along quality of life which can be prevailed in life of dementia patients. The patients can have better planning for future and take benefits form the futuristic treatment. The early diagnosis will also help in treatments to have the major level of curing to get most level of informativeness of the those who are planning them to have close futuristic use. The early diagnoses will be able to have the right level of support along with encouragement so theta there could be active role and participation in managing the irrespective level of dementia patients living conditions. It's important to remember that everyone experiences dementia and its progression in their own way.
2.2 Explain the importance of recording possible signs or symptoms of dementia in an individual in line with agreed ways of working.
Recording is considered to be an important aspect which could be helpful is tackling the different level of habits along with pattern of behavior. This could be helpful is assessing proper level of indication which h can be the sense of improvements or worsen different level of situation. The nurse should be properly recording all the level of improvements along with signs in the case of dementia as it will help the senior doctor to have understanding regarding the presents case of dementia patients. The written or virtual level of recording have the factual, legible, dated, signed by the person delivering the service it needs to be authenticated and confidential. The patients of dementia should have the equal level of recording of all the aspects in order to have transience the behavioral. This will help in assignment the risk and more clear understanding of systematize situation when it turns to be worsen. The recording should be properly checked by the top management in the agreed regular basis in order to have reinsurance of over different perspective. This will also help in underrating the market level of changes in order to be discussed with senior professionals. These record changes will help in analyze the impact on mental health which make them frustrated. It can also be said that person with dementia become more demanding and restless, and they find difficulties in believing that what is right, real and what is wrong.
2.3 Explain the process of reporting possible signs of dementia within agreed ways of working
As the nurse it is the major level of responsibility to have the major level of changes in terms of patients condensation which is considered to be an obligation of nurses along with duty of care. In the case of dementia, if the patient have been seen with some symptoms which can turn to be dangerous of one in future time should be immediateness report to professional a sense of responsibility. The sign that can be observed under the patients can be such as the confusion, repeating the sentence at repetitive manner, getting confuse at simpler point. The nursing team should have the proper way of altering with regard to the rounding sties in the patients which is suffering form dementia at higher level. The patient would be referred the mental health assessment team in order of an assessment total place and then be referred to a consultant for a diagnosis. It can also be said few people with mild cognitive impairment which have actually increased risk of dementia as compared other people without mild cognitive impairment. In addition, it is also stated that people with the age of 65 who were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment developed dementia and become victim of dementia in the 3 years. There is major level of situation that the individuals have the major sense of difficulty in more order to have the thinking in more appropriate manner along with sr in terms of thought process and end losing the social level of awareness.
2.4 Describe the possible impact of receiving a diagnosis of dementia on: – the individual – their family and friends
The impacts of the receiving the level of diagnosis in terms of dementia which is considered to be individual around as the people or well. This is because to have the major level of involvement in new life style s which is necessary to prepare the outcomes roasted to diagnostician. The individual with dementia have the preparing the seek to helps to have administration to himself with regard to helps and acceptance to it. So it is important to have professional helps the and understand the moments when you are not able to have performance of common task. There is needed to taken major level of serious discussion along with proper level of planning ahead which will be regarding major level of legal representative. The friends and family have also the future plans in order to well recognize the various level of symptoms that will help in recognizance different level of recantations and take care of respective condition in upcoming life.
3.1 Differentiate between the person-centred and a non-person-centred approach to dementia care.
3.2 Describe a range of different techniques that can be used to meet the fluctuating abilities and needs of the individual with dementia
A person with dementia has similar abilities that need to continues change. Sometimes, they can feed themselves and other times, it cannot properly figure out how to do. it has required to use the observation technique by staff member to identify the behavior of members. Even it makes a plan for recording regular activities in term of health care. A small change will help for person to improve their abilities because of dementia. On the other hand, it also accomplishes the daily task that require to do help them on eating, dressing and so on.
- Cognitive training technique: it is the most suitable method that mainly used for treatment of fluctuation abilities during dementia while improve the performance of patient. This type of technique is based on the improvement of cognitive abilities (Matar and et.al., 2020). In order to achieve practices function and contribute to the development. Health care professional will be used in daily task to improve overall abilities.
On the other hand, there are different alternative approach that useful to meet the fluctuation abilities and need of individuals with dementia such as:
- It is important for developing the Safe environment for individuals so that they can feel free to improve and control abilities in proper manner.
- Use of assistive techniques
- It enables to create positive environment and interact with individuals, who are suffered from dementia.
- Use appropriate activities and exercise.
It also considered the different approach that help for providing awareness among individuals so that they can easily identify the own personality (Matar and et.al., 2020). Main thing is to explore their abilities and focused on the daily activities. healthcare professional always focused on the daily activities which providing the better way to understand causes of dementia and then by applying techniques.
Also Read:- Concept of Health and Well-Being
3.3 Range of different techniques that can be used to meet the fluctuating abilities and needs of the individual with dementia
There are range of techniques and applicability of these techniques depend on indiviuals who is dealing with dementia.
Reality Centred Approach
In this approach patients are helped to engage themselves and connect with their surroundings. In this technique environment which includes dates, locations and surroundings are frequently pointed out during conversation with the person dealing with dementia. This approach and when effectively used can benefit person dealing with dementia in nursing home.
This technique involves-
- Talking about orientation including date and time during communication.
- Frequently involving name of people.
- Discussion about present events.
- Asking questions about their memories.
Many studies have found that this technique helps in cognitive functioning of people dealing with dementia.
This technique emphasizes on empathy and listening. In these seniors in Nursing home are considered to be at the final stage of their life and are trying to resolve unfinished business of their life and they ca finish their life in peace. Validation is about the person's needs dealing with dementia. In this people dealing with dementia are instead of ignoring and stopping behaviour which is considered as irrational or illogical behaviour, this technique offers alternative. This gives importance to each and every individual. This technique considers that all people are valuable no matter if they have any disorientation. This technique considers that rather than trying to bring the person dealing with dementia in reality they others should try to enter in their reality. This will be more beneficial for the person as will avoid any type of illusion that person an have.
3.4 how myths and stereotypes related to dementia may affect the individual and their carers
There are various myths and stereotypes about dementia and people dealing with that. People dealing with dementia are considered as unfortunate human beings which is not right. They should be viewed as any other human beings dealing with a different mental stage and should be considered equally valuable. But such myth affect the person very badly and they start considering themselves as unimportant humans which is not right. Carers of the person also start considering that person dealing with dementia needs extra care and attention which may affect their personal life negatively.
Other myth about such individuals is that they are seen as needing pity. This affect the person very badly, and they might start considering themselves as dependent people who cannot do anything without help of other people.
Stereotypes about such people also make negative impact on the condition of people and their carers. Like they cannot drive, this is not right and people with dementia can drive but such stereotypes restrain such people from driving and the performing such basic activities.
They are also not accepted I any profession by considering that they are unable for any profession interaction this reduce weakens confidence of people who are dealing with dementia.
From the above study, it has been summarized that early stage of diagnosis and treatment played an important role in solving problems which people with dementia face and suffer from. It has also shown different causes or diseases of dementia syndrome which affect different brain parts of an individual. It has also shown the most common and exposed area which got affected in dementia and which become the reason of memory loss. It has also shown ways of individual process information and when it got affected than it leads different types of dementia as it affects different parts of brain. Further, It has also shown importance of recording signs as well as process of dementia in an individual with agreed ways of working. Different techniques which are being used in fulfilling fluctuating needs of an individual with dementia played an important role as it helps nurses in treating patients in a timely and effective manner. Lastly, this report discussed negative affects of some myths and stereotypes on individuals and their career. Several techniques and theories helped people with dementia in decreasing negative impacts of myths.
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