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International or global marketing is reefed to as the marketing which takes place on a worldwide scale by taking the commercial benefits of international operational differences, similarities along with opportunities in order to meet the desired goals as well as objectives (Leonidou and et.al., 2010). Globalization is the course of action of integrating world space from the process of interchanging of Views, products, ideas as well as other aspects of culture. It is also regarded as the worldwide movement in the direction of economic, financial trade along with incorporation of communication. By the means of it, new local and national prospective to broader outlook of the world has been generated (Ronkainen and Czinkota, 2012).
With the help of globalization, international marketing along with trade has been enhanced and it is also reflected in cultural exchange. In the present research report effects of globalization along with its critical evaluation on cultural is going to be discussed. This will be supported by an example of Coca-Cola, which is a well known multinational corporation carrying out its functions all across the globe. Its products have been sold in more than 20 countries all over the world and it is regarded as the world’s most valuable brand (Czinkota, Rnkainen and Zvobgo, 2011). The statement will be followed by the impact of cultural similarities and dissimilarities along with ethical and practical framework in terms of marketing of product in the global context.
Globalization is a course of action by the mean which world has incorporated into single place. This is due to the fact that, with the help of this many business enterprises are operating in international market without facing any type of barrier. By the means of globalization, various impacts have been led in terms of positive and negative. As per the view of Branine 2011, it has laid more positive effects as compared to negative especially at international marketing. By the means this, lot of cultural experiments have been take place, as one can find the person of another nation such as Africa working in the streets of London. This is made possible with the help of this only (Branine, 2011). But on the contrary, it has created problem as people face a lot of difficulties in adjusting into new place in completely new culture. For instance, person of India will face problems while working in any foreign or European nation, as both these have number of dissimilarities in terms of culture, food habits, style of living etc. According to the research it has been revealed that, with the help of globalization people has become more aware about most of the cultures which are prevailing in the society from which they were quite unfamiliar earlier (Asgary and Walle, 2002).
This has proved beneficial in generating great amount of understanding different types of culture along with blending of culture. But on the other hand, it has created lots of differences and due to this it has gave birth to commercialization of culture. This implies that most of the countries especially developing or under developed are increasingly bombarded with new type of clothes, music, new set of values and images etc. which has influenced their local culture (Brady, 2010). Due to this, especially youth has started following that culture instead of own. As per the views of many authors, globalization has proved very advantageous in overall growth and development (Parsons and Maclaran, 2009). This is due to the fact that it has brought all the people or individuals together irrespective of their caste, nationalities or religion along with color. In addition to this, it has done a lot in enhancing the economy of the nations by focusing more on international marketing. But, it can be critically evaluated that it has even created cultural differences in some of the people as they are not able to match their coordination as well as share their duties and responsibilities with the person who belongs to other region or society. Due to this, numerous issues have been generated (Muriente, 2005).
The major problem which is largely faced by the people is related to language and family. In view of the fact that, majority of population believes that due to excessive globalization there cultural values, socialization process and cultural norms are being constantly getting affected (Doole and Lowe, 2012). But on the most negative impact of globalization is that it has created gap between rich and poor, environmental pollution as well as susceptibility of ever single part of the world which are going through the problem of recession (Keegan and Green, 2011). As per the study conducted it has been revealed that it has empowered various cultures which are prevailing in the business enterprise such as Coca-Cola, as well as allowed self-representation along with sharing of information at more vast level. But, it is to be critically evaluated that it has developed misrepresentation and stereotyping which ultimately created the risk of loss of culture as a consequence of unmonitored success (Usiner and Lee, 2009).
With the help of apt and proper globalization, cultural difference is going to be the thing in the past. This is due to the fact that, in this modern world lot of internationalization is taking place in the market at a very great pace. By the means world has become a small village as organizations are constantly increasing their vastness in terms of operating in more than one nation (Sinkovics and Ghauri, 2009). For instance, Coca-Cola is a very famous brand who is offering its products in each and every nation of the world. Due to this, the management of business enterprise has to employ large number of workforce from that particular area and from other countries as well for the purpose of training and guiding them (Wilkinson, McAlister and Widmier, 2007). This has made the world a small place to live in and at the same time has eliminated all the major barriers or possibilities than can create differences in the mind of people regarding their culture. But, on the contrary, there still exists some class of orthodox people who have always created some type of barriers in entering of such type of organizations into the nation (Sun, Su and Huang, 2013).
They believe that by the means of internationalization their culture might get affected and soon they will lose their existence. Coca-Cola has faced many restrictions from Arab and Muslim countries regarding their functioning in those nations. This is due to the fact that their point of view was that it will spoil their new and upcoming generations by affecting their moral values. In this context, as per the views of Doole and Rowe 2012, by the means of globalization or internationalization of market place Coca-Cola has adopted the marketing strategy of standardization (Doole and Rowe, 2012). This implies that with the help of this particular strategy of marketing, the management has standardized their every single products and services in each and every country. This proves beneficial in mitigating the effects of globalization on the nation as well as its citizens which has contributed a lot in making cultural difference a thing of past in the true sense (Wang, Lu and Ren, 2010).
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It is necessary on the part of business enterprises and management to follow as well as comply with ethical practices while doing marketing of their products and services. But on the other side, it has been observed that there exists majority of business enterprises that follows unethical practices while advertising their products in international market for the purpose of generating more sales and revenue as well as for gaining competitive edge against their competitors globally (Starck and Kruckeberg, 2003). As per the point of view of Keegan and Green 2011, business enterprises must not hurt the sentiments of others while endorsing their brand. It acts like a double edged weapon, this is due to the fact that first and foremost it affects the goodwill and brand image of the products in front of the people and at the same time influences the profit generation of organization very badly by lowering the level of productivity (Keegan and Green, 2011). But, it is to be critically evaluated that in some of the cases business enterprise makes the use of such type of unethical practices in order to create the hype of the product in the market which creates curiosity in the mind of people and buy that product (Leonidou and et.al., 2010).
In addition to this, such type of practices draws the attention of large number of population which proves beneficial in generating productivity and profitability ratio of organization up to a great extent. It is important for organizations to comply with all the rules and regulations of the nation in which they are carrying out their functions while going international l(Ronkainen and Czinkota, 2012). But, on the contrary, it has been observed that most of the business enterprises especially MNC’s did not follow such practices in real and adopt immoral and unprincipled ways for the purpose of getting success in international market as compared to their competitors in the long run. In order to elaborate this, example of Coca-Cola can be taken in this context. In the year 2012, Coca-Cola has launched Super Bowl ad campaign which was the one of the most watched campaign in the history of USA with around 111.5 million viewers (Usiner and L
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