Public Health can be considered as something which plays a crucial role forward economy and health of the country (Modi, Palmer and Armstrong, 2014). In present report, role of different Agencies has been 3 dimension and which helps in reducing different diseases from the overall Nation. Apart from this, report will further argue as to how lifestyle of people will be changed or made better with improved quali
1.1 Role of different agencies in identifying health of level and different diseases in communities
A lot of organisations deal with providing health and medicinal services to people residing in UK as well as other parts of world. In this report, three basic organisations are studied namely World Health Organisation, National Health Services and General Medical Council. All these organisations aim towards providing healthcare facilities to people worldwide(Braveman and Gottlieb, 2014).Also aim of all these organisations is same even if they follow differentiated objectives.
It has also been found out that World health organisation does not deal with directly local people rather it aims at assisting private organisations that work at providing healthcare facilities. They serve or deal with health care facility providers on national level and not individual level. They especially provide benefits to organisations that have just initiated their working or who are suffering losses . They are most active during natural calamity practices like earthquakes, floods etc. WHO is working at identifying condition od health care services worldwide(Atrash and Carpentier, 2012).
Apart from this there are some other business organisations are also present in the United Kingdom that also help in analysing level of healthcare facilities and also study about various diseases such as General medical council. This agency mainly aims at protecting patients by delivering efficient training to employees as per needs and requirements. They also set timely standards for doctors as well as services provided by them are monitored so that best quality of services are provided to patients. Another one of biggest organisation which was found in UK is National Health Services and it is the biggest single entity working in this area. (National Health Service, 2018). NHS is providing free of cost services to its customers and also collaborates with WHO in identifying level of health and diseases.
1.2 Epidemiology of infectious and non-infectious disease
The study of disease transmission is the investigation of incidence, circulation and occurrence of the illnesses in the network. It manages every one of the components related with circumstances and end results of the sickness. The examination should be possible on non-irresistible and also irresistible ailments. In the present setting, Diseases like: foodborne disease (FBD), Microbes transmitted: salmonella, E. Coli and some more (Bowleg, 2012).
Vulnerable groups: People with all ages and both the genders are defenceless against FBD's. In UK, the groups that is most helpless against sustenance borne ailments is kids. Powerlessness for nourishment borne infections additionally relies upon the safe arrangement of a person. Individuals with harmed safe framework are more powerless against the pathogen attacks.
Epidemiology of Obesity
Incidence Rates: The rate of increase in obese cases is at alarming stage in UK. In men, the percentage increased from 0.2% to 1.8% from 1993 to 2010. In women, the hike in percentage is more that is, from 1.4% to 3.6% in the same years as above.
Causes: many reasons can lead to increase in weight or accumulation fat in the body. Some of the causes are, Imbalanced diet, Genetic defects, Damage to hypothalamus, Intake of drugs, Change in lifestyle.
Obesity is being considered as the main problem where situation where accumulation of fat takes place in the body to such extent that it becomes the reason of many health problems. Study shows that 20% of adult population is suffering from HIV in England by 2014 and they stay undiagnosed and this percentage is rising day by day (Betancourt and et. al., 2016).
1.3 Effectiveness of different approaches to control the incidence of disease in communities
It is been analysed that there are ample number of approaches which is being made by government, private hospitals and Healthcare providers so that to control the incidence of disease in communities (Kohl 3rd and et. al., 2012). It has been found that most of the approaches majorly help in prior targeting of the at of diseases that are at the verge of causing ill-effects to the society. Below are some of the approaches that aid the control of diseases in communities:
Screening: Screening is another strategy that can be used to control the diseases in the communities. Screening refers to prior medical testing for the disease without observing the symptoms of that disease. This prior testing helps in identification of occurrence of disease in an individual so that he can be treated before attainment of that disease. Screening can be done in two ways. Universal screening refers to screening of a particular group from the population. Another type of screening is case finding that refers to screening of the individuals who are assumed diseased (Brett and et. al., 2014).
Immunisation: This is being considered as a technique which mainly he helps an individual or patient is the technique by which an individual can be made immune of certain infections. It can be done by vaccination. Vaccine of a particular disease made an individual resistant to that disease.
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2.1 Research to determine current priorities and approaches to the provision of services for people with disease
It is being analysed that there are many chronic diseases like HIV as England (London) consists with almost half of the population who is suffering from this disease. Therefore, it is vital for the government and agency to prevent whole nation from this chronic disease with the priority (Sallis and et. al., 2012). On the other hand, it is also required for the government to focus on developing a number of strategies so that diseases can be reduced to zero that are being considered as mass killers.
From above give an image, it is being computed that HIV/Aids is carrying the most deadliest and infectious disease which is majorly increasing on a regular basis. Some of policies in present context are given below:
- Primary Prevention: Primary prevention refers to the foremost preventive measures that have been used to prevent the population from the disease by educating them about HIV and other diseases (Popescu and Predescu, 2016).
- Secondary Prevention: If a woman is being found infected with HIV virus, it is required for her to be treated well so that other people do get infected because of it. NHS mainly introduced a health care program of testing the blood of every pregnant woman.
- Tertiary Prevention: This is being considered as last step of prevention which directly aims on the patient who are already suffering from chronic diseases. In UK, NHS has made efforts towards palliative care in the case of HIV and cancer.
2.2 explain the relationship between the prevalence of disease and requirements of services to support individuals within the health and social care service provision
In present context, it is being analysed that relationship among prevalence of disease and requirements of service might easily help sufferers from getting cured from diseases which is being shared by them. On the other hand, Prevalence of disease helps in gaining relevant data related to people which majorly faced illness from total number of individuals who have been studied. With the help of this, proper plan can be made related to service which is needed to be given related to issues (Wood and et. al., 2014). Thus, this can be considered as a relation among prevalence of disease and which can deliver right information to practitioners to make vaccines for diseases like HIV and other chronic diseases.
2.3 Impact of current lifestyle choices on future needs for Health & Social Care Services
In United Kingdom, it is being found that there are two main health problems that are found to be severe and chronic are HIV and Obesity and these are being considered as major issues which was faced by most of people and affected their lifestyle.
HIV: The main cause of this contagious diseases is having multiple sex without protection (Condom). Data shows that every year around 4.9% rate gets increases. Here, using protection and disposing it correctly might help people of London to reduce this rate and can impact positively on their lifestyle as well.
Obesity: The main cause of being obese is the eating habits of the people. Wrong eating habits lead to accumulation of fat in the body that result in obesity. Data identifies that premature adult death rates can be reduced to 8%, if people maintain their weight. Survey suggests that the percentage of obese people increased by 13% in men and 10% in women.
From above mentioned report, it is being concluded that epidemiology of illness can help in gaining right knowledge or data related to the disease. This can help in making right changes as per the requirements in existing vaccines or it helps in developing new vaccine for the disease. Away with this, health care units are also needs to come up with the preventive measures of such diseases so that high number of patients can be cured with an ease.
Books & Journals
- Atrash, K. and Carpentier, R., 2012. The evolving role of public health in the delivery of health care. Journal of Human Growth and Development. 22(3). pp.396-399.
- Betancourt, J. R. and et. al., 2016. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public health reports.
- Bowleg, L., 2012. The problem with the phrase women and minorities: intersectionality—an important theoretical framework for public health. American journal of public health. 102(7). pp.1267-1273.
- Braveman, P. and Gottlieb, L., 2014. The social determinants of health: it's time to consider the causes of the causes. Public health reports. 129(1_suppl2). pp.19-31.
- Brett, J. and et. al., 2014. Mapping the impact of patient and public involvement on health and social care research: a systematic review. Health Expectations. 17(5). pp.637-650.
- Garner, A. S. and et. al., 2012. Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: translating developmental science into lifelong health. Pediatrics. 129(1). pp.e224-e231.
- Kohl 3rd, H. W. and et. al., 2012. The pandemic of physical inactivity: global action for public health. The lancet. 380(9838). pp.294-305.
- Minkler, M. ed., 2012. Community organizing and community building for health and welfare. Rutgers University Press.
- Modi, M. N., Palmer, S. and Armstrong, A., 2014. The role of Violence Against Women Act in addressing intimate partner violence: a public health issue. Journal of Women's Health. 23(3). pp.253-259.
- Popescu, G. H. and Predescu, V., 2016. The role of leadership in public health. American Journal of Medical Research. 3(1). p.273.
- Sallis, J. F. and et. al., 2012. Physical education's role in public health: Steps forward and backward over 20 years and HOPE for the future. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 83(2). pp.125-135.
- Wood, A. R. and et. al., 2014. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height. Nature genetics. 46(11). p.1173.