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BUS020N532A Business Computer Fundamentals Level 4 Mont Rose College

Introduction

Computer Fundamentals defines the basic terms and process used for computing purpose. It starts from the very basic data processing along with the Industry and Engineering. It also covers about the graphic and multimedia. It acknowledges about programming languages and other information of basic logi

Part 1

1. Data processing

Jason Daley stated that data processing is the method of accumulating and converting the data items to fabricate meaningful information. It can also be taken into consideration as a

information processing subset(Marschner and Shirley, 2015). Data processing can also be termed as the combination of certain steps which converts raw data into considerable information through validation, sorting, summarization, aggregation , analysis , reporting and classification of the raw data.

Whereas Michael Hiltzik stated that it is an activity which includes data collection. The data which is collected is needed to be stored followed by sorting of data, further processing and analysis of it to convert it into an information which is some meaningful data (Iqbal, 2017).

Data processing transforms the raw data into machine readable data. The continuity in the  use and processing of data forms a cycle which can provide the instant result completely depending upon the need for the processing of data (Monk, 2014).

2. Industry and Engineering

Industry and engineering optimises the complex processes, organisation or a system. It focuses on the elimination of the wastage of time, money, material, hours of every person working, machine time, energy and the resources that are not generating values. It creates processes of engineering and systems that aims to improve the quality and productivity (LIU, YANG and LIU,2017).

It is concerned for the development, improvement and also implementation of  cohesive systems which includes people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy and materials. It also includes analysis and synthesis of the system as well as implementation of the social and physical sciences with the help of principles and other methods of engineering design for the specification, prediction and evaluation of the result obtained(Raphael and Smith,  2018). It is also a business oriented discipline which includes the management of the operations.

3.Graphics and Multimedia

Graphics can be defined as the images or design which are visual on some surface which can be canvas, paper, screen whose purpose is to inform, entertain or to illustrate something. The contemporary usage of graphic design involves the representation of data in the pictorial format. The image which are generated through computers are known as computer graphics. It may be comprise of functional or artistic aspects. Graphics are the visual elements which points certain information to the readers or the viewers (Beriswill, 2015). Graphic is one the important aspects of the elements of the multimedia technology. It is also used as the one of the primary way of advertisement.

Whereas multimedia is a content  which uses different forms of contents and making their combination such as text, video ,audio and animations or the content which is interactive. Recording of multimedia can be done along with playing and displaying; which is interacted or displayed  by devices that process informative content like computerized and electronic devices.

Multimedia can be stored in the multimedia storing devices only. Multimedia is used in many aspects such as for the formation of the presentations , games and simulations. It can be used in many fields such as advertisement, education, scientific research and in the creative fields(Lin et. al., 2015).

Part 2

1. Need of Programming Language

The main need of programming language is to write  programs for the development of the software in an easy way which works efficiently.  Programmer is being provided the proper environment for the programming through the programming language.

It develops the ability of a programmer for developing the real algorithm. As programming language comes with certain features if used properly can give a better result. Programming language gives the software developer an option to customize his programming language. Due to which the developer can simplify things for the better; hence, helping him towards the resourceful codes concept. Also, the precision may not come in the human language to express algorithms(Vercauteren,  Cuinas and Verhaevert, 2015).

2.Differentiation of High level and low level languages

  • The high level language can be easily understood by the humans whereas the low level language cannot be easily understood by the humans(Kasemsap, 2018).
  • High level languages can be easily learn whereas the low level language is not at all easy to learn.
  • Execution of high level language is slow whereas the execution of low level language is fast.
  • Modification of high level languages can be easily done but for the low level language modification is not easy.
  • High level language is normally used for writing application program whereas low level language is used for writing hardware programs.

3. Differentiate between a compiler and an interpreter and give two examples of each.

  • One statement at a time is translated by the interpreter whereas compiler translates the entire program at a time only (Logunov, Shmotin and Danilo, 2015).
  • The execution time is more and the analysis time of interpreter is less whereas compiler takes more time for analysis of the source code; also, the execution time is less.
  • Memory of interpreter is efficient as there is no generation of intermediate code whereas compiler requires more memory as it generates the intermediate code.
  • Programming language like python and ruby uses the interpreter whereas compiler is used by languages like C,C++.

Part 3

1. Describe logical operators.

Logical operators are used for the combination of two or more phrases of information.

Logical operators are special symbol. It is used for the test of the relationship between the two phrases of information whether it is true or false (Vercauteren,  Cuinas and Verhaevert, 2015).

Logical operations are important because they are used control the path of flow of the information in the electrical circuits for example inside the CPU. The operations which are performed  are known as Boolean Operations. The elements of the circuits which behave according to the logic of boolean are knowns as logic gates. There are three types of logical operators in C language. They can be logical AND (&&), logical OR ( | | ) and logical NOT(!).

  • The logical AND (&&)  returns the value true when both the conditions are true otherwise it will not return any value for example (x>2) &&(y<2).
  • The logical OR ( | | ) returns the value true when at least one of the given condition is true for example (x>=2) | | (y>=2)
  • The logical NOT (!) the function of this logical operator is the reversing the state of the operand for example !((x>2) && (y<2)) will be reversed to “((x>2) &&(y<2))” and otherwise if the condition is true , the logical NOT operator makes it false.

2. Identify the basic gates, describe the behaviour of each.

There are three basic gates which are:

  • AND
  • OR
  • NOT

AND Gate: It is a logic gate with many inputs and one output. The output of the gate is true when the provided inputs are true altogether. If any of the input is false, the output of the AND gate is also false.

Truth Table for the input of AND Gate

A

B

O/P

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

 

OR Gate: It is a logic gate with n inputs and one output which performs the logical combination of the inputs. The output of OR gate is true when one or more than one inputs are true. The false outcome is only possible when all the inputs are false.

Truth Table for the input of OR Gate

A

B

O/P

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

NOT Gate: This  gate has one input and one output. The output of this gate is always the reverse of the input provided.

Truth Table for the input of NOT Gate

A

O/P

0

1

1

0

3.Combine basic gates into circuits

 
   

As the circuit is the combination of the basic gates  which are also known as decision making circuits. The basic gates are combine in the  above diagram where A,B,C are the inputs provided to the NAND gate and NOR gate respectively(Kasemsap, 2018) . The output of the first  NAND gate will be NOT of (A.B) whereas the output of the NOR gate will be NOT of (A+B) , the output of these two gates will be the input of the Another AND gate along with the input C .The boolean Expression of the  output is written in the diagram along with the truth table.

Few More Samples-

4. Describe the behaviour of a gate or circuit using Boolean expressions, truth tables and logic diagrams.

The behaviour of the three basic gates are as follows:

AND Gate: The Expression for the AND gate is  (A.B). The outcome will be true only if all the inputs are true.

The diagram for the AND Gate is

 
   

Truth Table for the input of AND Gate

A

B

O/P

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

OR Gate: The OR Gate has the boolean expression of (A+B). The OR gate produces the true if one of the provided input is true.

The diagram for the OR gate is

 
   
          

Truth Table for the input of OR Gate

A

B

O/P

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

NOT Gate :The NOT gate produces the reverse output of the inputs.

The diagram for the NOT gate is

 
   

Truth Table for the input of NOT Gate

A

Z

0

1

1

0

Conclusion

It can be concluded that data processing is an important part to convert data into information along with the information of the graphics and media; with the importance of the industry and engineering. Programming language is important and needed by every programmer for ease. The interpreter and compiler has certain differences along with the complete working of the basic logic gates and their combinational circuits which included the boolean expression , their truth table and the diagrams and also how they control the flow of information in the circuit.

References

  • Beriswill, J.E., 2015. Design Process of a Goal-Based Scenario on Computing Fundamentals. TechTrends. 59(6).pp.15-20.
  • Iqbal, A., 2017. Computer Fundamentals MCQs: Multiple Choice Questions and Answers (Quiz & Tests with Answer Keys).
  • Kasemsap, K., 2018. The fundamentals of human-computer interaction. In Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Fourth Edition .pp. 4199-4209. IGI Global.
  • Lin, Y.P., et. al. ,2015. Toward Affective Brain–Computer Interface: Fundamentals and Analysis of EEG‐Based Emotion Classification. Emotion Recognition: A Pattern Analysis Approach. pp.315-341.
  • LIU, P.P., YANG, S.Q. and LIU, B.L., 2017. Exploration on the Reform of Multi-resources Construction of Computer Fundamentals in MOOC. Value Engineering. 20.pp.092.
  • Logunov, A.V., Shmotin, Y.N. and Danilov, D.V., 2015. Methodological fundamentals of computer-assisted designing of nickel-based superalloys. Russian Metallurgy (Metally). 2015(13).pp.1053-1059.
  • Marschner, S. and Shirley, P., 2015. Fundamentals of computer graphics. CRC Press.
  • Monk, A.F. ed., 2014. Fundamentals of human-computer interaction. Academic Press.
  • Raphael, B. and Smith, I.F.C., 2018. Teaching Fundamentals of Computing to Civil Engineers: Challenges and Solutions. In Transforming Engineering Education: Innovative Computer-Mediated Learning Technologies. pp. 25-42.

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