Theories, Principles & Models in Education and Training


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Every individual has own way to learn a new thing, they always prefer a particular style of teaching and learning. Therefore, teachers are required to understand learning pattern of each learners and must adopt a range of teaching techniques (Kelly, Lesh and Baek, 2014). In this regard, an assignment is going to make an application on different theories, principles and models of learning; communication; curriculum development and reflection. It also describes process by which the same can be applied in teaching and learning practices. The main purpose of present report is to make a critical discussion on approaches to deliver safe and inclusive teaching to learners.


1.1 Analyse Theories, Models and Principles of Learning

Learning is a extremely important and universal aspect of developing process which is culturally organized as per human psychological function. There are many different theories, models and principles of learning by which teachers can analyse how people learn.

Learning Principles for Learners-

  • Prior knowledge of learners can hinder or foster learning: Knowledge, belief and attitude that an individual have and bring in learning institute, can either hinder or foster what they are learning. It depends on accuracy and behaviour of them that may interfere with or impede new concept of learning.
  • Motivation of people determine, directs and sustains what they have to learn: Motivation plays an important role in giving proper guidance to learners. When they find positive value in goal and objective of learning then it will lead to achieve desired learning outcomes in successful manner.
  • To become self-directed people must understand to monitor and adjust own approach to learning: Generally people are engaged in a variety of processes for monitoring and controlling their learning (Kiraly, 2014). It includes planning approaches, assessing task, evaluating own strengths and weaknesses etc. Therefore, when they develop such abilities to engage in processes then they will definitely gain intellectual habits for improving their performance.

Learning Theories for Learners:

  • Behaviourism: It is a world view which operates on the principle of environmental stimuli. People starts learning as a clean slate and behaviour is shaped either by positive or negative reinforcement. But both type of reinforcement helps in increasing a certain probability that an prior behaviour will happen again. While punishment reduces the likelihood for the same.
  • Cognitivism: This theory replace concerns more on exploring inner mental activities like problem-solving, thinking, memory and more. It uses metaphor of mind like computer where information comes in first after then processed which leads to arise specific outcomes.
  • Humanism: It refers to paradigm or pedagogical approach which believes that learning process is viewed as personal act for fulfilment of individual's potentials.

Learning Models for Learners

  • Kolb's Learning styles: This theory works on two levels- a 4-stage cycle of learning and 4-separate learning styles. It includes concrete experience, reflective observation, active experimentation and abstract conceptualisation. It mainly concerns with internal cognitive processes of learners.
  • The DUNN & DUNN Learning Styles Model: It involves two main activities that are- identifying the individual learning style; Planning and implementing learning activities. According to this model, learning style can be defined as preference within particular group of stimuli.

1.2 Ways by which Theories, Models and Principles of learning can be applied in Teaching, Learning and Assessment

Learning Preference: By underpinning the potentials and abilities of learners, teachers are required to adopt a range of teaching patterns. Through this process, they can aid people to grab information in proper manner by attending a lecture sessions.

Different Teaching and Learning Methods: Through different techniques of teaching like one-to-one, paired work, small and whole group learning etc. tutors can applied theories and models of learning in their own practices.

1.3 Analyse Models of Learning Preferences

Every individual has own style of learning style through which they grab knowledge from surroundings. It generally developed from childhood learning practices. For example: Some people used to observe others for learning a specific ability whereas some prefer to do practices for the same. There are various different ways of ascertaining preferences such are some learners prefer practical activities for learning a thing instead of reading or writing. According to Honey & Mumford, preference of people can be categorised according to activist, theorist, pragmatist and reflector. Activist includes those persons who like to deal with new concepts and experiences, by trial and error method. While learners under Pragmatist category like to apply those techniques that they have learnt from practical situations. Apart from this, Theorist learners require an adequate amount of time to get information. For this process, they prefer to read books and journals to get prior information first. While Reflectors go in deep investigation, while learning and apply activities as a part of learning.

1.4 Identification on Account's of Learners

The most exciting part in teaching and learning process is the growing recognition where learners share interest in facing challenges of developing their learning environment. The enthusiasm to meet such challenges is universal as well as leads to an explosion of exciting projects which are creating significant contribution. In this regard, individual learning preference influence way of teaching which are based on accounts of learners. Therefore, instructors are required to keep at a high level to become able to transfer their skills over learner's functional skills. For example- For speaking and understanding learning, teachers should organise proper activities because it is difficult task for learners to understand this concept. For this purpose, giving group-activities to make conversation and interaction with each other.


2.1 Analyse Theories, Models and Principles of Communication

Communication refers to a process of interaction between receiver and communicator to understand a concept (Metzler, 2017). In learning, communication plays an important role through which teachers entails the whole concept to learners. Therefore, some major theories, models and principles of communication are:-

Theories of Communication:

  • Persuasion Theory: The term persuasion reflects a technique to influence the way of people learns a thing. This theory provides ways by which tutors can persuade learners to do something. It defines learners in terms of psychological characteristics which effect the response of them to messages. It also includes source factors and messages which influence responses of individuals like credibility, expertise and attractiveness of source.
  • Social Learning Theory: As per this theory of communication, individual learns by observing others and shape their behaviour accordingly. Therefore, people emulate the behaviour by taking actions, comparing their experiences with others and adopting new behaviour. As per this theory, human behavior is a result obtained from combination and interaction of some variables. It includes environment; opinion and feelings of individuals; their behavior. In this regard, reciprocal causation describes the way by which people from same environment can adopt learning methods which different behaviors (Dicheva and et. al., 2015). There are some concepts given below which are also extremely important to this theory:
  1. Modeling– In general, people are influence by the behaviors of others and learn accordingly.
  2. Learning without performance – Occurrence of learning can be happened without a change in behavior.
  3. Attention– Process of learning mostly depends upon subject which is focused on the demonstrated behavior.
  4. Expectation– Learners come to expect certain type of behaviors to be either punished or rewarded.
  5. Awareness– Persons should have to be aware that behaviors are being negatively or positively or reinforced.

Models of Communication:

  • Linear/Psychological Model of communication: This model was developed by Laswell which assumes that communication as a one way process where one person speaks and other one listens. Due to this reason, it fails to give flawless in process of interaction.
  • Interactive Model of communication: It was given by Schramm which states that both speaker and listen get chance to speak and listen each other at the time of communication. They give response to each other either by verbally or non-verbally and may be in both ways.

Principles of Communication: Communication in learning can be defined as 2-way process of providing or receiving information by a channel (Darling-Hammond, 2014). It includes following principles:-

  • Know preferences and learning style of audience.
  • Must have knowledge about purpose of communication.
  • Anticipate objectives.
  • Present a clear picture of message.
  • Achieve credibility with learners.
  • Communicate a little at the time of attending of giving learning session.
  • Information must be presented in several ways.
  • Develop a useful or practical way for getting feedback from learners.
  • Use various or multiple techniques of communication.
  • Since communication is a difficult or complex procedure. Therefore, while interaction, it is necessary to listen what others say. In this regard, one of the main barriers to communication is ideas and opinions of learners itself. Apart from this, communication also can be influenced by environment, which may be visual, oral or written.

2.2 Ways by which theories, models and principles of communication can be applied in teaching, learning and assessment

Embedding Literacy Numeracy and Language: Difficulty in understanding different language and illiteracy issues create various barriers to learning (Tan, 2014). Therefore, tutors are required to introduce resources through which isolation can be reduced within learners. By organising educational games and activities, such learners can develop literacy and numeracy as well.

Blooms Taxonomy of Learning: It refers to set of hierarchical models which is used for classify educational learning objectives on the basis of objectives, evaluation, synthesis and specificity. In this context, for promoting higher forms of thinking in education, educators can identify three main domains of learning. It includes cognitivism (mental skills), affective (growth in behaviourism and self-learning process) and psycholomotor (manual or physical skills).


3.1 Analyse Theories, Models and Principles of assessment

Assessment can be defined as means of collecting and analysing evidence for establishing the performance of individuals. It is carried out by both external and internal methods (Titmus, 2014). In this regard assessment tasks, portfolio submission and examination covered in external methods.

Theories of assessment:

Formative Assessment: This theory gives information and feedback during teaching and learning process. It generally uses to measure progress of both learners and instructors so that need of training or practice can be determined.

Summative Assessment: This theory is used after completing a learning or teaching session between learners and instructors. It gives feedback and information to check the progress of learning process.

Assessment Model:

Summative Assessment Model: Assessment is the systematic process which gather,interpret and react on the particular types of data (du Plessis and Van Niekerk, 2014). The process of assessment is applied in the various types of model and then those proven theory are considered as assessment model. This provide a particular structure or framework to design the specific program which could be integrated in assessment model. This helps in analysing overall environment in a strategic manner that helps in assigning the each and every task while making model in an efficient way. The assessment planning is also being done so that outline can be made for each and every project with the context of assessment model.

Principles of Assessment:

  • Observation during learning activities and lecture to assess learning power of people.
  • Giving assessment to review discussion and level of knowledge gained after completing a session by learners,
  • Organise conference meeting between learners and instructor for feedback.
  • Evaluation of performance at end of learning sessions.

3.2 Ways by which Theories, Models and Principles of assessment can be applied in Teaching, Learning and Assessment

Assessment for learning: It is generally achieved by self-assessments of learners after completing a lesson (Stoeckel, 2017). Therefore, tutors can offer one-to-one sessions to learners so that progress of learning can be measured and monitored.

Co-operative learning and learning conversation: It assists learners to work as a team and ensure that contribution of each is valued. Through working in group they can create cross-cultural understanding and foster platform for curriculum development. In this process, teachers must provide assessments to learners in groups so that they can share skills with each to complete the same.


4.1 Analyse Theories, Models and Principles of Curriculum Development

Curriculum development is a part of planning, implementation and process of review, therefore, cannot be carried out in isolation. It describes development of learning process on the basis of four different levels ability (Espíritu-Olmos and Sastre-Castillo, 2015). It includes large-scale curricular reform for changing lessons of individuals. In this context, there are various models exists which can be adopted or implemented to form basis of curriculum development.

Theories of Curriculum Development: Curriculum theories can be used to develop and shape curriculum. Therefore, to define learning process, some major theories are explained as below:

  • Social Meliorists Theory: This theory is based on intelligence of learners and believes that education can reform or change societies for better meliorists. Thus, it provides ways by which learners can improve intelligence by taking proper education in a particular field.
  • John Dewey's theory: This theory of curriculum development focuses on idea that education must be incorporated as per preference of learners. It classifies people on the basis of behaviour viz. Expressive, artistic, constructive and social.

Models of Curriculum Development:

Linear product or objective model: It was developed by Tyler which defines learning in terms of learner's (Ramazani and Jergeas, 2015). Therefore, it uses systematic approach to planning by focusing on learning outcomes. The main objective of this approach is that it enables programme specification and subject benchmarking.

Principles for curriculum development according to linear product model:

  • Identify aims and objectives specifically.
  • Construct process for accomplishment of objectives.
  • Measure potential of such process which is used to achieve desired goals.

Cyclical Model: It was given by Wheeler which involves formulation of aims and objectives on the basis of assessment needs of learners and professional bodies.

Principles for curriculum development as per cyclical model:

  • Identify needs of learners and curriculum bodies.
  • Ascertain aims, objectives and outcomes of sessions.
  • Development of a program of teaching.
  • Develop evaluation strategies.

4.2 Ways by which theories, models and principles of curriculum development can be applied in teaching, learning and assessment

There are different approaches and processes available by which curriculum activities can be developed. It includes-

Using e-learning and technology: All learners possess some potentials to learn a concept. By using e-learning platform, learners who have literacy issues can understand what tutors want to teach them. As this technology also read out the text and represent knowledge in visualise manner. Therefore, this technique or curriculum activity helps in developing ICT skills in individuals.

Encourage Learners: By actively encourage and motivate learners to share their experience helps in developing listening and learning skills in them. In this regard, educators are required to give opportunity to learners to speak and share experiences related to barriers they have faced during a learning session.


5.1 Analyse Theories, Models and Principles of Reflection

Reflection allows tutors to analyse own method of teaching, mentally process as well as utilise an experiential knowledge for getting an outcome (Theories and principles of learning and communication, 2018). It is essential for every instructors to assess own progress while giving a learning session.

Theories of Reflection:

Kolb’s Learning Cycle: It is a well known theory which argues that every person gain experience from own practice. This theory reveals the process of learning in four stages that are: Plan- Purpose of learning process; Experience- Do something; Conceptualisation- Make generalisation and Reflection: Think about what have done. Therefore, every learner and instructor is needed to measure efficiencies of own. This will help in improving own skills.

Models of Reflection:

Terry Borton: This reflective model is adopted by Gary Rolfe which states that practitioner needs to work on three stages. It includes What; What Next and So What. Through this analysis, they can construct the knowledge which have learnt by own experience.

Argyris and Schon: This theory is built around the correction and recognition of perceived value (Kris-Etherton and et. al., 2014). It derives some main notions that are: Reflection-on-action; Reflection-in-action; Respond to Problems and Priority of practical knowledge.

Reflection Principles:

  • Reflect on moral purpose of information and education for learner’s development.
  • Review and recognise prior knowledge and experience gain on daily routine activities.

5.2 Ways by which theories, models and principles of reflection can be applied in teaching, learning and assessment to review own practice

In order to apply theories, models and principles of reflection in teaching, learning and assessment to review own practice, teachers can adopt psychological tests. It is used to measure certain abilities like mechanical or clerical skills. In addition to this, it is generally designed for a particular job. For example: Aptitude test which is also known as Minnesota Clerical Test, helps in measures the accuracy or perceptual speed for teaching a concept. This would help a person in measuring effectiveness of own teaching skills so that modification can be done if required.


From this assignment, it has concluded that every person has own needs and style of learning a thing. They adopt different-different ways to grab knowledge and information either from surroundings or taking a learning session from an institute. Therefore, it assists teachers to adopt a wide range of teaching techniques through which learners can understand what they want to teach. In addition to this, tutors must applied different theories, models and principles of learning, assessment and communication in their part of teaching. They should organise curriculum activities through which learners can develop own learning skills also.


Books and Journals

  • Kelly, A. E., Lesh, R. A. and Baek, J. Y. eds., 2014. Handbook of design research methods in education: Innovations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics learning and teaching. Routledge.
  • Kiraly, D., 2014. A social constructivist approach to translator education: Empowerment from theory to practice. Routledge.
  • Metzler, M., 2017. Instructional models in physical education. Routledge.
  • Dicheva, D., and et. al., 2015. Gamification in education: A systematic mapping study. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. 18(3).
  • Darling-Hammond, L., 2014. Strengthening clinical preparation: The holy grail of teacher education. Peabody Journal of Education. 89(4). pp.547-561.
  • Tan, E., 2014. Human capital theory: A holistic criticism. Review of Educational Research. 84(3). pp.411-445.
  • Titmus, C. J. ed., 2014. Lifelong education for adults: An international handbook. Elsevier.
  • Stoeckel, P. R., 2017. Client education: Theory and practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
  • Espíritu-Olmos, R. and Sastre-Castillo, M.A., 2015. Personality traits versus work values: Comparing psychological theories on entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Business Research. 68(7). pp.1595-1598.
  • Ramazani, J. and Jergeas, G., 2015. Project managers and the journey from good to great: The benefits of investment in project management training and education. International Journal of Project Management. 33(1). pp.41-52.
  • du Plessis, H. and Van Niekerk, A., 2014. A new GISc framework and competency set for curricula development at South African universities. South African Journal of Geomatics. 3(1). pp.1-12.
  • Kris-Etherton, P.M., and et. al., 2014. The need to advance nutrition education in the training of health care professionals and recommended research to evaluate implementation and effectiveness–. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 99(5). pp.1153S-1166S.
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