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Content and Process Theories of Motivation & Motivation Techniques

University: ICON COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

  • Unit No: 12
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 18 / Words 4425
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: N/A
  • Downloads: 652
Question :

Questions- This assessment will cover the following questions:

  • Tesco is a multinational grocery retail industry of UK and provide quality and variety of products. Identify theories of motivation that enables individual and teams to achieve the organisational goal.
  • Explain influences of culture, politics, and power on the behaviour of others in Tesco company.
  • Identify relevant team and group development theories to assist the growth of dynamic cooperation.
  • Differentiate between effective team and ineffective team.
Answer :
Organization Selected : Tesco

INTRODUCTION

Organization behaviour refers the process of understanding behaviour of human at workplace and finds out its impact on job structure, employees performance, action and leadership. Organizational behaviour concludes four parts such as peoples, structure, technology and the environment of company etc. impact on organization performance and supports to achieve goal of company. Thus, organization behaviour supports to examine the complicated nature of employees in company. To understand organizational behaviour concept of company there is an example Tesco. It is a British multinational groceries company and famous as general merchandise retailer company (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2019). Headquarter of the organization is London in UK where comes in third largest retailer around world on the basis of gross revenue. On the basis of revenue organization comes ninth largest retailer in the world. Tesco has the largest productivity of employees at workplace such as 450,000. Company retails wide variety of products such as supermarket, hypermarket, superstore and convenience shop etc. organization has 6.800 shops which operates in various countries along with wide subsidiaries. In this report will examine determine culture, political and power on the behaviour of other organization. It will cover content and process theories of motivation and motivation techniques which enables to effective achievement of goals in an organization.

MAIN BODY

LO1

P1Analyse organization's culture,politics and power to influences individual behaviour and performance

Organization culture refers a system which includes values and behaviour of human being that determines how employees behave in organization. While shared values gives impact on employees and guides them how to dress up, how to act with other and how to perform at workplace. Organization culture plays vital role in organization where it supports individual and team to influence their performance by meeting their objectives. Tesco applies organizational culture concept and gives values to their employees (Osland, Devine and Turner, 2015). There are various culture in organization such as -

Hofstede's six dimensions of Culture: It is cross culture communication framework. The main goal of the theory is to gives values each type of employee's who belongs to different culture. Tesco introduces different type of cultural employee at workplace so that they enable to understand each type of customers objectives.

Collaborative organization culture: Manager of company involves whole team of employees in decision-making where they share ideas and collaborate to company to gain business competition. Organization encourages teamwork and through this strategy achieves complete task in minimum time.

Competitive company culture: Tesco applies this culture to enhance employees efficiency and their behaviour at workplace where manager gives challenges to employees through task, so that they work as team to overcome challenges. Beside of this individual employee also gets opportunity to sharp their skills so that he perform better at workplace.

Controlled organization culture: company monitors employees performance at workplace and guides them to achieve organization mission (Cook and Artino Jr, 2016). To control organization culture Tesco improves their organizational structure so that company enables to give value to individual and team behaviour and performance.

Organization culture leads employees productivity at workplace but it has some drawback such as strong organization culture drastic resistance to modification.

Organization politics mentions the activities which requires, develop and applies power and other sources to find desirable outcome's in critical situation. Organizational politics applies by organization to gain positive outcomes.

Positive politic: It is behaviour which designs to influences other employees along with objectives of supporting both company and individuals. Beside of this Tesco usage this organizational politics to enhance efficiency, form inter personnel relationship, profit of company and their members. due to politics at workplace individual employees enable to give proper attention at workplace and always try to down other employees.

Negative politics: Company gets drawbacks of politics because it leads unequal behaviour of individual employee at workplace to gain benefits. It gives negative impact on team performance in company. Impact of organizational politics-

Decrease employees productivity; to gain positive outcome in company manager to do unequal; behaviour to employees at workplace which reduces well-being of employee. Due to this employees' productivity become lower at workplace (Wilson, 2017). Beside of this employee plays politics at workplace rather to pay attention in his performance. It causes dispute obtains between employees.

Changes attitude of employees: Politics in company changes the attitude of employees regarding company even ideal employee also disturbs and loss his interest in job and attendance. Thus, internal politics of employees doesn't permit them to give their hundred percent at workplace.

Thus type politics decrease performance of employees and crates conflict between employees. Beside of this it leads demotivation in employees. Employee gets difficulty at workplace regarding task but politics causes no employees interact to each other. Thus, it reduces individual well-being in company. Thus, Tesco unable to motivate employees and doesn't get positive outcomes in company.

Organization power refers the capability of organization to influences individual and team behaviour and performance. It also encourages employees to achieve individual objectives by influencing their performance. Tesco uses French and ravens theory in which includes four type of power coercive power, expert power, legislative power, reference power and reward power. French and ravens theory is specially designed to motivate large number of employee at workplace.

REWARD POWER:Tesco applies reward power to enhances allocation of incentives within company, Where manager of Tesco company offers rewards on the basis of employees performance (Wilson, 2018). Reward power greatly motivate employees to retain in company. To influence individual employee well-being at workplace manager offers incentive strategy so that he enhances their skills and improve his performance. Beside of these employees also gives their best performance so that he enables to get extra incentive. To improve team performance at workplace organization offers promotion or bonus strategy so that each group of company works hard and leads success in company by achieving profitability for company.

LEGITIMATE POWER: Manager of the organization perform as the owner of the company where fix target for employees. The main goal of the power is to keep control employees activity so that organization gets profitability in company. Conflict obtains crisis between employees and that decreases performance of employees at workplace. As result organization unable to use reward power in well-formed in company and unable to influences individual and team performance and behaviour.

REFERNECE POWER: Leader influences their employees performance by offering admiration. The main goal of the leader to give the values of their employees so that their well-being is maintained at workplace.

EXPERT POWER: The main goal to influences talent of employees by offering skill development classes. Through this theory organization analyses individual employee behaviour at workplace and gains complete task on time. Employee influences their impact by offering the best performance along with profitable outcomes at workplace. Thus, employee well-being maintains and resolve conflict between employees and management. Reward power leads wide scale employees productivity at workplace.

COERCIVE POWER: In this power manager of Tesco posses power top give threat to employee's along with punishment. The main goal each employee understand their responsibility regarding job. Tesco gets negative impact in organization because this strategy support to achieve short term objectives but it can't get long term objectives. Thus, organization unable to achieve mission of company. Manager keeps motivate employees for short time but after sometime again conflicts obtains between employees and management.

LO2

P2 Content and Process theories of motivation and motivation techniques

Motivation is a tool which leads effectiveness in performance by meeting individual objectives. To understand motivation there are two theories examples such as content theory and process theory. Both theory is basically designed to influence employees performance at workplace so that organization gets positive outcomes in company. Tesco applies both theories to motivate individual and team along with their performance and behaviour at workplace.

Content theory

it refers the process of examination human needs which changes according to time. This theory specially designed to motivate individual employees at workplace so that their well-being maintains, and they give their best performance. Content theory includes various theories such as Maslow theory, ERG theory or Alderfer's theory, Herzberg's two factor theory and McClelland- need for achievement, affiliation and power theory. Tesco applies Herzberg's theory to motivate individual employees in company and makes them satisfy at workplace. This theory also supports to overcome dissatisfaction of employees in company. That why it's known as Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory or dual factor theory (Miner, 2015). It classifies into two factors such as hygiene factor and motivation factor. It explains below-

HYGEINE FACTORS: it is essential for employees motivation at workplace and supports to maintain employees well-being in company. This factor plays vital role to influences individual employee performance and motivate them (Namada, 2018). Hygiene factor concludes-various factors which supports to elect intellectual employees in company. Tesco keeps appropriate pay structure rather to other competitive industry so that employee's motivate in company. Organization offers salary on the basis of employees talent and their work efficiency. Tesco offers flexible working hours facilities to employees where employees can do work to home as result organization gets complete task on time while employees gets time to spend with employees. Thus, organization keeps flexibility in company policies and administrative policies. Beside of this organization provides holidays to employees which makes them happy and makes them loyal at workplace. Company offers fringes benefits to employees where organization offers health insurance policies to them which leads satisfaction in employee's along with their families. To enhance employees performance at workplace manager organizes training classes for them so that they learn new techniques and enhance their performance at workplace. While employees gets opportunity to overcome their weakness and learn new techniques. Manager provides physical condition to employees (Petrou, Demerouti and Schaufeli, 2018). In physical working condition, manager provides good sitting condition along with cleanliness, air conditioning place which makes them feel good during working. Beside of this organization provides safety at workplace so that employees can do work free. Such kind safety boost female's confidence, and they enable to give their best performance in their jobs. Organization also offers job security to employees which encourage employees to retain in company prolong time.

MOTIVATION FACTORS: Above factor leads satisfaction in employees regarding job but doesn't motivate to achieve organization mission. Motivation factor motivate employees to gives their loyal performance at workplace. Self esteem is plays beneficial role to motivate employees improve performance at job place (Lăzăroiu, 2015). Incentives motivate employees for short time but employees needs respect, recognition, promotional opportunities and challenges which inspires employees and gives values. Manager gives appreciation to employees for their work performance which motivate individual employees to gives the best performance. Beside of this organization offers promotion opportunities to employees on the basis of their talent which inspire employee to perform well and get higher position in company.

This theory has drawback such as it influences employees productivity at workplace but organization unable to take competitive advantage in business market.

Process theory

It refers the process of examines how humans needs gives impact their behaviours in order to accomplish goal of relevant to their requirements. Process theory is specially designed to influences individual and team behaviour in organization so that they lead positive outcomes in company. This theory includes Equality theory, expectancy theory and the porter Lawler model. Tesco applies equality theory to influences employees behaviour at workplace. This theory helps to influence team behaviour in company by meeting their needs. Equity theory is the process which keeps fair relationship between punishment and reward in comparison to others (Devece, Palacios-Marqués and Alguacil, 2016). In simple term balance between input and outcomes where organization pays along with their conditions. For example organization offers flexible working hour facilities to employees as result employees gives complete task on time. Thus, organization gets complete task on time. Organization provides health insurance policies to employees which leads satisfaction in employee's and their families regrading job. While employees gives profitability in organization by doing overtime. Manager provides facilitative working condition as result employees gives their productivity at workplace. Employee gives their best performance at workplace as result organization offers incentives to employees on the basis of their performance.

Motivation techniques

Motivation techniques are those techniques which influences motivation in employees regarding their job at workplace. Beside of this it gives values to employees and raises their productivity at workplace. There are lots of techniques which motivate employees to influences their performance.

REWARD STRATEGY: Reward is that strategy which attracts employees to give the best performance at workplace and achieve that awards. Organization offers incentive to employees on the basis of their performance where employees inspire and give their loyal performance at workplace (King and Lawley, 2016). Beside of incentive organization gives reward as appreciation to employees on their performance which inspire employees to give the appreciable performance so that organization meets their mission.

Contingency theory: it is the approach of management to manage company effectively so that organization gets profitability. It is not only depend on leaders' ability but also depends on employees' ability. In simple word a leader who manages whole team according to circumstance. For example To motivate employees organization involves them to share profit where employees get golden opportunity to earn extra profit beside of incentives. Through this technique organization enables to raise organization income along with improvement in employees performance at workplace. Tesco enables to reduce turnover of employees and gets competitive advantage in business market. Thus, contingency theory supports organization to motivate and lead employees in well-formed manner.

Path goal theory: path goal theory is based on leadership behaviour or style where number of employees treat in equal manner so that they achieve goal of organization. The main goal to increase motivation empowerment, self-esteem and satisfaction in employees so that they give high productivity at work place. For example Manager organizes skills development classes for employees and provide opportunity to learn new skills. As result employees gives their involvement and sharps their skills and learn new techniques. Employee's applies these skills at workplace to enhance their performance and leads profitability in company. Thus, organization keeps fairness in reward and punishment and gets positive aspect in company. While employees gets satisfaction and influences their performance at job place.

LO3

P3) Demonstrate an effective and ineffective team

Effective team- are foundation of each successful organization and it helps to improve facilitate, quality for the completion of projects and increment of efficiency and productivity. It help to improve the facilitate, quality of completion the project.

Ineffective team- It is a conflict-ridden, unfocused, filled with a distrust of negative competition. It well results in high turnover, considerable frustration levels, absenteeism, intolerance and poor communication.

To demonstrate effective and ineffective team Belbin theory are taken. The main aim of the theory to influences employees performance at workplace, so they enable to lead profitability in company.It has nine stages that are-

Shaper- It is the initial stage of the team during the team development where the individual are not yet mixed or form together (Cherry, 2017). Here each member are highly depended on the leader for the direction and guidance. Where the little agreement on the team objective other than the received from leader. For making an effective team leader are to be well-prepared to answer all the relevant questions about the team, objective and purpose and external relationship because team member mainly depend on leader direction and guidance. If the leader is not well-prepared than it is not possible to make an effective team, as the members not get the proper guidance from the leader and become ineffective team. So the leader are to be having knowledge of all the norms and very well about the Tesco company.

Implementer: it is most important step where manager makes decision and direct implement on team to follow. For the effective team, member of the team should overcome the obstacles, by accepting the individual differences and work according to the team goals and task and understand the situation, work efficiently that help to make an effective team member and (De Vries and Van der Poll, 2018). If failure to address the conflict than it may result in long period issues and never became an effective team. But it is the most critical and difficult stage that pass through. It marked the period by competition and conflict as emerge individual personality. In this stage team performance actual decrease because energy are wasted in the unproductive activities. If the member of the team members are not accept and disagree with goal than the team became ineffective, that decrease the performance and became ineffective team.

Complementer finisher: Number of employees gets number of project as complement along with deadline whereas employees give assurance to manager they complete their task before deadline with any errors. Thus manager influences team work activity at workplace. It enahynce effctivenss in team. While ineffective unable to complete task on time.

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Team worker: From the stages if the team member are resolved from the conflict and understand the responsibilities and agree to accept the team goals and objective than it helps to emerge a unity. In this stage normal guidance are developed around the leader or leaders and the individual members' responsibility. For making an effective team member there need to be resolved all the interpersonal differences are to be resolved and the sense of understand and cohesion and unity are to be emerged. Then only it is possible to increase the performance of the team member, when each member are begin to cooperate focus on the goal of the team than it make an effective team, which lead to success of the Tesco organization (Jaakson and et.al., 2017).

If the team member are not agreed to resolve the interpersonal differences and can't able to try changes and understand, then it is not possible to emerged as unity and are not possible to improve the performance which result in declining the performance of the member day by day which make the ineffective team member, which can decrease the sales and productivity of the Tesco firm.

Resource investigator: effective team is active at workplace and gives new creativity about sources so that organization comes in profitability while ineffective team keep themselves non active due to politics.

Monitor evaluator: it is strength of effective team because they get platform to create creativity, imagination. It leads effctive performance of each employees in team. Thus, effective team enable to resolve their conflicts and leads competitive advantage in company while ineffective team unable to plant due to poor communication each other.

Plant:: In this stage cooperation and consensus are to be well-established and team are well mature, functioning and organized and have stable and clear structure, and all members of the team are committed towards the mission of the team. For an effective team are to be well matured and are to be functioning well and make a clear and inflexible structure, so that all members are to be performed well and are committed towards the mission of team (Onn, Yunus and Yusof, 2017). Such effective team can help the Tesco firm to increase the productivity and sales of the company, that leads a profitability of firm.

If the team is not been well-established and cooperate each other and become full mature and are not in well-functioning than the member can remain low performance and also if the company not provide the stable structure to the team it also creates impact on the performance of the team member and the team remain ineffective, which leads reduction in the performance of the team member and hence decrease in productivity of the Tesco company.


Specialist: Tesco provides opportunity to team they can keep their view r5egarding task to lead dedication for their job. Efctive team gets platform to sher their views reagding task and whjole team support and respect their view by listening proper form. Thus, each em,ploye dedicate to eachother while ineffective team unable to give their performance due to pooe listening. It demotes number of employees who gives their performance at workplace.

Beside of this leadership theory also appplies by Tesco to motivate large number of employees in team and motivate them form sharpen their skills.

L04

P4 Apply concepts and philosophies of OB along with business situation

There are lots of philosophies and concepts of organizational behaviour which applies according to business situation. Concepts are-

Motivation of employee's: According to the concept employees have different types of need which leads satisfaction in employee's and influences their skills. To understand this concept there is a situation. For example Tesco have less productivity at workplace, in that state organization wants to improve employees productivity at job place along with their performance so that company gets profitable outcomes in company. Company applies maslow's theory which includes five basic needs of employees such as physiological needs, safety needs, social, self-esteem and self-satisfaction needs etc. leads satisfaction in employees regarding job. Tesco offers positive atmosphere along with incentive increments which inspires employees to retain in company (Borkowski, 2015). Beside of this organization offers compensatory security to employees which motivate employees to work overtime at workplace. This strategy supports company to raise productivity of employees at work and motivation concepts to improve employees performance and their productivity at workplace. Thus, Tesco overcomes business situation and enables to raise employees productivity in job. This concept has drawback that it leads high productivity of employees but reduces profitability in company. Organization enables to achieve short goal of company but doesn't achieve long term goals.

Dignity of labour : according to the concept a employee needs dignity and respect in job because it enhances self-esteem of employees and motivate them to work honestly. To understand this concept there is a situation such as Tesco doesn't get positive outcomes in company which causes company comes in loss. To gain positive outcomes' organization applies this concept which supports company to raises employee's performance so that they enable to lead positive outcomes in company. That's why Tesco keeps fair relationship between punishment and reward. Where manager of the company involves employees in decision-making and gives values to listen intently as result employees gives their involvement and gives innovative ideas which can support company to meet organization mission. Beside og this organization pays on the basis of labour work performance which motivates employees to gives the best performance at workplace. Organization offers health insurance policies and job security to labour which leads satisfaction in them along with their family. As result labour to do overtime and meets organization to goals. Manager of company also gives them respect by appreciating for their job performance which enhance loyalty of labour regrading their work and for organization (Knights and Willmott, eds., 2016). Through the concept Tesco enables to overcome situation gets positive outcomes in company. This concept has drawbacks organization unable to achieve short term goal of company. Another drawback of concept, if organization doesn't maintain fairness between punishment and reward, then It gives negative impact on company.

Involvement and Empowerment of employees: According to the concept each employee of company can't handle every situation at workplace because each employee have different skills, in that state cant expect each employees works in negative situation. There is a situation to understand this concept. For example each employee unable to give the best performance in well-formed which causes Tesco unable to get overall profitability in company. To overcome this situation Tesco applies this concept where manager organizes skill development programme for employees so that employees learns new skills and understand how to perform at job place. While employees gets opportunity to sharp their skills so that they perform fruitful in company. Beside of this manager gives them challenges analysing employees performance after skill development classes (De Neys, ed., 2017). Organization also gives deadline for task and enhances employees efficiency at workplace. Thus, organization overcomes this situation and leads effectiveness in their performance. It has drawback if company doesn't give proper attention on employees' performance in that state organization unable to lead effectiveness in employees performance.

CONCLUSION

From the above study it is concluded that organizational behaviour is very essential for the organization to study the performance of the group and individual activity and examine the human behaviour in work environment. Also conclude that different organization culture such as Hofstede's six dimensions of culture and politics such as negative and positive politics and power which can effect the performance of the employee performance, as different culture of the organization may not suit the team member which create impact on the performance of employee. In power includes four type of power to motivate employees such as legislative, reference, reward, informational power etc. Content, process, path goal and contingency theory of motivation plays vital role in the organization, by using these technicians employees are to be motivated towards the achievement of the goal of the organization and improve the performance of the employee. For making an effective team proper guidance and well-structured are to be made so that employee is to be well mature and resolve the interpersonal relation and direct them clearly towards the team objective. In this report has been concluded Belbin theory and their interrelation with leadership. It also concluded that by using the various philosophy and concepts of the organizational behaviour according to the business situation and helps in the developmentd of the team performance.

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