Migrants can be determined as people who work and live outside their country of origin. There are different set of perceptions that individuals have towards their country and people who visit to their country in search of job (Ryan and Mulholland, 2014). There are many strict policies that are made in countries so that people who visit from other countries will be able to achieve their desired goals. However, there are also countries that have policies which make individuals to live in restrictions. Migrants are vulnerable to human rights abuses. As per the findings, it can be stated that the rate of people with skills from developing countries to developed countries have raised. Further, the rate of skilled workers in developed countries have also increased and this is because the countries' economy is facing shortage of labour. On the other hand, better wage, high working conditions, cheaper transportation, etc. are encouraging people to visit developed countries and contribute effectively so that their desired goals and objectives can be achieved (Charsley, StorerChurch and Hear, 2012). However, there are different set of challenges that are faced by migrants due to which they face difficulties in settling. The changing of settlement rules in 2012 by UK government broke the link between people going there to work and have a permanent stay. Usually the migrants are attracted to developed countries like UK because of better wages, improved employment terms, recruitment and cheap transportation. But when migrants arrive here they have to face a totally different culture. Moreover, they have to face discrimination from the local people who already are residing there. This makes it difficult for them to stay there permanently and gradually come back if they are not able to cope up with them. The working migrants employed in big MNC's have to face issues related to wages because government imposes different set of rules and regulations in terms of wage for migrants. Not all are capable of handling such challenges. Another challenge the migrants face are the food culture (Kumpulainen, Lipponen and Mikkola, 2014). In UK beef is a popular food item used in almost every dish which is contrary to Indian beliefs. So they have to face challenges in this aspect as well. Migrants who are highly skilled come to UK in seek of opportunities that will enhance their career and also ensure their upliftment in the organization they are working for. If they get a job of their level, then issues faced by them are related to settling. Though highly skilled labour is increased but settling permanently is another task. Then they have to deal with stress on everyday basis. There are a very few among those highly skilled migrants who are able to cope up with the stress and those who are not are forced to leave the country with no other option being left. Discrimination from localities may or may-not occur. All this depends on the mentality which they have been pursuing since long, the result of which is tension and stress for Indian migrants (Kõu and Bailey, 2014). However, despite all this various laws are there in UK that might be helpful for the migrants if they face any such issues and reporting to the assigned authorities could be done. These challenges show that its high time that Indian government needs to make deals with UK government which will lead to less settlement issues faced by these highly skilled migrants.
Factors that drive highly skilled Indians to settle in UK
There are ample of reasons for which highly skilled Indians migrate to UK and the major reason is employment opportunities. Being a developed country, UK has a lot of opportunities for Indians that indeed gives them the platform through which they can depict their skills and capabilities (Yeoh and Lam, 2016). In Indian states, people find less opportunities to develop their career; hence to grow in the same aspect, they apply for job in UK. However, on the other hand most of the students study there and after completing the studies, they apply for placement in the same country.
This is beneficial for them in many aspects; hence as a result most of the highly skilled Indians prefer to migrate towards UK (Geddes and Scholten, 2016). Further, on the other hand UK government has an occupation “shortage list” which is yet another easier method to get a job. This includes occupation services for students who have completed courses in complex areas such as chemistry, physics and other engineering courses. There a few other courses as well through which highly skilled migrants can apply for the job opportunities in UK. However, most of the students in UK prefer to get part- time work; hence after completing the studies, they switch towards the same job profile.
This is yet another reason through which people prefer to migrate to UK. Most of the students have psychology that studying in UK will assist them to get a reputed job and because of that, they involve themselves in such job profiles (Golebiowska, Carter, Boyle and Taylor, 2016). In a few cases, working in UK is easier for Indians because of the Tier 4 visa as that allows them to work for maximum 20 hours in a week. Due to a growing nation, highly skilled Indians also prefer to work in the same area of concern and that also aids them to get appropriate pay according to the job profile.
Why highly skilled Indians experience problems after getting settled in UK
From general point of view, around 3 million EU nationals are in the UK and around 6.6% people work for temporary job profile. Further, Indian currency is not much valuable than pounds; hence in terms of monetary problems, Indians experience problems (Harvey and Beaverstock, 2016). In many of the cases, it is observed that highly skilled Indian migrants are not welcomed properly due to their social, religious and cultural background. British people not only discriminated them; but also discourages them in every sphere. Moreover, this happens almost in every workplace of UK where Indians are not given dignified job position.
Apart from this, it is also identified that skilled Indians sometimes are not provided adequate opportunities through which they experience numerous issues as a result most of the migrants get depressed (Madziva, McGrath and Thondhlana, 2016). During such period, no one is there to support them as most of the Indians reside in UK without their family members. Hence, they experience several issues during settlement in UK. Along with the same, responses of British employees towards Indian employees is somewhere not honourable, which leads to other problems. After Brexit, legal issues are highly faced by Indians in which they have to show a lot of documentation to reside in UK for temporary basis.
However, there are a few companies that follow different cultural aspects under diversity management; still due to behavioural changes among the employees, Indian migrants feel pressured while working in UK. Employees also experience issues in the realm of improper recognition and appreciation wherein they do not get suitable opportunities as per contribution made in the organizational development (Thondhlana, Madziva and McGrath, 2016).
Further, highly skilled employees always expect for the best opportunity and when they do not get competitive environment, they feel demoralised and demotivated as well. Sometimes, this changes their mind-set and as a consequence they find numerous other opportunities for jobs. Personal and professional life when collaborates, problem appear in people’s lives and this hampers the work capability (Yeoh and Lam, 2016). This usually happens to almost every Indian who do not have their families in UK. Thus, lack of moral support and concern changes the mental capability and people ultimately faces various issues during work and other areas.
According to Kofman, (2012) there are different type of issues that are being faced by Indians. In this context, on the issues that are faced is of acceptance. Indian workers are not accepted at UK organization and even if they are accepted, they are not treated or given equal importance. Further, there are barriers that are faced by Indians in relation with language. Most common language that is spoken in UK is English and in India the common language spoken is Hindi. This is a type of issue that is faced by migrants and in order express their thoughts. Further, the culture that is being adopted at UK is different when compared with India (Kumpulainen, Lipponen and Mikkola, 2014). All the skilled people from India face issues in order to accept the culture that is being followed there. As per the findings, it has been identified that there is new visa rule that is being introduced. As per this rule all the employees who living or working in UK on Tier 2 visa have to leave the place or else they will be deported, in care earn income less than 35,000 pounds during the time when their visa expires. When compared with the early rule, individuals had the right to apply for indefinite leave in order to say in UK and that also with an annual income of 21,000 pounds. The new rule came into effort in the year 2016. There are many people who are working below the rate that is being decided by the British government (Meares, 2010). Further, there another type of issues that is being faced by Indians and that is related with the accommodation. In recent years, there are many terrorist attacks that has taken place. This can caused that local people to develop negative perception over the Indian people. Due to this type of perception that local individuals have developed has caused problems for Indians to get accommodation.
There are many abuses that are faced by Indians. More specifically, there are many Indian doctors in UK that have faced physical and verbal abuse in UK. This type of issues raised due to the skills that they possess. Further, at work place, there are many strict policies made but local people get in support for people who carry same nationality (Hawthorne, 2010). This is discrimination that is faced by Indians and there are many negative impact over them.
Negative impact due to challenges faced by Indians at UK
According to the discrimination that is caused to Indians at workplace. There are many issues that are faced by them. In this context, one of the main issue faced is related with demotivation. Workers get demotivated and this has negative impact over their work. Further, they also get demoralized and it increases the rate of stress (Mavroudi and Warren, 2013). This way the performance levels gets reduced and they fail to put on their full efforts towards they of work that is being provided to them. Further, they interaction level that they have with local people also reduces. They prefer to get along with people of same nationality. This way people from both the sides develop negative perception with each other. In addition to this, the support they each of the worker should have with each other in order to perform the work in an effective manner is lost (Kumpulainen, Lipponen and Mikkola, 2014).
Challenges faced by skilled Indian migrants in UK
Immigration means moving from one country to another country for the purpose of education, studies, business and personal issues. Immigration to UK implies that people from different countries are moving towards UK for accomplishment of their dreams and goals (Ruhs and Anderson, 2010). Also, people from India also looking forward to move in UK for higher studies and for employment purpose. Also, according to the Prime minister of India, there are plenty of opportunities and discussions regarding increased investment and also trading links between Britain and India. There are large number of skilled people from India moving across the world to UK. Although, there are many challenges that are faced by skilled Indian migrants in UK are as follows:
- In UK, the most challenging issue faced by skilled Indian migrants who moved in UK for education purpose is social discrimination (She and Wotherspoon, 2013). The Indian workers are discriminated there on the basis of their caste, religion, culture, etc. in the university or college there in. Sikh students have been criticised for their turban.
- Another challenging issue is that skilled Indian migrants face is that they do not get many opportunities for employment in companies there in as the local people get. They feel discriminated because they get no job or less pay scale job in companies of UK. This is very major challenge as, they are also very skilled in all aspects but not according to the requirements of the managers of companies of UK (Kumpulainen, Lipponen and Mikkola, 2014). To survive in UK is the most challenging issue there in.
- Furthermore, they are victim of racism in UK. The local students studying in the colleges and university comments on the colour and complexion of the Indian students.
- Also, the rules and regulations that has been framed by UK government has been laid down some issues for the Skilled Indian migrants (Gill and Bialski, 2011). A new law has been framed by government of UK in respect of which if salary of Indians will be less, than 35000 pounds then they will be deported.
- It will mainly affect the Indian professionals which will be affected are mostly of Tier-2 Visa, who earns less than 35000 pounds.
- In addition to this, Indians staying there for the employment purpose are also affected by the tax liabilities on the salary and other aspects.
- Indians also find it is very difficult to have green card Visa until and unless job profile is very strong. They have to struggle in between the residential issues.
- It has been analysed from the studies that from the rules and regulations formed by the UK government in aspect of the immigration has decreased the number of skilled migrants from India to work in UK (Hawthorne, 2010). As the rules have limited the migrants to work, especially the Tier -2 visas.
- Also, it has been assessed that the there are 700 Indian companies working over UK, which provides 100.000 jobs in the country. So if Indian companies faces restrictions on their ability to have skilled people to work in country, it could affect the business of companies.
- Also, the Indian people are facing the issues of legislation because the laws and regulations of legislation of UK is different from legislation of India (Mavroudi and Warren, 2013). Because of this Indians may face penalties and imprisonment due contradiction of legislation.
- Unemployment is an another issue which Indian people are facing in UK as some corporate house of UK are making discrimination in recruiting personnels (Meares, 2015). Some Indians at corporate house of United Kingdom are working at low wages because of less skills and discriminating factors.
Influence of settlement experiences on health and well being
As per the view of Glass, Perrin and Remy (2017), highly skilled workers in UK are provided Point Based System that is being scored against a range of attributes such as age, qualifications, earning etc. Thus, through analysing PBS system it helps in identifying the youth mobility and temporary workers who are facing settlement challenges in UK. Therefore, it is essential for the government of the country to make proper policies in relation to improve the skills of Indian workers and overcome their settlement challenges so that it affects their health and wellbeing (Glass, Perrin and Remy, 2017). However, it can be argued that migration is usually considered with reduced employment and earning therefore, skilled workers need to focus upon getting effective training and thus they would be able to cope with the workers working within UK. Further, professional Indian immigrants are facing several challenges related to settlement and thus facing economical issue. Martinez, Wu and Chavez-Baray (2015), stated that due to stress it affects or devaluate the professional immigrants labour that possess negative and sometime emotional affects (Maes and Kalofonos, 2013). Therefore, it is essential for government of the country to make effective changes in the settlement experiences and thus bring efficiency in the working ability of individuals. For instance, if the workers within any country are not provided any proper facilities regarding staying than it would affect their health and well being condition. Thus, skilled immigrants from India need to be given proper chances of training and skills provided to them in relation to enhance their efficiency (Martinez, Wu and Chavez-Baray, 2015).
As per the opinion of Jeffrey (2016), deskilling and non recognition of immigrants makes them disappointed so that it affects their employment. Therefore, it is essential for country to identify various settlement experiences of immigrants aiming to settle in UK and facing challenges regarding health and well being, people of UK are not accepting their work etc (Jeffrey, 2016). Thus, all such challenges affects the health and well being of immigrants working in UK. However, Atanackovic and Bourgeault (2014), argued that there are people who experience poor psychology and impact upon their health due to unemployment. Also, due to differences in the culture there might raise inability of settling within foreign country as they are accepting the workers easily. Hence, it is essential for government of UK to bring certain changes in the immigrants employment structure and thus make the immigrants comfortable so that they can find a suitable job option as per their skills and abilities and fulfil their needs. It can be asse4ssed that there are several settlement challenges which are being faced by highly skilled Indian migrants in UK and thus they need to perform the task so that best results can be attained (Atanackovic and Bourgeault, 2014). However, it is crucial for citizens living in UK to maintain transparency with the immigrants coming from India and share their skills and abilities in terms of performing the tasks. There are several changes which are occurred in immigrants employment structure needs to be ascertained by Indian immigrants and thus overcome their settlement challenges (Eyles and Woods, 2014).
Eliopoulos (2013), evaluated that settlement challenges are closely associated with poorer immigrant mental health and thus it decreases their efficiency and therefore needs proper support for revising the policies that negatively affects the labour market outcomes of immigrants. Immigrants aims to leave strong supportive networks and well established career in order to make proper future (Eliopoulos, 2013). However, settlement experiences of professional workers in UK assessed that highly educated individuals from Indian migrates to UK for better job opportunities and thus they need to welcome them in order to attain high growth and efficiency. However, Kashima and Abu-Rayya (2014), it has been noticed that people living in foreign nations are not willing to enter any foreign nationals within their country and therefore bring new immigration policy which would affect the health and well being of people. Thus, from this evaluation it could be reflected that professional immigrants carries out settlement experiences in order to improve their efficiency of working (Kashima and Abu-Rayya, 2014).
There are several barriers identified for the immigrants from India to UK in regard to settle the experiences and therefore, it is essential for them to identify the changes so that they can bring desired results. Immigration impacts upon the health and well being of workers needs to be carried out effectively and thus improve the efficiency of workers in order to improve the best results. Several challenges being faced by workers when they are immigrating from one country to another (Kumpulainen, Lipponen and Mikkola, 2014). Therefore, they need to adopt effective immigration of skilled workers and thus they need to utilise their education within developed countries in regard to improve their efficiency so that best results can be attained (Rook, 2013).
Horner and Swarbrooke (2016), stated that making effective strategies in terms of managing the migrants within international boundaries and thus carrying out their efficiency helps in improving their efficiency and skills so that best results can be attained (Horner and Swarbrooke, 2016). Thus, carrying out desired efficiency assists in performing the desired actions and thus improve their efficiency so that best results can be attained. However, Sigelman and Rider (2014), argued that challenges that are being faced by immigrants in regard to work efficiently so that best results could be attained. Therefore, they need to adopt effective strategies in terms of performing the actions and thus carry out desired outcomes so that success can be attained (Sigelman and Rider, 2014). Therefore, settlement challenges are considered as effective and they need to be maintained otherwise it would impact upon the health and well being of workers. Through evaluating the challenges being faced by workers in regard to assess the impact upon the health of workers (Kumpulainen, Lipponen and Mikkola, 2014). Thus, all such challenges need to be overcome so that immigrants within the country could be settle down efficiently and does not affect their health.
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