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Introduction

For effective decision making within the country, contribution of residents plays a crucial role and landlords should consider the needs and demands before rendering them house for rent or purchase. Further, they should accommodate the structure with best of the equipments so that the satisfaction level increases upto the utmost level. This report emphasizes on involvement of resident in the decision making process so that the residents or tenants gets best of the services. Further, this report also gives understanding of ARNSTEIN’S LADDER OF PARTICIPATION where contribution of tenant is taken into consideration in the decision making.

Reasons For Involving Residents In Decision Making

Hard to reach groups are the set mass of the people to whom the reach is difficult and individuals have to make lot of efforts for proper functioning. Reaching towards the government is the toughest decision to be make and housing service provider have to decide what changes they can implement in the society where they are staying. Involvement of residents plays a crucial role for the service provider in order to produce the quality of housing services. Further, there also exists reasons where the major decisions have to be made on certain problems like overcoming inequality, improving efficiency, decreasing social tension, increasing social capital, enabling major programme implementation such as estate regeneration. However, it is a complicated process because only few people are involved in order to achieve its costs and benefits. Further, some landlords consider their tenants in decision making whereas others avoids and take decisions by their own. It is necessary for tenant and landlord to opt questioning and open approach for making effective and efficient decisions (Benoit and Phillips, 2005). Questioning approach consists of exchanging questions between the tenant and the service provider. Open approach on the other side consists of a broader concept where the tenant and landlord discusses each and every aspect of the renting service. There exists housing organizations in London whose main role is to involve residents in decision making. This is generally to give best of the services to the tenants. These housing organizations works on behalf of government and gives best of the facilities to the citizens staying there in.

Further, involvement of local body i.e. government also plays a significant role in order to give residents effective service. Government has to take some effective measures to protect the rights of the tenants so that they get comfortable with the entire amenities given t them. Further, with involvement of tenants, housing organizations can:

  • Involve residents to improve the services and give value for money to the citizens.
  • At times, involving residents generally makes much difficult for the housing organization because each and every individual has its own demand and is generally impossible to fulfil all at a particular time.

Furthermore, landlords involve the tenants in decision making and their effective contribution falls in three major categories. These are

  • give better accommodation to tenants
  • increase in satisfaction level of service users
  • development of social assets. Moreover, housing organization also needs to be clear regarding their involvement and planning in the activities.

Activities like carrying of construction work at good location, cleaning the society for better help of self and tenants, etc. Further, they are also responsible to communicate the stated aims and objectives to the residents. However, if the reason to involve the residents is not clear, then it will lead to confusion and unrealistic expectations (Barbour, 2005). However, in order to solve this problem, it is necessary for both landlords and tenants to choose the questioning and open approach method. Further, there is also required a great amount of honesty as what activities have been designed for the residents and what is the relevancy of that particular activity. Whether they will be able to satisfy the individuals needs and demands or not.

Moreover, housing organizations need to be engaged with the tenants in the same way like private business organizations tries to connect with the customers to identify their desire. Apart from it, many housing organizations seek to include a large number of tenants in order to improve their accountability. Further, landlords also feel that enhanced accountability is generally more intangible as compared to the service improvement. It is much more difficult for landowner to satisfy all the needs of the individual; because at times it affects the flow of capital within the society. A landlord who adopts the wider agenda generally believes that there is a value of formal and informal interaction between the members and society.

However, new Housing Corporation involves the policy which is required by business associations to produce the partnership with the residents (Benoit and Phillips, 2005). Further, organization can check this with the help of the impact assessments which will generally evaluate different evidences that will show the degree to which service has been improved.

Arnstein’s Ladder Of Participation

Participation in the housing services generally means mechanisms which is available for individuals to express their opinions so that they can make crucial decisions. Further, Arnstein’s ladder of participation is also treated as a participatory decision making process which majorly focus on the individual activities. It was formulated by Sherry Arnstein in the year 1969. It is a ladder of citizen partnership ranging from higher to lower. It shows that what the role of an individual when important decisions are undertaken. Further, this ladder shows eight levels of the citizen participation which ranges from non participation of tenants to full power to the citizens. The above cited statement is the description of the Arnstein’s ladder of participation. The brief description of the same has been discussed down under:

Manipulation places individual on the advisory board and their main is to cure and educate the participants. Further, citizens are educated with different agencies for the development.

Therapy is non- participative and their main is to educate the participants for improving their efficiency towards the decision making (Abrams, 2010). Therapy also engaged in different activities and involves various citizens in the planning and decision making process.

Informing

It is one of the important points in the legitimate participation and also emphasized on the flow of information. Under this, no channels of feedbacks are present.

Consultation

It is also considered as a legitimate step towards the survey and it involves citizens for decision making in proper manner. Arnstein in this case founded it as a window dressing ritual.

Placation

It allows residents to advise the body at infinite time but they retain different power holders to judge feasibility of suggestion given by the individuals.

Partnership

It shows that the power is distributed among the citizens and power holders. Moreover, the decision making duty are shared between them only by forming joint committees.

Delegation

It is the second last level in the Arnstein’s ladder of participation which shows that residents hold clear majority of the seats. They get the delegated power in order to make effective decisions (Collins and Ison, 2009). Further, public have the dominating power in order to assure the accountability of the programme.

Citizen control

At last, has lot of work to handle the entire job planning, policy making and managing of different programmes.

Further, this ladder helps the tenant to be in commanding position and also comprises several steps so that changes can be seen in dominating manner. Therapy, consultation, delegation are the major components which eventually helps in teaching the individual regarding the development process which will give them a peaceful life. Further, the mentality of the individuals differ from one person to the another and they have their own perception in the decision making.

citizen control

From the above description, it is clearly evident that the Arnstein’s ladder of participation gives an overview of different ways through which individuals in a community can be involved in making effective decisions. Non- participative individuals assume that they are the part of decision making process but eventually they are not (White, 2009). Further, this report also gives a clear idea that individual participation plays a crucial role in decision making process. Further, Arnstein’s ladder of participation helps organizations to attract hard-to-reach groups so that decisions are made with the best of opportunities exists in the environment.

References

  • Abrams, L. S., 2010. Sampling ‘Hard to Reach’Populations in Qualitative Research The Case of Incarcerated Youth. Qualitative Social Work. 9(4). pp.536-550.
  • Barbour, R. S., 2005. Making sense of focus groups. Medical education. 39(7). pp.742-750.
  • Benoit, C. and Phillips, R., 2005. Community-academic research on hard-to-reach populations: Benefits and challenges. Qualitative Health Research. 15(2). pp.263-282.
  • Cinderby, S., 2010. How to reach the ‘hard‐to‐reach’: the development of Participatory Geographic Information Systems (P‐GIS) for inclusive urban design in UK cities. Area. 42(2). pp.239-251.

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