Introduction to Aviation Industry of Australia
Aviation industry of Australia is having a long historical background and in the present context, it is having various airlines within nation itself and across the globe. The significance of airline industry has increased at a fast pace as it is an island and is having a flourishing economy. There are two types of airlines which operate in the country. These are defunct and planned airlines. The key sectors of aviation industry are international and domestic regional airlines as well as general aviation sector. It also consists of small segments such as autogyros, ultra-light aircraft, hand gliding and gliding. International airlines of Australia carry freight and people from several parts of the world. There are total 49 international airlines which give their services in Australia. Present report is prepared on the case study of strategic plan for enhancing aviation safety in Australia. It is going to cover the present strategic position of aviation safety in nation. It will also throw light on the key issues and challenges which are sufficiently covering four year strategic plan. Along with this, the strategic plan will be critically evaluated as well as strong and weak aspects will be identified. The report will also recommend some practices for obtaining a strong national safety record.
Case study in present report talks about The Corporate Plan which present Civil Aviation Safety Authority's orientation towards the period of 2015-16 to 2018-19. It has been formulated with fundamental plans and functional statement which outlines the aim of CASA and its strategies to be executed for the attainment of objectives and goals. Plan talks about the way in which CASA will be able to fulfil aviation safety expectations of Australian government and general public. The plan directs CASA to give their contribution for effective and efficient management of risk involved in aviation safety and to improve relations with broader aviation community along with a powerful government support.
- To develop suitable, clear and brief safety standards for aviation industry
- To develop effective oversight, surveillance and enforcement strategies for securing compliance with the standards of aviation safety
- To issue certificates, license, registration and permission
- Providing education for safety concerns and promoting it
1.) Strategic position and critical analysis
A.) Current Strategic Position Regarding Aviation Safety in Australia
Pestle analysis help in identifying the factor which impacting the safety of aviation of Australia.
Political Factor:- The political factor show the influence of government over the performance and safety of the company with respect to aviation safety. The airline operates in the political environment which is highly regulated for the favor of the passenger over the airline. It is so because global aviation industry operates in an environment where passenger safety is first and foremost. Due to the increase of risk and accident government make strict rules and regulation regarding the safety of passenger which aviation company needs to adopt for its passenger safety.
Economic:- The airline company does not recover after the 911 attack which the prolonged recession. Along with this fluctuation in the price of oil negatively impact the airline company because they are unable to afford more to run the profitable business. Along with this they cannot provide high safety to their passengers due to rescission and increase in the price of fuel this all impact the aviation companies to suffer from the loss.
Social Factor:- The culture of travelling from one country to another for holidays increase the sale of an airline company. On the other hand increase in the risk of plane crash and accident also change the mind of the consumer to travel through the flight. This negatively impacts the profit of airline company. For attracting a large number of customer aviation company needs to focus on its safety policy help in increasing the demand of airline companies.
Technological Factor:- In the modern era, many new technologies is introduced in markets. This all technology is adopted by Australian airline company. The adoption of this new technology help in reducing the chance of risk and accident. This all help in increasing the demand of airline by the passenger and it provides positive impact of airline company on market.
Legal Factor:- There are different laws and legislation which are important in the context of the airline industry. The further government of authority of Australia makes several laws in relation to air traffic and safety for a passenger. It is so because safety of passenger is very important for the airline company of Australia. The airline company is liable for the increase in air crashes and another kind of disaster which lead to the decline in a sale. New law has been enforced so that high safety can be provided to a customer.
Environment:- Changes in the environment have the great impact on an airline of Australia because it leads to delay in flights and also plane crashes. This all factor lead to impact the airline company of Australia. Apart from this, the earliest efforts were focused at the reducing the smoke from the engines which help in reducing environment pollution. SWOT analysis of CASA safety aviation which is as follows...
Strength:- By the international standards CASA is an effective aviation safety regulator. Along with this it also maintains a skilled and capable workforce which have a capacity to effectively deliver aviation safety regulation. Along with this CASA used advanced technology for providing high security to its passenger. It also bring some introduction of collaboration tool for bringing better sharing information
Weakness:- It's different activity which involved the different type of risk which lead to failure of safety and maintenance standard. Along with this ineffective engagement of stakeholder and failure to carry out statutory responsibilities.
Opportunity:- CASA has an opportunity to reduce environmental impact by focusing on the issues which lead to polluting the environment. It helps to reduce the chance of the Plane crash. Along with this, it has an opportunity to focus on main causes of risk and reduce it with the use of high technology.
Threats:- There are some threats of CASA safety aviation that are unavailability of enough fund which becomes barrier in implementing different safety policy. Due to lack of fund it unable to conduct research for removing risk and for increasing safety policy for a passenger.
B) Australia's Safety Performance Review of Aviation in 2015-16 and Identifying If the Key Issues and Challenges are Covered in the Plan
This section of report talks about detailed revision of performance of Aviation industry in 2014-15 against the objectives, initiatives and performance methods which were set in CASA plan. The first goal of this corporate plan is to have a comprehensive, constant and efficient regulations for improving safety in aviation industry. Second objective is to promote governance and regular betterment of efficiency of organisation. Third and the last aim is effective and proper relationship with broader community in aviation. Performance measures which were made for the aforementioned aim in 2014-15 about 82 percent have been attained. In the remaining 18 percent, mostly were considerably met along with a very low percentage of delays or due to influences from extrinsic factors. However, with a minute reduction, this kind of achievement was constant in the four years if overall performance of CASA is considered. The results were slightly low because CASA made plans for starting the finalisation and its execution.
There were about 42 measures which were used for this goal. 74 percent were exactly on the right track and were met and 24 percent were not final but they were substantially met. 2 percent measures ha gone delayed.
From the 54 measures which were made for corporate goal in 2014-15, 83 percent was duly completed, 13 percent was considerably met and remaining 4 percent got delayed because of certain factors which were not under the control of CASA. From 2011-12, CASA has attained an average performance of 78 percentage of the goals achieved from corporate objective 2. In this year, performance transcend the average accomplishment against performance measures of this goal.
From the 38 performance measures, 97 percent were met or in progress which shows a great success of the plan. Only 3 percent were substantially fulfilled. Since 2011-12, CASA has attained an average performance of 97 percent of targets achieved for corporate goal 3. In this year also, performance is consistent which depicts that it is meeting the goals in an effective manner.
The challenges which are taken into account in this plan includes aviation market, operational complexities, infrastructure and technology, capabilities of workforce as well as general aviation swift. It is analysed that the plan covers almost every issue and has given equal importance tov each of them in the plan. There are many issues and problems faced by airlines which are included in the plan. The first challenge is the market. International, domestic and regional airline passenger’s market has witnessed a significant growth in the past decade. But this has also given some pressure on the aircraft operators and government institutions for maximising efficiency of their operations and decrease costs along with paying sufficient focus on safety concerns. Another issue which is very important is the increasing privacy issues, safety and security as well as air traffic management are such issues which are very important to be addressed. Safety in aviation industry can be enhanced through modern technological advancements. This issue is also included in the plan which shows that plan has been formulated with utmost care and attention. Also, it focuses on the issue of workforce capability. When new technological advancements are to be introduced in the sector for safety measures, then it is also essential to hire an adequate pool of talented, skilled, well trained and experienced staff for operating new tools and techniques.
C) Critical Analysis
It is critically analysis that CASA goal plan is an effective aviation safety for the passenger. In the first goal plan it have a comprehensive, constant and efficient regurgitation for improving safety in aviation industry. The first objective of strategic plan is to promote good governance and regular betterment of efficiency while it last aim is to it maintain proper relation in aviation with proper community. Hence, the effectiveness of this corporate plan is that number of accident per hour decrease and it meet and exceed ICAO requirement.
The strengths of this plan is that it takes into account the present workforce capability needs and analyses the gap in them. It has been identified in the plan that CASA needs a workforce which is experienced and knowledgeable about the safety regulations. Motive behind this is to establish regulatory framework to maintain, enhance and promote safety of aviation and prevent accidents in the industry. It address some particular capability gaps which should be filled. This shows that the plan is very effective. The gaps which are being identified are to execute a regulator framework and safety management system for supporting a speedy expansion of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) sector. Hiring skilled employees in the major sectors of general aviations and air transport sector. Another gap is the development and enhancement of leadership and management skills along with emphasising on delivery of capability and performance enhancement. One more gap which is analysed is the development of regulatory and technical training framework in a developing technological atmosphere for assuring that training advantages are supportive to enhance regulatory performance, attain high level of employee productivity and performance and client-service directed results.
Along with analysing the gaps, the plan also focuses on future requirement of workforce capabilities which are stakeholder involvement and cooperation for supporting improved regulation development and execution results. Another requirement is moving towards a client-service directed model. Next one is making effective, risk and proof reliant decisions along with doing activities related with Civil Aviation Act 1988 in dynamic environment. And the final one is constantly meeting growing surveillance needs in various aviation industries. The plan also has strength of strategies and initiatives for addressing key workforce gaps. These strategies are like reviewing critical roles of CASA and develop proper succession planning and talent management strategies for mitigating any losses of critical capabilities by the way of retirement or separation.
It is important for every civil aviation business unit to follow various policies and guidelines which are set by the higher authorities. There are various organizations which are responsible to make guidelines in this industry and update these rules over a period of time. These institutions involved:
International Civil Aviation Organizations
It is a specialized agency of US which provide navigation and foster planning and development of international air transport in order to ensure safety and consistent growth. There are various standards which adopted by the organizations and they also recommended the practices which are related with the air direction, advanced infrastructure, fair and lawful business practices and other technical and specialized expertise guidelines and recommendations. There are approx 190 countries member including Taiwan. This guidelines as given below...
- They provide a system approach which is related with the air navigation to all member countries. It is Aeronautical information publication which should be update over period of time which contains the specific information such as airspace and airports, process of information collection and other important information.
- They also provide other technical specification which are related with the Earth's atmosphere. It provide significance information such as temperature, density altitude etc.
- They make the guidelines and safety procedure which can include communication, navigation, Air Traffic management and surveillance. And other technological aspects.
International Air Transport Association
IATA is a regulatory authorities of global airlines. It includes approx 260 plus airlines members specially air carriers approx. 110 countries. The organization formulates aviation activities and policy framework which must be followed by the member nations. These guidelines and recommendations can be...
- The main objective of the institution is to improve the support and data sharing with a advanced multitude of sources through Global safety information centre.
- They provide recommendations to the governments and aviation industry to use flexible security measures and a responsive data link, risk management, crises response and use of advanced technology.
- They also make the guidelines for the integrated information system in order to prevent cyber attack.
- IATA support moving towards a risk based approach for the civil aviation security. This approach can focused on the resources and offering a smoother transportation experience for the passenger.
European Aviation Safety Agency
EASA is a agency of the EU which provide regulations and safety measures in order to provide consistent growth and development of European civil aviation sector. This authority was established in 2002 and the headquarter located at Germany. There make several recommendations which are given below...
- Screening of visitors and passengers their cabin baggage and hand baggage in order to protect any terrorism threats.
- They also provide airport security standards such as 24X7 surveillance, infrastructure and control in the member counties.
- To provide specific guidelines of accidents investigation and safety management in order to avoid the recurrence.
- They provide provide runway infrastructure policies and rules such as its design, layout plan, size and other facilities. For example, they make a runway protection zones which can help to protect people and property on the ground and make advisory and circulations over a period of time.
The government of Australia develops the strategic safety programme in order to make an appropriate system in the aviation industry and its future growth and developments. For this they have their own regulatory authority which is known as Civil Aviation Safety Authority which is under the government control. It provide licences for the ground staff, air crew, pilots and airport operators. They also responsible for enforcing the safety and security measures and audit these standards over a period of time which can enhanced is Smooth operations. For this they can also take suggestion and aligned with other international authorities which having more resources and expertise in order to provide maintain its growth and meet the future challenges effectively in the civil aviation sector.
Align with ICAO
Australia is a signatory to the Convention in 1944 with the International Civil Aviation Organization, which can help to provide safety and other important developments at the global level. It can played a significant role in the growth and development aviation sector in Australia, if the CASA can make align with ICAO. The international organization having a large experience and specific expertise which can be shared by the CASA. Australian government participation with them can provide specific data and information such as air navigation, crises and rapid response and firefighting support at the ground. In the present scenario, there are large number of challenges such as cyber attack, increasing the rate of air crashes etc. In the few years such as disappeared of MH 370 from Malaysia airlines and flight MH 17 shot down in eastern Ukraine are the latest examples of flight accidents. In order to prevent such accidents the government of Australia can required to collaboration with IACO. So that they can sharing tehir information and data with each other and also make future safety and security guidelines which can help to promote Australian domestic and international aviation industry and also support their economic activities.
Align with IATA
The international Air Transportation Association also align with the CASA which can ensuring a healthy and advanced airport infrastructure. Because IATA is one of the recognized and accepted agency in the safety and regulation. The main function of the internation organization is to conduct audit which is related with the safety and security issues at the global level. The government of Australia can conduct such audit with this institution which can help to improve the quality of safety operation. The main objectives of such audit to ensure the control system, secured infrastructure and safety management system in the country. IATA is working with various other global authorities such as Federal Aviation Administration, Transport Canada, Joint Aviation authorities etc. therefore, they having expertise in this field.
Align with EASA
The work of EASA are focused on the highest standard of civil aviation safety via provide training and development, aviation products and services and creating and developing regulatory framework. The aviation standards are quite superior in the world which can help to the Australia strategic safety plan in the long term. It can help through...
- Coordination of internal and external threats and safety improvements between both organizations.
- It can also help to implement cost effective plan which can increase their efficiency and productivity.
Helps in coordination and cooperation with EASA to investigate accidents and provide further recommendations. So that it can reduced the future accidents and improve the safety records at the domestic and global level. With the help to cooperation with EASA, they can provide training and development programme for the staff such as pilots, trainers, air crew and airport operators which can also make their safety standards more superior as compare to others.
From the above report it is concluded that the corporate plan presents the civil aviations safety authority. The purpose of designing the principal planning so that strategies can be implemented for achieving organizational objectives. The plan includes the way through CASA meets will meet the expectation of Australian public regarding aviation safety. There are different challenges which are faced by CASA at the time of implementing the corporate plans. Further in plan all risk factor which affect the safety are covered and different strategy implemented for removing all issues. The plan reflects a new environment shaped by a new SEO, it also develop workforce for meeting the challenges which can be take place in future.
- Baker, D., Merkert, R. and Kamruzzaman, M., 2015. Regional aviation and economic growth: cointegration and causality analysis in Australia. Journal of Transport Geography.
- Beagle, L. and Davies, G., 2013. A blended learning course for the aviation industry: A case study. Blended Learning in English Language Teaching: Course Design and Implementation.
- Biggs, H.C. and Biggs, S.E., 2013. Interlocked projects in safety competency and safety effectiveness indicators in the construction sector. Safety science.
- Chen, C.F. and Chen, S.C., 2012. Scale development of safety management system evaluation for the airline industry. Accident Analysis & Prevention.