Immigration is the movement of people internationally from one place to another, be it a state or a country, of which they are not the natives or residents, migrating for the settlement of employment and residence for permanence or either working as a foreign worker. Migrants or immigrants can be refer to as the group of people crossing national borders from the country’s perspective they are seeking to enter; and as emigrants from the perspective of the country, they are to leave. The process of migration features complexities and struggles, often a prolong travel involving crisis and food shortage. Until the 18th century mostly these immigrants were considered by the natives of the country as ‘illegal’ or lowered to a demeaning status, abused, exploited, and subjugated; victims of utter stereotyping and racism (Sirin et al. 2014). However, after prolonging struggle of human activists in the contemporary era immigrants are granted ’legal residents’ and’ respected status’ under the law worldwide. In the words of Francois Crepeau, it is said that every state must give equal respect and opportunity and cannot escape the obligations under international human rights law ensuring human rights of immigrants. The human rights that follow certain moral principles and norms that are implemented for all individuals regardless of one’s nation, religion, caste, color or any other status for the legal rights of independence and rights and standard of behaviors. While some migrants reflect positive migration while others, lack human rights significantly at the borders, which are looked forward by the Human Rights Committees (Hollifield et al. 2014). Human rights based approach to immigration focuses largely on migration policies and governance, paying attention to the disadvantaged groups among migrants, stating obligation to fulfill respect and protection of every individual
2. Corporal Social Responsibility
Africa is tremendously resource enriched and has multiple opportunities to uplift the sustained growth of the country following value added chain of manufacturing and mineral processing towards uplifting the state of poverty and providing sustainability to millions of Africans (Korschun et al. 2014). The importance of growing corporate social responsibility is relevant and continuous in every country more specifically in the oil sectors of Africa for the social and environmental ties it is associated. The CSR collaborates with the environment management system towards sustainable development. The vision of African oil companies have set their own ideals and responsibilities based on regulated policies that help in maintaining relationships among shareholders, communities, employees and government:
- To minimize the possible ways of affecting the environment and the community around
- Securing safe and protective measures for both assets and people
- Conducting the business and communication in effective manner and for commercial benefit
- Developing performance, transparency and good governance
- Delivering sustainable growth for the residential people and in host countries
- Maintain and supporting human rights across the world
African oil management seeks towards the challenge of sustainability while providing social as well as economic benefits reducing any probable environmental and social impact adversely affecting the people or the mass of the country.
3. IMF and The World Bank
The World Bank located at the headquarters of Washington D.C, formed together with five international organizations, conducting monetary systems and loans across the developing countries with the governing policies of improvising the condition of people below poverty, facilitating employment growth and international trade while building shared prosperity among countries (Kumar, 2003). In order to run the policies, international monetary systems generate a set of rules and conventions towards supporting the growth of trade, investment reallocation of capital between nation states. Historically, the debt of money was cleared by through the barter exchange of gold and silver ethic differs much in today’s world replaced the importance of the use of a paper in an orderly document. This causes huge debt worldwide where money stands at one and debt at the other corner with equal contradictions resulting in bankruptcy. In India, The Reserve Bank of India, set specific guidelines and objectives in securing monetary stability with country’s advantage and currency–credit system (Narayan et al. 2000). The International Monetary Fund (IMF) plays a central role in the management payment difficulties and financial crisis among nations that was formed by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Meynerd Keynes in the year 0f 1944 at the Bretton Woods. This fund is run by people through their contribution, through the system of quota from which countries having financial crisis can borrow for necessary balance and requirement. The monetary systems must look into the global imbalances, fluctuating trade with inspection and providing solutions to such causes avoiding the legitimate consequences hampering the balance and seeking profitable investment corners across the globe.
4. Ban the box
The famous international campaign that began in Hawaii in the late 1990s, is named “Ban the Box’ organized by the civil rights groups that aims towards persuading the employers hiring from their applications, the check box that questions if one has any criminal record. This allows the ex-offenders to display their qualifications before questioning about related criminal records (D’Alessio et al. 2015). It initially concentrates on the qualification and the requirements and then to the background investigation or any record of conviction of crime by the candidate. This regulated check over a candidate is a constant inquiry contrarily does not deploy the image of the candidate. Several countries have introduced Ban the Box in order to recognize the qualifications of the candidate to the utmost priority over any negative records. The crimes are increasing with drug crimes and records in America following the years of 2007 (Shoag and Veuger, 2016), having difficulties in finding jobs for selves due to the increase rate of added employment. Several jurisdictions add to the policies of ban the box, incorporating equal employment opportunity commission, and applying innovative ideas and targeted-hiring. For instance, Derreck Johnson, founder and president of home of chicken and waffles in Oakland states that its best when one has a chance and proves to be the best employer; it is when one knows what is right for its community. Simultaneously, ban the box increases the challenge of competing for a job in one while encouraging ‘fair chance recruitment’ by the company for the desired employee functions.
- D’Alessio, S.J., Stolzenberg, L. and Flexon, J.L. (2015). The effect of Hawaii’s Ban the Box Law on repeat offending. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(2), pp.336-352.
- Hollifield, J., Martin, P. and Orrenius, P. (2014). Controlling immigration: A global perspective. California: Stanford University Press.
- Korschun, D., Bhattacharya, C.B. and Swain, S.D., (2014).Corporate social responsibility, customer orientation, and the job performance of frontline employees. Journal of Marketing, 78(3), pp.20-37.
- Kumar, A. ed., (2003). World Bank Literature. USA: U of Minnesota Press.
- Narayan, D., Chambers, R., Shah, M.K. and Petesch, P., (2000). Voices of the Poor: Crying out for Change. USA: World Bank Publications.
- Shoag, D. and Veuger, S., (2016). No woman no crime: Ban the box, employment, and upskilling.
- Sirin, C., HacÄ±fazlÄ±oÄŸlu, Ö. and Sirin, S. (2014). Immigration and academic achievement. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 91(1), pp.57-65.