This assessment will cover following questions:
- Which historical factors gave rise to warfare and how warfare was interpreted and understood in different historical periods.
- Explain just war theory and its applicability in 20thand 21stcentury warfare.
- How do historical conquests echo in the modern world?
The history of war considers as one of the interesting topic of research which helps in evaluating reasons behind a fight, as well as it impacts on people and on a country. For this purpose, a number of approaches like military history can be used to understand conflict between two parties. The war takes different character such as preoccupation with conventional war between two states over the year. War not only gives impact on society, economy, culture and environment but also different political implications. The main objectives the report is to determine if the idea of war becomes redundant or unnecessary. For this purpose, concept of just war theory and its history will be taken, with its applicability in 20th and 21st century warfare.
The War Theory
To address ever-growing requirement for a set of belief, concepts or even changes in rules of activities for fighting a war, the just war tradition has been applied. In 20th and 21st century, the pace of war has completely changed due to higher technology weapons, cyber warfare, drone and more. The war theory mainly deals with the justification of the way wars have been fought, with specified reasons. on the basis of theoretical or historical aspects. Hereby, theoretical aspects ethically justified the war and analyse if warfare is or is not taken.. On other hand historical aspects refers “ just war tradition” applies rules and agreement of history to justify the reason. It supports to examine ethics and philosophic vision (Williamson, 2016). Christian philosophy proposes just war theory who interprets three statement. i.e. takes human life doesn't appropriate way in war. All states are obliged to safe their citizen, protects docile human life and maintain transparency in justice which keep safe moral value of human beings. Just war theory also refers as tradition of military ethics which is studied by military leaders, policy-maker, ethicists and theologian. The main goal of the theory is to make ensure that war is virtuously justifiable on the basis of series of criteria. Such criteria is mainly divided into two sections i.e. “right to go to war” and another is “right conduct in war”. The first section interprets that the morality should applicable in the war without concern while other interpret that the moral or ethics should conduct within war. While third section also includes in war theory that's “just post bellum”. It interprets that morality of post-war should settlement and reconstruct. Just war theory express that war is not the worst or terrible option for peoples. Sometimes, it is significant to justify law even outcome gets desirable or undesirable (Ward and Burns, 2018). On other hand opponents of just war theory express that war is not justifiable for the war because it leads separation in human being and destruction of money, culture and economy. Some philosophers postulate that individuals ned doesn't require fight while opponent soldiers claim that war is the way to fulfil demands of individual one. Some philosophers state that war is proposed to a stricter pacifist standard while opponent states that war is occurred for nationalist standard, means war requires to serve nation's interest in being justifiable. War theory is basically designed to achieve objective of war so that understand it is important or not for 21st century. The main reason of the just war theory because in 20th century war was cold war. Between 1945 and 1983, war converts into bloody war due to military conflict. In these decades,around 20 million people are killed due to 100 major military conflict (Karoubi, 2017). Beside of this economic crisis also occurs which reduces humanity in peoples in 21st century. Thus, warfare concept changes from 20th century to 21st century.
Origin of the war
Just war theory is based on that nation which applies ethics and morality within war, where many philosophers state that all nations don't conduct ethics and morality within war for prolong period. Some nations apply rules of the war theory within war, which evident that just war has become obsolete today. Augustine offers base for just war theory in western literature. On other hand Thomas Aquina organizes Agustine's reflection into existing criteria which shows the relation of the just war theory and it's applicability in 21st century (Schmelzle, 2019). In simple term Thomas Aquina rectified the war theory rules and aware significant of just war theory in 21st century. Philosopher expresses that civil society should raise voice of justification for the war. There are three traditional categories which includes in just war theory.
Rules of just war theory
As per rule of Jus As Bellum, This perception is necessary for going to war: “The right to go to war,” It is interpreted by philosopher. “Just authority” It is first situation of the just war theory which is also known as competent authority. According to the theory it has been evaluated that just war should start up by political authority in their political system so that shows existence of justice. While deceptive military action considers as violations of the order. The main reason of the condition is that. There doesn't have any genuine process of the just war within system which shows genuine process of justice. That why just war should initiate by political authority in political system. “Just Cause” it is main debate topic for some discussion over the justification of the war. Number of nations and leaders who pay war, they claim that to do all things on the basis of just cause. The main goal of the political authority to identify wrong which is committed by number of nation for which war is proposed by another opponent (Betts, ed., 2017). Few leaders contradict nation to keep safe itself from unprovoked attack. “Just intention” Just war theory fixes limit to increase of the war. Just war limit shows pursuit and safety of the just cause. “Last resort” Nation considers war which is exploited all powerful solutions in which includes political and diplomatic. Thus type condition express dispute against national pride which often leads war as resort choice (Robinson, 2017). While some nations comprises and encourages for winning the solution of short war. But last resort situation requires approaches such as political and diplomatic for getting solution properly.
While Jus In Bello states that The situation occurred for the just conduct the war. It provides specifications of behaviour for the nations, soldiers and individual soldiers in war. Most of the people things “everything is fair in war and love” but it is not appropriate in any war. Soldiers who go for war, possess ethical and moral behaviour and maintains the standards between lawful behaviour and criminal behaviour. Soldier follows rules because they have policed, imprisonment and courts. Philosopher agrees that soldiers doesn't show legal and moral discipline when turns into enemy for opponents. Most of the militaries becomes violent in just war due to international rule of law. Various cases occur in which just war is not considered prosecute. That's why just war theory is like philosophical idea which can be applied in term of legal process. Just war theory requires the criteria for justifiable behaviour. Criteria are “Proportionally” it mentions the force which is applied in war. Various level of force is permitted for applying in the war (Popenoe, 2017). These forces can be measured against requirement of force which is used to correct the just origin and restricted by just intention. “Discrimination” A fighter should have ability to identify between combatant and non-combatant, so that large number of population such as innocent, non-military people don't make the target of the attack.
The rule states as Just In Post Bello is applied when war is completed, in that state steps is required to transform nation of war into peace of nation. Jus post bello organizes the theory for identifying principal over the period. Some principles are advised by the philosophers such as- “Status quo ante bellum” In simple term “the way things were before the war” Soldiers should address about rights, property and borders where make them understand that how can break before going in war. “Punishment for war crime” it is important step for governance because political leader sometime becomes combatant. In that situation requires justice before attempting and serious offences. “Compensation of victims” it is another rule of war theory, according to rule innocent and non-combatant victims are compensated of their losses. In simple term number of soldiers who survives their life for country, in that state soldiers' families who don't involve in the war, are compensated by government in the form of money and property.
Peace treaties” principal should be fair for all parties who involve in war or find guilty of the war. Just war theory gives guidance to armies before occurring any serious offences by the political leaders, combatants and soldiers (Mackay, 2018). It is also known as ethical restraint in war. Thus, three criteria of the just war theory defines various principals which can lead desirable outcomes for nation. These criteria support to identify combatant and non-combatant. It gives justification in war and convert war state into peace state.
Responsibility” a nation doesn't fault for undesirable side effects which is occurred by military activity. Even there three conditions where country is not responsible such as – the worst effects doesn't occur intentionally. Another is goods of the war should over-weigh the damage which is done by military. Third situation is military action which is executed deliberately to obtain the best consequences (Burne, 2016). Thus, these criteria help to interpret and accomplishes issues which is become debate topic among philosophers, politician and military planner. On other hand civil society maintains themselves from unprovable attack, unjust war. That's why just war theory play significant role to identify justice and law within war.
Ethics of warin this regard, helps to explore the moral limits and chances of conflict. It maintains principal against the moral strengths and disposition of the circumstances.
Differences between total war and just war
Total War refers to a war which is not bounded by any rule and regulation in order to weapon's use, territory or fighter involvement, in simple term when large population doesn't follow any rules during fighting, and they keep idea that “everything is fair in love and war”. In this war both type peoples involves such as military personnel and targets civilian (innocent and non-military population). The main reason of the total war is to when high number of population posses high sense of patriotism.
JOn other hand, Just war theory offers guidance to act in right way in potential conflict condition so that no harm occurs. In this war, innocent and non-combatant population never targets and provides high defence. The main goal of the just war theory to re-stablish peace in nation.
The first war starts in 21st century where large population of nation wants to war for demand. In 1913 the world's population was 10% and war started in 1914, it was unbreakable war because armed conflict didn't take place for short period. The war occurred between territorial states but people don't want to harm civilian. Military conflict took place in some 40 year, due to conflict peace war converts into cold war. The peace war was in 1919 and transform into formal and informal conflict of military in 1990. The main reason of war concept change is ethnic conflict, economic volatility and empires in decline phase into 20th century to 21st century. Philosopher says that just war theory is good theory who leads peacefulness in war and large population applies rules of war and saves civilian life.
How the idea become redundant in 21st century
Just war theory is specially designed to give the guidance before, during and after the war. It gives guidance to each person who involves in the war such as political leaders, combatant and non-combatant (Levering, 2016). There are two type of philosophers who gives argument on just war theory. According to a philosopher who postulates that just war theory is applied for those nations who is financially strong and determine for ethics, but there are lots of nations which is financially inefficient and doesn't have proper resources for utilizing according to ethics. Second philosopher express that Just war theory can apply for short time but cant applies for prolong time. According to philosopher, nation doesn't follow the just war theory within war because military know how to get enemy and how to treat them.
In 20th century, large number of population unaware about ethics and morals. They just want to involve in war without following rules because armies thinks that everything is executed in love and war. They have high sense of patriotism for the nation that's why they target civilian during war. Due to unethical war large number of population unable to define wrong and right steps. 20th war leads deficiencies in nation such as economical, political, socio-cultural, environmental and legal etc. nation become war nation but unable to convert into peace state due to unethical law in war. Even leaders unable to introduces new strategy which influences development in civilian. In 20th century population doesn't have too much argument for their enemies. They are mentally stable and patience. Soldiers have self-control on their emotion's. Political government also doesn't involve in the war so diplomatic type of leader doesn't play with their life. In half old century armed conflict takes place and they becomes violent.
In 21st century, just war theory requires because Thomas Aquina states that Just war theory is good for nation because it gives guidance to army, military and civilian how to use principals during fighting in war. It maintains standard of armies in front of enemies. It helps government to measure time extension in the war and interpret the data which can give impact on nation and their civilian. It also helps to identify combatant and non-combatant civilian. Thomas expresses that just war theory follows criteria which is classifies into three sections and each section address rules and regulation (Ferrill, 2018). These principles support nation to identifies limitation of enemies and gives fair justification in war. Military and individual soldiers keeps them safe by applying ethical war theory which leads safety from unprovoked war. Rest of philosophers claims that just war theory is not more effective for soldiers and armies because during war each rules can't implement. It leads gives guidance but unable to address about enemies activities, There are various philosophers who postulate about just war theory. Some philosophers agree with just war theory while others are disagreed with the theory.
Just war theory has some requirement such as just cause, last resort, valid authority, proportionality, probable success and exist strategy. These all are requirement of the theory. In 21st century soldiers enable to find limitation of enemies and potential of armies which can lead desirable outcomes in nation. Just war theory helps civilian because they can make them safe from unprovoked attack. It gives fair decision in war and maintains standard of armies. On the basis of laws in war, government enables to save innocent civilian from violence. On the basis of just war theory, government enables to save personnel weapon (Ewence and Grady, eds., 2017). International law assists nation to defence unprovoked attack. Armies and military enables to identify criminal behaviour and non-criminal behaviour with enemies which saves them to committed offences. Valid authority rule helps 21st century to keep them self dependent in each type of situation while decriminalize law helps soldiers to keep their family protective. This theory model gives guidance of justification within war. Even it gives guidance before war where government allows soldiers to apply their rights, properties and boundaries. Exist strategy is a part of the just war theory which provides direction to soldiers or armies how to implement strategy and take desirable advantage. It is beneficial theory for soldiers, armies and civilian.
It can be concluded the just war theory which supports military, armies and non-combatant civilian. In this report has been concluded just war theory and its history which is expressed by Thomas Aquina. Philosopher has been concluded about just war theory model, In this report, it has been concluded that 20th century is peaceful but in half century it transforms into cold war, that period is required just war theory concept. Just war theory is reductant for 21st century and non reductant for 20th century have been concluded.To get more details about online assignment help meet our experts.