Immigration (human rights)
The term “Immigration” refers to the migration of an individual from one’s own country to another in search of better job opportunities. For some individuals, migration may be an optimistic experience, but for others, it might be bad experience due to lack of human rights (Kempadoo, Sanghera & Pattanaik, 2015). Most of the immigrants are increasing at all levels namely global, regional as well as national level. Migrants in that unbalanced situation, habituate themselves to live and work in the gloom. They are deprived of fundamental rights and freedom, at times afraid to complain as a result they are susceptible to discrimination, and often misused and treated as insignificant. One of the main crime that has emerged due to migration is trafficking which subordinates human rights.
In past few decades, internationally recognised guidelines on human rights of the immigrants were been explained by UN. It is a comprehensive set of binding human rights and related tools together with standards of best principles, which are practised (Shelton, 2015). The Universal human Rights declaration states that “Everyone is equally entitled to all the rights and freedoms”. All the countries are indebted to make sure that any differentiation in treatment between national and not- national should have a genuine purpose. Countries have their own right to decide upon immigration, which is inhibited by the obligations voluntarily assumed by countries under international human rights law (Kempadoo, Sanghera & Pattanaik, 2015).Assignment Help online at assignmernt Desk
Corporate social responsibility (oil companies in Africa)
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) indicates the awareness that business does not exist in proper social and environmental space. In fact, various companies may recognise CSR may mean different things. For some companies CSR means compliance with assertive necessities and orders, this governs business. Whereas, some companies CSR might be a chance or requirement of engaging in philanthropic activities (Caroll, 2015).
The concept of CSR has been profound in modern times and its application in oil industry has become notable. In fact, oil sector has always been on the forefront to promote CSR. In recent times, Africa has shown growth in their economy, most of the contribution being from oil and gas industry. The CSR followed by oil and gas companies can be judged by acceptance of the code of conduct, the practice of reporting and contact with prominent CSR organisation. Major oil companies have their individual code of conduct. Later International Business Leaders Forum was created in 2000 where issues were reported which should be considered in risk assessments. They also provide guidelines to work with public security companies and take over contracts from private companies (Idemudia,2014). Sixteen major companies except, Total have signed the guidelines. Most of the major oil companies now publish annual CSR reports. Shell was the first oil and gas company to publish a report, which concerned CSR in a publication titled as “People and the Environment”. Shell Nigeria published its annual report in 1996. Oil and gas sector is the third largest reporter, which has produced 700 reports on social and environmental issues since 1992.
The IMF and World Bank
International Monetory Fund (IMF) and World Bank together are known as Bretton Woods Institution. The IMF increases international monetary cooperation. It also provides policy advice as well as technical assistance to help countries in building and maintainance strong economies. It also provides loans to help countries. It helps to solve balance of payments problems when finance terms cannot be to meet international payments (Idemudia, 2015). IMF loans are short and medium term and funded mainly by the group of quota contributions that its members provide. Staffs of IMF are mainly economists with good experience in large economic policies (Vestergaard & Wade, 2015).
More participation of IMF in providing loan programs tends to increase international honesty. It helps in small amount to increase the economic growth. There might be small negative effects on democracy and the rule of law if IMF participates in loan policies. The decrease in the rule of law generates another small indirect negative influence from IMF loan programs on economic growth.
The World Bank helps in increasing the economic growth for a longer period. It also helps to reduce poverty by providing financial support countries which needs to bring reforms in specific sectors or needs implementation of specific project. World Bank supports for a longer term and is usually funded both by member country as well as bond issuance. Staffs of World Bank are specialists’ in economic issues, techniques or sectors (Idemudia, 2015).
Ban the box (law and the individual)
A majority of the countries have approved laws, which support restriction of employers from questioning about criminal history of job applicant in the early stages of the job hiring process. This movement is called “ban-the-box”. These laws are executed to eliminate barriers for applicants who conviction record and look for job after rehabilitation. The employers are still allowed to carry out a background check later. Instead of prohibition of background checks, the law directs the management when to ask the applicant about their criminal history. For example, in some cities, the law allow employers to inquire about an applicant’s past criminal record after selection for interview (Yang, 2016). In other cities, employers have to wait until condition employment conditions have been prepared. Employers have the right exclude applicants if that is required by a particular country to not consider candidates who have been convicted of a crime.
No policy or practice is present that satisfies the requirements in every jurisdiction. Employers engage in a balanced approach when to check criminal background checks as part of the hiring process. In general, employers consider two important points. First, employers need to make an assessment whether their job applications require investigation of criminal history. Second, employers should have clear procedure for hiring practices and should mention before that criminal records are handled within their organisation. (D’Alessio, Stolzenber, & Flexon, 2015).
- Carroll, A. B. (2015). Corporate social responsibility. Organizational Dynamics, 44(2), 87-96.
- D’Alessio, S. J., Stolzenberg, L., & Flexon, J. L. (2015). The effect of Hawaii’s Ban the Box Law on repeat offending. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(2), 336-352.
- Idemudia, U. (2014). Corporate social responsibility and development in Africa: Issues and possibilities. Geography Compass, 8(7), 421-435.
- Kempadoo, K., Sanghera, J., & Pattanaik, B. (2015). Trafficking and prostitution reconsidered: New perspectives on migration, sex work, and human rights. Abingdon: Routledge.
- Mundy, K., & Verger, A. (2015). The World Bank and the global governance of education in a changing world order. International Journal of Educational Development, 40(3), 9-18.
- Shelton, D. (2015). Remedies in international human rights law. London: Oxford University Press, USA.
- Vestergaard, J., & Wade, R. H. (2015). Still in the woods: Gridlock in the IMF and the World Bank puts multilateralism at risk. Global Policy, 6(1), 1-12.
- Yang, C. S. (2016). Local labor markets and criminal recidivism. Journal of Public Economics, 12(1), 51-55