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Human Behavior - A Study

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  • Unit No:
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 9 / Words 2254
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: U30049
  • Downloads: 840
Question :

This assessment will cover the following questions:

  • Elaborate stress related behaviour by using Tinbergens 4 WHYs and how it influences the human conduct towards animals.
  • How non-human behaviour helps in studying stress of humans and elaborate your answer with the help of suitable example.
Answer :

INTRODUCTION

Human behaviour can be referred to as the reaction of people or gatherings of people to interior and outer stimuli. It alludes to the variety of each physical activity and discernible feelings related to people, just as mankind. While explicit characteristics of one's character and disposition might be progressively steady, different practices will change as one moves from birth through adulthood. Notwithstanding being directed by age and hereditary qualities, conduct, driven to a limited extent by thought processes and sentiments, is an understanding of the singular mind, uncovering in addition to other things' demeanour and qualities. Social behaviour which is regarded as a subset of human conduct studies the significant impact of social collaboration and culture. Extra impacts incorporate morals, social condition, authority, influence and intimidation.

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1- Watch The Video And Give a Descriptive Overview of What You See. You Should Not Use Any Systematic Observation Method to Answer This Question. (200 words maximum) [5%]

In the video, it is seen that a female is made to dip her one hand in ice-cold water for the longest duration of time that she is comfortable in, to keep her hands steady there. Further, it is seen in the video that as the duration of time increases, the facial expressions as well as the behaviour of this human starts changing. This can be said on the basis of the changes that take place in the behaviour pattern, body movements as well as expressions of humans over the course of time. It is seen that the female is able to hold her hands in ice-cold water for a period of approximately 4 minutes. After she takes out her hand, she is enquired about her experience in terms of the pain she went through, the stress she underwent and the non-pleasantness that she encountered during the time period of 4 minutes. She is made to give ratings to the 3 mentioned aspects in order to identify the normal behaviour of a human when such a situation takes place with them along with ascertaining the resistance capacity of an average human.

2- After Watching The Video, Present an Ethogram That You Can Use to Code The Video. Your Ethogram Should Include at Least Five Behaviours (200 words maximum). [15%]

Behaviour

Definition

Silent teeth baring

Retraction of lips leads to total or partial exposure of gums as well as teeth, along with practical closure of mouth and non-vocal behaviour.

Play Face

The mouth is open with lips either retracted or in a calm position.

Stationery

Sitting without any kind of body movement.

Lip Smack

Movement of lips with a slight smacking sound

 

3- With Your Ethogram, Use Focal Sampling as The Sampling Rule, And Continuous Recording as The Recording Rule, to Code The First Two Minutes of The Video. Present The Result in The Table Below. Times Should be Given to The 10th of a Second (e.g. 02:21 to 03:09).[10%]

 

Behaviour

Start time to End time

Silent teeth baring

01:40 to 02:00

Stationery

02:40 to 03:00

Play Face

02:00 to 02:20

Lip Smacking

03:00 to 03:20

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4- Using Scan Sampling as The Sampling Rule And Instantaneous Sampling (every 20s) as The Recording Rule, Code The Entire Video Using Your Ethogram. [10%]

 

Individual 1

 

Time

Behaviour

00:20

No activity

00:40

Slight body movement

01:00

Change of facial expressions

01:20

Resisting the pain

01:40

Silent teeth baring

02:00

Play Face

02:20

Submissive

02:40

Stationery

03:00

Lip smack

03:20

Change of facial expressions

03:40

Teeth biting

04:00

Hand movement

04:20

Play Face

04:40

Silent teeth baring

 

5- Compared to The Subjective Description You Gave in Your Answer to Question 1, What Are The Advantages of Using a Systematic Observational Method (as in Question 3 or 4)? (300 words maximum) [20%]

Systematic observation is a calculated form of observation used to either bolster or invalidate a hypothesis. For a perception to be precise, it must be liberated from predisposition and repeatable. Efficient perception is unbending and is regularly utilized in logical research. Since efficient perceptions are normally utilized as proof to either bolster or repudiate shifting speculations, they should be executed in a controlled way that guarantees the validity of their outcomes. The validity of an orderly perception originates from various variables. To begin with, just explicit practices identified with the point being examined are recorded in orderly perceptions. Further, endeavours are made to dispose of predispositions of any sort that could slant the perception's discoveries. This is frequently done by requesting that various eyewitnesses watch for similar practices. In the event that they report back with clashing discoveries, the techniques are reworked and the perception is completed once more. At long last, deliberate perceptions must be made in a way that enables others to duplicate them. On the off chance that others can't reproduce the perception, it is regularly seen as untrustworthy and its discoveries are not seen as logically substantial. Systematic observation has an edge over subjective description as given in Question 1 because it is free from the element of bias.

6- Using Tinbergen’s 4 WHYs, Explain Stress-Related Behaviour. (350 words maximum) [20%]

Tinbergen's four questions are named after Nikolaas Tinbergen and are mainly based on Aristotle's 4 causes. As mentioned below all these four questions have been duly defined in context with stress behaviour

The four questions are:

Function (or adaption): This question involved why animals perform the behaviour and the way in which behaviour increases animals' fitness over stress levels.

Evolution (or phylogeny): It mainly includes the manner in which behaviour is involved along with the manner in which natural selection is modified over evolutionary time. This is typically addressed with the use of a comparative approach within which the behaviour in question is further compared between closely related species.

Causation (or mechanism): It includes what causes the behaviour to be performed and what type of physical mechanism and stimuli elicit cause behaviour.

Development (or ontogeny): This question involves the manner in which behaviour developed during the lifetime of an individual along with the ways that influence learning and experience.

As per the above-mentioned analysis, it has been identified that four types of questions mainly operate at two different levels. In question 1 and 2 it provides an evolutionary and ultimate explanation. This answer usually takes a long perspective and involves the reason through which behaviour has evolved. The proximate explanation in this answer involves the immediate medical reason for why the behaviour is duly expressed. In addition to this, to obtain an overall understanding of benefits, constants and costs that have duly shaped given behaviour it is essential to obtain approximate and ultimate answers. Further, it has been identified that higher-level behaviour is duly caused by an increase in testosterone within males. In addition to this with the formative development of the question, it has been observed that the stress has been duly caused due to various reasons.

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7- What Could We Learn About Non-Human Animal Behaviour by Studying Stress in Humans? (350 words maximum). [20%]

Stress in human beings is seen as a common thing that occurs on a regular basis due to daily life events or situations. This stress directly has a negative impact on human beings' performance as well as their personal relationships with one another in a negative manner. An individual who goes through stress, depression and anxiety often take the help of many psychiatrists as well as another alternative method through which their level of stress could decline in a rapid manner and also provide them relaxation. One of the most common methods determined that is supportive for the individual who suffers from stress is keeping pets with them. It can be said that keeping animals at home directly supports individuals in reducing their stress levels as the behaviour of pets is very soothing and cooperative which keeps individuals engaging in several activities that as a result divert their minds to other activities. Apart from this, it has been determined that there are several behavioural characteristics of human beings that directly support human beings going through in changing their mood. Some of the commonly identified behaviours of non-human animals are empathy, sense of humour, loyalty, respective nature, teaching, self-control, managing and dealing with situations in a very calm manner etc. All of this behaviour of non-human animals clearly states that every individual who keeps pets with them can easily release their stress in a quicker manner. Along with this, it has also been identified sense of humour of non-human animals is so strong that directly senses if something goes wrong with their owner. These pets also place their own efforts in engaging their owner in various funny activities that work as a supportive factor in diverting their mind in another direction. As a result, it is easier for human beings to relax and release stress in a quicker period of time the non-humans.

Also Read:- Cognitive Psychology

CONCLUSION

From the above-mentioned report, it is comprehended that stress in human is considered as one of the common things that not only hampers their regular function of day-to-day activities but at the same time also affects their health condition. Also, it has been determined that non-human animals are identified as the best thing that could support human beings suffering from stress. In addition to this, it can be said that animals have certain behavioural characteristics like empathy, sense of humour, loyalty, respective nature, teaching, self-control, managing and dealing with situations in a very calm manner etc. that support human beings in releasing their stress.

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