Human Behavior - A Study

Question :

This assessment will cover the following questions:

  • Elaborate stress related behaviour by using Tinbergen's 4 WHYs and how it influences the human conduct towards animals.
  • How non-human behaviour helps in studying stress of humans and elaborate your answer with the help of suitable example.
Answer :


Human behaviour can be referred to as the reaction of people or gatherings of people to interior and outer stimuli. It alludes to the variety of each physical activity and discernible feeling related with people, just as mankind. While explicit characteristics of one's character and disposition might be progressively steady, different practices will change as one move from birth through adulthood. Notwithstanding being directed by age and hereditary qualities, conduct, driven to a limited extent by thought process and sentiments, is an understanding into singular mind, uncovering in addition to other things demeanour and qualities. Social behaviour which is regarded as a subset of human conduct studies the significant impact of social collaboration and culture. Extra impacts incorporate morals, social condition, authority, influence and intimidation.

1- Watch The Video And Give a Descriptive Overview of What You See. You Should Not Use Any Systematic Observation Method to Answer This Question. (200 words maximum) [5%]

In the video, it is seen that a female is made to dip her one hand in ice cold water for the longest duration of time that she is comfortable in, to keep her hands steady there. Further, it is seen in the video that as the duration of time increases, the facial expressions as well as the behaviour of this human starts changing. This can be said on the basis of the changes that take place in the behaviour pattern, body movements as well as the expressions of human with the course of time. It is seen that the female is able to hold her hands in ice cold water for a period of approximately 4 minutes. After she takes out her hand, she is enquired about her experience in terms of the pain she went through, the stress she underwent and the non pleasantness that she encountered during the time period of 4 minutes. She is made to give ratings to the 3 before mentioned aspects in order to identify the normal behaviour of a human when such situation takes place with them along with to ascertain the resistance capacity of an average human.

2- After Watching The Video, Present an Ethogram That You Can Use to Code The Video. Your Ethogram Should Include at Least Five Behaviours (200 words maximum). [15%]



Silent teeth baring

Retraction of lips leading to total or partial exposure of gums as well as teeth, along with practical closure of mouth and non vocal behaviour.

Play Face

The mouth being open with lips either retracted or in a calm position.


Sitting without any kind of body movement.

Lip Smack

Movement of lips with slight smacking sound


3- With Your Ethogram, Use Focal Sampling as The Sampling Rule, And Continuous Recording as The Recording Rule, to Code The First Two Minutes of The Video. Present The Result in The Table Below. Times Should be Given to The 10th of a Second (e.g. 02:21 to 03:09).[10%]



Start time to End time

Silent teeth baring

01:40 to 02:00


02:40 to 03:00

Play Face

02:00 to 02:20

Lip Smacking

03:00 to 03:20


4- Using Scan Sampling as The Sampling Rule And Instantaneous Sampling (every 20s) as The Recording Rule, Code The Entire Video Using Your Ethogram. [10%]


Individual 1





No activity


Slight body movement


Change of facial expressions


Resisting the pain


Silent teeth baring


Play Face






Lip smack


Change of facial expressions


Teeth biting


Hand movement


Play Face


Silent teeth baring

5- Compared to The Subjective Description You Gave in Your Answer to Question 1, What Are The Advantages of Using a Systematic Observational Method (as in Question 3 or 4)? (300 words maximum) [20%]

Systematic observation is a calculated form of observation used to either bolster or invalidate a hypothesis. For a perception to be precise, it must be liberated from predisposition and repeatable. Efficient perception is unbending and is regularly utilized in logical research. Since efficient perceptions are normally utilized as proof to either bolster or repudiate shifting speculations, they should be executed in a controlled way that loans their outcomes validity. The validity of an orderly perception originates from various variables. To begin with, just explicit practices identified with the point being examined are recorded in orderly perceptions. Further, endeavours are made to dispose of predisposition of any sort that could slant the perception's discoveries. This is frequently done by requesting that various eyewitnesses watch for similar practices. In the event that they report back with clashing discoveries, the techniques are reworked and the perception is completed once more. At long last, deliberate perceptions must be made in a way that enables others to duplicate them. On the off chance that others can't reproduce the perception, it is regularly seen as untrustworthy and its discoveries are not seen as logically substantial. Systematic observation has an edge over subjective description as given in Question 1 because it is free from the element of bias.

6- Using Tinbergen’s 4 WHYs, Explain Stress-Related Behaviour. (350 words maximum) [20%]

Tinbergen's four questions named after Nikolaas Tinbergen and are mainly based on Aristotle's 4 causes. Mentioned below all these four question has been duly define in context with stress behaviour

The four questions are:

Function (or adaption): This question involved why animal performing the behaviour and the way in which behaviour increase animals fitness over stress level.

Evolution (or phylogeny): It mainly includes the manner in which behaviour involve along with the manner in which natural selection modified over evolutionary time. This is further get typically addressed with the use of comparative approach within which behaviour in question is get further compare between close related species.

Causation (or mechanism): It includes what causes the behaviour to be performed and what type of physical mechanism and stimuli elicit cause behaviour.

Development (or ontogeny): This question involved the manner in which behaviour developed during lifetime of an individual along with the ways that influence learning and experience.

As per the above mentioned analysis it has been identified that four types of questions mainly operate at two different levels. In question 1 and 2 it provide evolutionary and ultimate explanation. In this answer usually take long perspective and involve the reason through which behaviour has evolved. Proximate explanation in this answer involves immediate medical reason for why behaviour is duly express. In addition to this, as to obtain overall understanding of benefit, constant and cost that have duly shaped given behaviour it is essential to obtain proximate and ultimate answer. Further it has been identified that higher level behaviour is duly caused by increase in testosterone within males. While in addition to this with the formative development of question it has been observed that the stress has been duly caused due to various reasons.

7- What Could we Learn About Non-Human Animal Behaviour by Studying Stress in Humans? (350 words maximum). [20%]

Stress in human being is seen as the common thing that occurs at regular basis due to daily based life events or situation. This stress directly places negative impact over the human beings performance as well as their personal relationships with one another in negative manner. The individual who goes through stress, depression and anxiety often take help of many psychiatrists as well as other alternative method through which their level of stress could get declined in rapid manner and also provides them relaxation. One of the most common methods determined that is supportive for the individual who suffers from stress is keeping pets with them. It can be said that by keeping animals at home directly supports individual in reducing their stress level as behaviour of pet is very soothing and corporative that keeps individual engaging in several activities that as a result diverts their mind in other activities. Apart from this, it has been determined that there are several behaviour characteristics of human beings that directly supports human beings going through in changing up their mood. Some of the common identified behaviour of non human animals is empathy, sense of humour, loyalty, respective nature, teaching, self control, managing and dealing with the situations in very calm manner etc. All of this behaviour of non human animals clearly states that every individual who keeps pet with them can easily release their stress in quicker manner. Along with this, it has also been identified sense of humour of non human animals is so strong that directly senses if something went wrong with their owner. These pets also places their own efforts in engaging their owner in various funny activities that works as the supportive factor in diverting their mind in another direction. As a result, it is easier for the human beings to relax themselves and release stress in quicker period of time with the non humans.

Also Read :- Cognitive Psychology


From the above mentioned report, it is comprehended that stress in human is considered as one of the common thing that not only hampers their regular based function of day to day activities but at the same time it also affects their health condition too. Also, it has been determined that non human animals are identified as the best thing that could support human being suffering from stress. In addition to this, it can be said that animals has certain behavioural characteristics like empathy, sense of humour, loyalty, respective nature, teaching, self control, managing and dealing with the situations in very calm manner etc. that supports human being in releasing their stress.

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