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PM206 Social psychology Level 5 Plymouth University

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INTRODUCTION

Each of the individuals around the world has a diverse set of perceptions that are carried out by individuals. When any type of condition is raised, then to get over them the solutions provided will be different. Further, there will be people among whom some will run away from the situation and there will be few who will face it. The topic selected for conducting an annotated bibliography is Social media and the Internet from a social psychology perspective.

PART A

Annotated bibliography

  1. Knowles, M. L., Haycock, N., & Shaikh, I. (2015). Does Facebook magnify or mitigate threats to belonging? Social Psychology, 46(6), 313-324. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.une.edu.au/10.1027/1864- 9335/a000246

With time, there are many changes that have taken place in relation to technology. With advancement, technology has helped to have direct interaction with customers. It includes social media like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc. All these social sites have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. There are different types of researches that are carried out on similar topics.  It is being identified that there are high impact on the perception of people when they see any type of advertisement or chat with their friends. In order to conduct the research, there are four different types of studies that are taken into consideration (Knowles, Haycock and Shaikh, 2015). All these studies are focused on manipulating exclusion and observing participants' behavioural preferences.

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The first study, it includes measured participants' belonging needs and their use of Facebook. The second study is about manipulated exclusion, exposing participants to Facebook pages/photos or controlling them. For 3rd and 4th studies, it also include measured needs for aggression and satisfaction. Overall the findings show that among all the social media, Facebook is highly effective and enables to change the perception that is carried out by individuals. The impact is high and people tend to fall even for the false information that is provided. 

Main Research Question

Type of Design

Major Result

What is the perception that is carried out by people towards Facebook

What is the mitigation that was made by Facebook?

What are the mitigated threats to Facebook?

Four case studies are taken into consideration

Exclusion-motivated computer-mediated communication and belonging needs predicted Facebook use. Also, exposure to Facebook protected excluded individuals' social needs and mitigated aggressive behaviour. Apart from this, the study states that Facebook is considered to be the most effective tool for reaffirming social bonds.

  1. De Choudhury, M., Counts, S., & Gamon, M. (2012). Not all moods are created equal! exploring human emotional states in social media. At the sixth International AAAI conference on weblogs and social media. http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/ICWSM12/paper/viewPaper/4683

The preferences that are made by individuals towards any type of condition will be different. One will be able to consider the problems that are faced in such a way that each one can take steps to meet their satisfaction level. There are many options that are available to people who make use of social media. In this context, people can use written posts, images, videos, etc. In accordance with the research, it is identified that individuals prefer to make use of video and images presented. With this respect, people get to know the information that is provided. Post made by a person is considered to be more effective when it is presented in the form of a video or image (De Choudhury, Counts and Gamon, 2012). These are helpful enough to grab the attention of others and to think from that perspective. The behaviour and attitude change when individuals are able to go through any posts. Emotional states of individuals that are known as mood are considered to be the expression of ideas, opinions and thoughts.

Main Research Question

Type of Design

Major Result

What are Representative Moods?

Do fluctuations in mood cause a negative impact on perception?

What are the best sources that make the perception positive?

Four aspects of mood expression cover the relationship between (1) moods and usage levels, including linguistic diversity of shared content (2) moods and the social ties individuals form, (3) moods and amount of network activity of individuals, and (4) moods and participatory patterns of individuals such as link sharing and conversational engagement.

In accordance with the results, it can be stated that at-scale naturalistic assessments and extensions of existing conceptualizations of human mood in social media contexts.

  1. Lambert, A. (2016). Intimacy and social capital on Facebook: Beyond the psychological perspective. New Media & Society, 18(11), 2559-2575.  http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1461444815588902

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As per Lambert, (2016) additions cause serious problems for a person. This has a negative impact on the mind and body. It is important to make sure that proper consideration is made in that the one does not get into any type of addiction. With this respect, one of the addictions identified is related to the use of social media. Individuals tend to make use of websites in such a way that they get all the information that they want. However, these are beneficial for the business as this type of habitual condition causes as per to follow the same attitude and this is used by firms to attract people. There are situations in which people are able to relate to the information or conversation that has taken place with any person around the world (Lambert, 2016). All these make a person to think over the aspects that are being conveyed. When way, the type of sources that are used by others for the information makes a person develop perception accordingly. When all these conditions are considered and still there are behavioural changes identified, then addiction makes a person face serious difficulties.

Main Research Question

Type of Design

Major Result

What are the conditions due to which a person gets addicted?

What are the impacts of internet addiction on a person?

Do addiction changes cause behavioural changes?

There are many secondary sources that are taken into consideration. These are helpful enough to develop an in-depth understanding.

Technology may expand our capabilities, it may also expand our capacity to express maladaptive behaviours and psycho-pathologies.

 

PART B

What is the Social Psychology behind this social media?

Psychology mainly and totally depends upon the fact that what is relationship between people with that of others throughout their life. As we all are aware of the fact that social media or social networking is playing a significant role in the relationships of people with one another (Sunstein, 2018). So scientists or psychologists are interested in knowing or analysing this phenomenon of why these people are relying so much on various sites for just their attachment needs. During the early stage of this social media, it was generalising into the common form of online communities that were focusing on the social interaction of people with the use of chat rooms. After the passage of time, this became the common and general pass time of people which was after the launching of Facebook in the year 2004.

Now at present, this is the largest social networking website in the world with about 2.2 billion active users as of January 2018. This is considered to as the largest media and news coverage station from all over the world impacting the emotional and social health of people all around the work. There are various research which was held on this purpose of social media and its psychology behind it and it was made clear that this platform would be creating division, risking the health and exploiting the hidden insecurities within. In the year 1823, it was included and described by Lord Kames that human being at a particular stage of time would have their common preference for novelty. So in this current time, it is playing the role that social media is attracting the majority of people and this is increasing the number of people who are using these social media networking sites in their use.

Most of the people are working in their offices which would be getting them the stress of sitting in front of the computer and doing their work (Ramanathan, Subramanian & Parrott, 2017). Then after they come to their home they engage in all kinds of social media sites which not only leads to mental but also physical stress. In one of the studies which was done on users of these different types of sites, they analysed about 3.9 million users of social networking sites that took over 17 days. They came to know that about 71% of them were changing their mind frequently while writing a post or commenting on it. Once they typed out their status or any of the comments on other's posts and then they deleted it deciding not be submit that. This was done on a more frequent basis as on average they changed their mind in 4.52 statues and 3.2 comments as well.

No one else than social media would know or agree with this point that all emotions especially that of happiness are contagious and are likely to spread from one person to the other on frequent bases (7 Social Media Psychology Studies That Will Make Your Marketing Smarter, 2018). So various researchers at the University of California conducted one inquiry upon what is the emotional touch behind the content which is posted on Facebook which lasted for 1 year. So in this one, it was concluded that whatever people are feeling and saying in any part of this world would be spreading to many parts on the very same day. It was seen that positive posts would be more contagious than negative ones as positive ones were spreading 1.75 times more than negative which was only 1.29.

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In another research which was published in Psychological Science, it was seen that profile photos were posted by millions of users in similar lighting. All the photos were judged on the basis of trust, intelligence, creativity and attractiveness. In one of the other research, it was analysed that about ¼ or 24% of the total social media users would be sharing everything or most of the things on their social media accounts. On the other hand, 19% of them were those who would not be sharing anything on the online sites and these percentages of sharers differ in all the countries. In Asia, Africa and Latin America the percentage of oversharing and internet penetration is the highest and lowest in European countries.

Most of the social media users share strong feelings of anger and anxiety which leads to the stage of arousal that is activating the nervous system and then they lead to share that news (7 Social Media Psychology Studies That Will Make Your Marketing Smarter, 2018). The neuroscientists of Harvard University studied in one of their research that humans naturally love to talk about themselves the most so due to this they always tend to share their thoughts whatever is trigging in their mind. This was about 80% of all the social media users who are been posting their day-to-day feelings and activities on their networking sites.

CONCLUSION

Towards the end, it is concluded that much of the research was conducted based on what is the mentality or psychology of people in relation to their use or spending most of the time on various social media sites. During the early stage of this social media, it was generalising into the common for of online communities that were focusing on the social interaction of people with the use of chat rooms. It was said that people who are regularly announcing their activities are more in number than those who are not doing this thing. So in this one, it was concluded that whatever people are feeling and saying in any part of this world would be spreading to many parts on the very same day.  However, these are beneficial for the business as this type of habitual condition causes as per to follow the same attitude and this is used by firms to attract people. There are situations in which people are able to relate to the information or conversation that takes place with any person around the world.

REFERENCES

  • De Choudhury, M., Counts, S., & Gamon, M. (2012). Not all moods are created equal! exploring human emotional states in social media. At the sixth International AAAI conference on weblogs and social media.
  • Knowles, M. L., Haycock, N., & Shaikh, I. (2015). Does Facebook magnify or mitigate threats to belonging? Social Psychology. 46(6). 313-324.
  • Lambert, A. (2016). Intimacy and social capital on Facebook: Beyond the psychological perspective. New Media & Society. 18(11). 2559-2575.
  • Ramanathan, U., Subramanian, N. & Parrott, G. (2017). Role of social media in retail network operations and marketing to enhance customer satisfaction. International Journal of Operations & Production Management. 37(1). pp.105-123.
  • Sunstein, C.R. (2018). # Republic: Divided democracy in the age of social media. Princeton University Press.
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