CHAPTER 2- LITERATURE REVEIW
With the entire research project, this chapter will plays significant role as it mainly ensure critical evaluation of the topic from the perspective of different authors. Along with this, chapter will also focus on three key areas that are studying the concept of customer services within the hospitality organisation. After that training methods that are used by the organisation to train their staff so that they may deliver the quality services. The last key area within the research project will focus on assessing impact of training and development on the service delivery within the hospitality organisation.Buy dissertation help online.
2.2 The concept of customer service within hospitality industry
The concept of customer services plays a significant role within the hospitality industry as it supports in delivering quality services to their customers. From the view point of Brown and Sitzmann (2011) businesses are required to keep their customers satisfied so that they may engage in selecting their services in the future also. Within hospitality industry, customers are more likely to pay attention towards the services which are rendered by the staff and employees whether it is service related with accommodation or food etc. therefore the purpose of staff within the hospitality organisation is to keep their customers happy and satisfied . Furthermore, Bertolino, Truxillo and Fraccaroli (2011) has also conferred that it is the knowledge among staff and employees which impact the level of delivering customer services. In the situation, if staff possesses ineffective knowledge regarding the services then it may deliver improper services to customers. Therefore, in this situation management must focus on providing training sessions to staff so that they can enhance their skills which will result in delivering effective customers services.
Moreover, Beier, Teachout and Cox (2012) have also stated that with enabling customer service within the hospitality industry it directly outcome in meeting the expectation and requirement of customers. The satisfied customers within the hospitality industry mainly emphasize on gaining memorable experience and services from the staff. For this purpose, effective training must be imparted to employees and staff within the hospitality organisation so that they can effectively deliver quality services. In addition to this, the concept of customer services also makes the customers satisfied as they believe that organisation is more likely to build long term relationship with them. For this aspect, training and development is important for the organisation.
On the other hand, Clarke (2012) has also stated that customer services do not focus on meeting the expectations or demand of customers but it is the concept that ensures exceeding expectation of the client. Within the hospitality industry, customer services plays vital role in meeting requirement of guests by delivering quality tangible and intangible services to them. In addition to this, Ehrhardt and et.al (2011) has also stated that with increase in competition for satisfying the customers, hospitality organisation is focusing on providing quality services to their guests and customers those who visits their organisation.
2.3 Methods of training and development
The foremost and effective function of human resource management is to develop and trained their employees so that they may easily perform their job in effective manner. From the view point of Harrison (2011) with imparting proper training among the staff and employees within the organisation it outcome in delivering quality services to their customers and guests. On the other hand, employee development is another aspect within the organisation that results in developing the mindset of the individual so that they may easily engage in delivering the effective services to staff. There are different training and development methods that must be used by management of hospitality organisation so that they may easily raise the abilities and skills of employees so that they may easily deliver the required activities within the hotel. Salas, Kraiger and Smith-Jentsch (2012) has also stated the success of training mainly focuses on the type of training methods and techniques that has been used by the management for enhancing the skills of their staff. There are on the job and off the job training methods that is used by the management of hospitality organisation so that they may easily trained their staff.
On-the-job training method is mainly imparted to the staff or employees those who are engaged in performing their job. The training is provided to staff while they are performing their job activities. There are different forms of on-the-job training methods such as mentoring, job rotation etc. from the view point of CG Davidson, McPhail and Barry (2011) the most common used on-the-job training method is mentoring in which the higher level personnel impart one to one training to the staff while they are performing their job role. Under this method, mentor is accountable for providing training and responsible for the activities performed by staff within the hotel premises. Another on-the-job method that is used by the hospitality organisation is job rotation in which the employees or staff within the hotel is shifted towards other job in the hotel so that they may overcome the monotonous or boredom activities. As pert the view of Costen and Salazar (2011) job rotation method is consider as significant method that mainly focuses on enhancing the skills of individual so that they may easily perform the different activities within the hospitality environment. Moreover, it also consider as an effective training method that support the staff or employees to perform different job role within the hospitality organisation on effective and efficient manner. Along with this, another advantage of job rotation within the hospitality organisation is that their key objective is to engage in employee development activities. As, this training method provides a clear opportunities for staff and employees to earn the promotions so that they may deliver the different range of services to the customers. On the contrary to this, Ip, Leung and Law (2011) has stated that enabling this training method sometime resist the employees as rotating the job of senior or experienced personnel who are comfortable with the job may often feel loaded with the change in job. In addition to this, another advantage of enabling mentoring method is that it do not allow the employees to feel isolated within the workplace as mentor within the hospitality organisation support them or encourages them to interact with the other individuals. On the contrary to this, Kalargyrou and Woods (2011) has also stated mentoring sometime also lead to higher the frustration level of mentor of the staff or mentee is unable to progress quickly. In this situation it also ensure that it might results in attaining the higher dissatisfaction among the staff that directly impact the delivery of services within the hospitality organisation (The Advantages of Mentoring in the Workplace. 2017).
Despite of on-the-job methods there are different off-the-job training methods that must be used within the hospitality organisation so that they may easily enhance the skills and knowledge of staff that positively impact in delivering the services. The foremost off-the-job training method that is used within the hospitality organisation include conducting lecture and seminars. According to Salas, Kraiger and Smith-Jentsch (2012) it is consider as conventional training method in which the professional or expertise conduct seminar for all the staff so that they may enhance their knowledge regarding the job role. The key advantage of lecture and seminar method is that it ensure communication among the large mass of audiences regarding the selected topic. On the contrary to this, Ehrhardt and et.al (2011) has also stated that with the certain advantage there is disadvantage of using this training method that is it only engage in one way communication that might results in arousing the certain misunderstanding. Another method of off-the-job training is case study method in which the supervisor impart training through providing them real case study examples so that staff may easily solve the case through applying their own knowledge and information. From the view point of Wilson (2014) it has been assessed that with the help of applying this training method it may easily raise the decision-making skills of the staff within the hospitality organisation so that they may easily take the effective decision that is beneficial for the organisation.
Training and development is considered to be an important for employees of hotel as it is concerned with enhancing skills for a particular purpose. There is a much significance of training on the performance of employees. The management of hotel has conducted training of its employees for the following reasons that is the employees within the hotel will be able to help the client or its customers in the appropriate way, so that customer will not be left unsatisfied. Through considering the viewpoint of Harrison (2011) it also increases employee satisfaction along with employee morale and retention, which decreases hiring rates.
By effective training being provided, morale and commitment of employees will increase and they will feel as a valued and important resource, which will improve their performance in rendering amazing hospitality services to its customers. Along with this. it is the part of service quality that effects the performance of hospitality organisation in positive manner. Training of employees helps the hotel to build team spirit within them and also it will lead to accurate work results and success of organization. In addition to this, Clarke (2012) has also stated that it enhances the capabilities of staff and also increases their competitive advantage. It will motivate them to perform better in rendering services to their prestigious customers. Effective training also improve the performance of employees within the hotel as they will be capable to attend their guests timely and also employees can avoid mistakes and accidents on the job. It also enable the employees to cope with organizational and technological change as it acts as an invaluable investment to Marriott hotel.
2.4 Impact of training and development on service delivery
From the view point Beier, Teachout and Cox (2012) it has been assessed that engaging in training and development activities positively impact in amending the skills of staff that directly contribute towards delivering the quality services to the customers. With the help of imparting training it enhances the service delivery of staff as they deliver accordant with the requirement and needs of customers. For instance, guests visited the hotel and ask for the assistance regarding accommodation. In this situation if the front office staff is highly trained and qualified then it might results in delivering effective and prompt services to the customers and guests. On the contrary to this, if the staff at front office is not trained then it might results in delivering the incompetent or ineffective services to the guests that results in attaining dissatisfaction regarding the hotel services.
In addition to this, Bertolino, Truxillo and Fraccaroli (2011) has also stated that employee training is consider as effective aspect that results in improving the performance of employees within the organisation thus it ultimately results in attaining the growth within the organisational performance. Moreover, there is positive relationship among the training and development on the service delivery as employees are competent enough to deliver the effective services that meets the satisfaction level of customers and guests. With the help of training and development activities it also positively impact the performance of employees so that they may effectively renders the services to their guests and customers those who are visiting their hotel for having pleasant stay. On the contrary to this, Brown and Sitzmann (2011) has also stated that if the staff has provided with the wrong training material then it may negatively impact their services as they are unaware regarding the actual requirement of guests and they deliver wrong services to them. In addition to this, it has been also assess that with providing negative training to them they can results in delivering the improper services to their guests that results in attaining dissatisfaction among them.
Whereas, it has been also assessed that for improving the basic service delivery within the hospitality organisation management must focuses on providing training to their staff so that they may easily deliver the required services without any problem or error. It has been critically evaluated that training and development plays significant role in developing the employees that directly outcome in attaining or raising their productivity as they have acquire the knowledge and amend their skills related with the job. Therefore, it supports in reaching towards accomplishing the objectives and goals.
From the above chapter that is literature review it has been concluded that training and development plays significant role within the hospitality organisation as it benefit the staff in developing and amending their skills that supports in delivering the quality services to different customers. On the other hand, the chapter also inclined towards attaining the knowledge regarding different training methods that is used within the hospitality organisation to train their staff and employees so that they may easily meet the service requirement of customers.