Introduction to Principles of Safeguarding in Health and Social Care
The principles of safeguarding and protection play important role when an individual is unable to protect themselves from the danger or harm due to age, disability or illness. In this, they have rights to keep safe and if they are abused or neglected, appropriate actions will be taken. This is known as safeguarding. This report helps to recognize symptoms of different types of abuse as well as analyze national and local context of protection and saf
When, human and civil rights of a person are violated by other person, then it is known as Abuse and this can be from single, repeated or sustained actions. Abuse could be in form of shaking, hitting, scalding, force feeding or biting. The various types of abuses are discussed below...
It includes physical forces which result in bodily pain, injury or impairment.
In this, person is tricked or forced to involve in sexual activity and it’s an abuse when sexual activity is non-consensual.
One person has control and power over another person through gestures and words and it can be related to blaming, name-calling, threats, screaming or yelling.
It involves defrauding or stealing others goods, money or property through tricking and threatening.
It happens when service user's lifestyle is sacrificed in favor of restrictive or routine practices and person is not allowed to go outside and privacy of user is not respect.
When a person does not care about their well-being and health due to depression or illness.
Neglect by others
Carer fails to care for service users as he or she is also being stressed.
1.2 Factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse
There are various factors such as stress, fear, revenge, dependency, addiction, conflicts and confidentiality that may contribute to individual being vulnerable to abuse. These few factors are defined below...
If, a person is dependent on another by both the financially and non-financially aspects, then abuser can take the benefits of this condition. In this situation, abuser influences or forces them to do some wrong works or practices.
A person who has lack of mental awareness and care taker has control or power on them by emotionally or physically. The mentally ill person has lack of capacity to understand and take decision about what is right or wrong or what is happening with them.
Conflicts in family
Rises in conflicts among family members also influences abuser to target that person who is stressed from conflict situation. The reason of conflicts may be due to not good support network around person.
2.1 Actions to take if there are suspicions that an individual is being abused
If, it is suspected that an individual is abused then it is very important to take an action against that abuser and in this situation following things could be done...
- Observation of person's activities and changes in behavior.
- Can ask the reasons for the behavior changes which are noticed.
- Record the activities of abuser and take a stand against it.
- Inform others and report about abuse situation.
- In case of danger or physical harm, immediate call to emergency services.
- If, in some case, individual is not aware of being abused by someone then they can be informed and aware about the noticed activities.
- This type of situation should be always deal with sensitively.
- Preserve all evidence about the whole situation.
- Facing situation at workplace than follow company's policy of reporting abuse and report.
2.2 Actions to take if an individual alleges that they are being abused
In some case, if individuals allege that they are being abused, then following actions could be followed...
- Give support and reassure the individual for faith and believe in them.
- Must reassure them it was not their fault.
- Carefully listen that exactly what happened with them.
- Do not ask many leading questions and do not make any judgment what being told.
- Immediately report about the allegations.
- Without and delay record time, date and place where that abuse situation happened and this record should be factual, clear and accurate. In this, do not record any opinions and assumptions related to situation or abuser and in last, this record should be signed.
- Hand over the whole situation to senior person who dealt this case sensitively.
2.3 Ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved
It is very important to preserve all the evidence of abuse and for this, there are few ways to ensure that evidence of abuse situation is preserved and protected. These ways are as follows...
- The place where abuse is happened, do not touch anything and leave them as it is.
- Do not clean, wash or remove the clothes which are wear by individual.
- Do not allow anyone to enter into the area for keeping the area safe.
- Record all the signs of physical abuse such as bruises or burns etc.
- If, any first aid item is used that will be also reserved.
- Report and record the situation with confidentiality and carefully.
- Easily do not trust on anyone because they may try to destroy the evidence.
- Hand over all the record evidence to senior authority, so, they can protect all evidences at safe place.
- Provide protection to person from the further abuse or harm.
3.1 National policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse
There are various types of policies and systems context to both local and national which are related to safeguarding and protection from the abuse. The list of national policies and local systems are described below. The national policies which are related to safeguarding...
- Safeguarding vulnerable groups act 2006
- Independent safe guarding authority (ISA)- runs vetting and barring schemes
- Criminal record bureau
- Human right acts 1998
- National public health service
The local systems which are included in safeguarding and protection from abuse...
- Safeguarding adult boards
- Safe guarding procedures and policies
- The police
- Care quality commission (CQC)
- Local authority policy (McDonald, 2015)
3.2 Roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse
Each and every local authority has the corporate responsibility for the welfare and protection of vulnerable adults or individuals.
Social service authorities
They have developed the local policy guidance for the protection of adults from the abuse or risk. This guidance is issued by Local authority social services act 1970 under section 7. They have big responsibility to provide various range of care and support for the adults. For this purpose, they also work with other public agencies for the effective result.
Safeguarding adult boards
It is an inter-agency forum and it promotes the protection of adults from the abusive practice and behaviour.
Local health boards
They have statutory duty to work in partnership with other local organizations and systems to develop strategies for improving healthcare and wellbeing for individual.
They have responsibility to protect individual from harm and they also investigate reports related to abuse and provide protection to adults.
3.3 Reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse
Few reports are described below which face into serious failure to protect individuals from abuse, these are...
Castlebeck care ltd
In Winterbourne View, a patient is being slapped, pinned down, doused in cold water as well as continuously teased and taunted by staff members.
A report about murder of young man, Steven Hoskin who was facing difficulties in learning was abused and murdered in 2006. It was found that he had taken tablets of paracetamol, drunk alcohol and burned from smoking.
Mae Campbell, Alzheimer patient who was sexually abused two times as a resident of Hazard nursing home and abused from two former employees of nursing home. The supervisor of nursing home told her that not to tell anyone as no harm or danger was occured in Campbell.
3.4 Sources of information and advice about own role in safe guarding and protecting individuals from abuse
There are various sources to get information and advice, the list of sources are stated below...
- Company's procedure and policies on safe guarding and protection
- Company's manager
- Local authority
- Care quality commission
- Independent safe guarding authority
- Training programs
The procedures and policies of my company will outline work role related to protect and safe guarding of service users from the risk of abuse. Training about safe guarding of vulnerable adults will aware me about legislations which are dedicated to abuse and my responsibilities to protect adults from any harm.
4.1 Likelihood of abuse may be reduced
Likelihood of abuse may be reduced by few ways which are as follows...
Working with person-centred values
The person-centred values involves individuality, rights, choice, privacy and independence of person and it also involves dignity of individuals and based on the term that they are being respected. If, this is taken into consideration to provide support to individual then there is less chances to be abuse because all staff will work in a same way. In case if, staff abuses someone then they will feel shamed ue to the way they are being taught to work.
Encouraging active participation
Active participation is a process of working which recognizes the rights of individual to participate in activities of daily routine life as independently. In this way, risk of abuse will be low because individual participates actively in their everyday life practices.
Promoting choice and rights
In this, individuals are supported to form their own personal choice. No one will choose what will harm him, so, abuse is reduced.
4.2 Importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse
For reducing the likelihood of abuse, it is important to access procedure of complaints because this procedure gives rights to the complainant to be heard and supported to form their own views. This procedure is easy to use as well as understandable and it clearly sets out that how to make a complaint. The procedure includes steps which will be followed at the time when complaint is looked into and it also gives flexibility in target response time.
The procedure solves the complaints in a quick manner and this sets an open culture to make sure that in any form, abuse will not be tolerated. The complaint procedure also encourages complainant to not accept any type of abuse in any form.
5.1 Unsafe practices that may affect the well-being of individuals
Unsanitary conditions can widely spread infection which can affect the wellbeing of individual and other persons. Dirty kitchen equipment, surfaces, improper hand washing and no cover on hairs at time of cooking can spread infections and pose risk because individuals are of reporting faulty equipment while working in kitchen and uncleansed materials are also unsafe for the individual’s wellbeing.
In relation to health and safety, staff members are not checking when patient is ill or not able to stand on their feet and staff is not recording and monitoring the care plans of patients wellbeing. The other unsafe practices such as not listening or ignoring a service user can occur abuse. If the marks and bruises are not taken seriously can put service users in more danger or complaints are not seriously can increase risk of abuse. This also involves that carer get too tired to carry out responsibilities correctly or they are not been properly trained to use equipment.
5.2 Actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified
If, unsafe practices and activities are identified then individual can follow whistle blowing activity or also report to safeguard person because they will immediately take appropriate actions for that. It is also important to monitor all unsafe practices to gather all evidences which are important at the time of report. Unsafe activities are very dangerous because they can cause harm or danger to the individuals.
For example, an employee aware his manager that few things are left on stairs at third floor which may hurt and increase the chances of fall over. After this general report, things have been removed. Unsafe practices can include resource difficulties, poor working practices and operational difficulties.
5.3 Action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response
The suspected unsafe practices and abuse have been reported but in response nothing has been done than in this case, innocent party needs to complain report to the senior authority or next higher level. In an organization, if department manager do not give any response then individual can report to management or social workers about the abuse situation. Service user can also report to safeguard & protection team or care quality commission or even to police depending on the severity of response result. Service user or complainant can also take a stand against that abuse situation with the help of various mediums. These mediums such as social media, television, radio or newspaper will help to aware and attract the attention of large number of people. In case of no response situation, individual can contact to local authority to take an action against unsafe practices.
With the help of this report, it is easy to understand the importance of safeguarding and protection principles in health and social care. With the help of this study, types and symptoms of abuse are identified which will aware individual for their well-being. This research study also helps to understand the importance of appropriate actions which are taken against the abuse and unsafe practices.
- Kono, T., 2012. The basic principles of the Convention for Safeguarding of Intangible Heritage: A comparative analysis with the Convention for Protection of World Natural and Cultural Heritage and Japanese Law. Available at SSRN 1988870.
- McDonald, R., 2015. Safeguarding vulnerable. Fundamentals of Paramedic Practice: A Systems Approach.
- Nanda, M.M. and et. al., 2015. Childhood Maltreatment and Symptoms of Social Anxiety: Exploring the Role of Emotional Abuse, Neglect, and Cumulative Trauma. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma.