Introduction to Organizational Behaviour
Organizational behavior is the field of study that involves for the study of impacts in case of individuals, groups and structures upon behavior within any organization. It inculcates for application of theories for managing workforce behavior so as to achieve beneficial results (Adamson,
BT’s fast track leadership program is a unique scheme for high flyers that can make a profound impact on the business of the company. They can also become a part of top management and leadership team in the upcoming future. Concepts related to organizational structure, culture, leadership and managerial style will be developed. The theory of motivation and effective process of team work will also be inclusive of given report.
Relationship Between Organizational Structure And Culture
Organizational culture is a collection of traditions, policies, beliefs, and values that constitute for everything that we do and think in an organization. The culture at BT PLC is reflective of keeping consumers at the heart of everything they do. The employees work in a dedicated manner to help consumers for thriving in the changing world (Analoui and Karami, 2003). The staff members work in collaboration with each other for extending boundaries and always do whatever they promise. All members work as a team to create new possibilities so that consumers can be helped tout in the best possible manner (Johnson, Scholes, and Whtittington, 2008).
The corporate culture at Ryan air is more focused on representing the Irish roots. It is all about organizing work and reliability of processes. Its culture is also very much influenced by O'Leary that works on strengthening the notion that CEO can dictate the corporate culture at airline (Mayer, 2008). Any organization basic follows amongst the three organizational structures which are as follows;
- Functional – It involves the division of company on basis of purpose fulfilled by each area of business.
- Divisional – In this type of structure, small organizations are created within the umbrella group. Here the aim is to cover market areas or products that are a part of firm (Aldrich, 2007).
- Matrix – It is a hybrid or unique combination of functional as well as divisional structure.
The organizational structure at BT is divided into BT Design and Operate so as to focus on consumers of business. BT design is responsible for development of services while operate involves for deployment and operation. The main aim is to help in delivery of products and services in a better manner (Better Future report, 2012). On the other hand, Ryan air basically follows a matrix organizational structure that is a combination of functional and divisional structure. The company is operated with the name of Ryanair Ltd. Here, all international dealing is performed on behalf of Ryanair.com. The boards of directors are responsible for the strategic functions. These are inclusive of Chairman Michael O’Leary and other directors (Bertocci and Berrtocci, 2009).
Impact of organizational structure and culture on business performance.
Organizational structure and culture can be referred to as those foundation stones on which the business depends for achieving set business goals and objectives. In present case, the organizational structure as well as culture of BT Group plc is revolving around consumers. It has given complete focus on its consumers and is entitled to serve them in the best possible manner (Melewar, 2006). For this purpose it has also followed a divisional structure of an organization and divided the operations into two segments. Thus, there has been an improved performance from the employees. The new organizational structure has helped BT PLC to deliver faster, cost effective and more resilient services to clients. The team culture has focused on excellence in processes by fulfilling the needs and requirements of individuals so that they can contribute towards success of firm on the best possible manner. Its flexible work policies and services have created a sound organizational culture where wide range of people is giving services for the betterment of organization (LePine and Dyne, 2001).
Factors affecting individual behavior at work
- Personal employee characteristics – These features of an employee are in form of interest, abilities, values, expectations and aptitude. An individual carries these set of factors since the very start of his or her job and they have a deep impact on behavior at work (Judge, Heller and Mount, 2002).
- Motivation in the Workplace – The presence of high or low levels of motivation in work place has significant impact on the manner in which an employee behaves at work place. In case of BT PLC, it is the high levels of motivation that lead to an increased performance and creation of a positive work environment in contrast to low levels of motivational efforts undertaken by managers and supervisors (Robbins., 2008).
- Job satisfaction – According to Hertzberg two factor theory of motivation, the presence of motivator factor leads to job satisfaction. BT PLC has given more emphasis on satisfaction level with respect to job which has led to motivating an individual to work in a better manner and behave with positive energy (Bertocci and Berrtocci, 2009).
- Deviation in the Workplace – This occurs when an employee pursues a particular course of action that threatens the very well being of individuals in organization. These deviations usually make an individual behave in a negative manner. It may make him or her more frustrated and affect the overall performance (Robbins, 2009).
APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP
Effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organisations
- Autocratic – Here the manager plays a dominant role in the process of decision making without involving others. This results in high degree of dependency on part of employees towards manager and is usually followed when firms are in a need of quick decision making (Daft, 2008). This is the least effective style as it leads to an increased criticism, decreased morale and lower levels of job satisfaction. However it may increase work outflow for a short span of time. This is more common in military organizations.
- Participative – Via this approach the managers involve the staff members in the process of decision making. This creates for a commitment from team members to achieve the goals in best possible manner (Black, 2003). But this may not be so effective when there is a requirement to make quick decisions. The given style is usually applied in service industries.
- Laissez faire – The given style involves for complete trust by manager on the workforce. The approach is effective when the employees are highly trained and are in a need of less supervision. However, it may not be effectual in case of workforce who are new and not so trained (Cameron and Green, 2004). In present case, BT PLC follows a democratic style of leadership where the employees work in a team for the purpose of achievement of goals and objectives. This is very effective as it leads to an improved performance on part of employees due to nurturing by managers on a regular basis (People, 2013).
How organizational theory underpins the practice of management
The concept of organizational theory is utilized in many areas of business. The employees have often tried hard for sticking with intricacies of the theories and have molded themselves so as to become successful at the work place. However, the idea may lead to sacrificing with personal principles to achieve success. In the same way management theory, also underpin the presence of personal values and principles that are a part of employees’ personality (Cloud, 2010). For example, the employees may oppose against a specific rule or policy framed by BT Plc. In this regard, it is the duty of manager to move out from their personality restriction and carry out the job so as to satisfy the human resources in the best possible manner.
Different approaches to management used by different an organizations
There are various approaches to management used by different organization.
- Empirical technique – It is via this approach that managers try to learn from the experiences of others. It is utilized in firms that belonging to small sector are newly formed (Bishop, 2012).
- Human behavior approach – Here the focus of manager is on developing healthy relationship with employees as well as consumers. The approach is more prevalent in Consultancy firms (Adamson, Doherty and Viney, 2002).
- Decision approach – Here the managers of organizations involve members in the process of decision making. It is majorly followed by advertising and designing agencies.
- Contingency approach – It is one of the most common approaches that involve for keeping a backup plan in case of emergencies. It is more common in construction industries (Hosie and Smith, 2009).
- Operational approach – Here the emphasis is more on various functions and concepts undertaken by management. It is followed by manufacturing firms
- Social system approach – The given approach is followed by manager so as to facilitate the process of developing an understanding about behavior of individuals and groups. It is more prevalent in public welfare firms like NHS and Care UK (Analoui, Doloriertm and Sambrook, 2013).In case of BT PLC, the organization is more inclined towards decision making approach.The employees of the firm usually work in teams hence there is a requirement of all members to be involved in the process of decision making. The firm has used the concept of human behavior as well because consumers are considered to be the heart of present organization (Nienaber, 2010). Maintaining good human relations have helped to understand consumer needs and requirements in a better manner.
3 Ways To Use Motivational Theories In Organization
In case of BT PLC, the various forms of leadership styles will play diverse impacts on the motivation techniques practiced during change. Autocratic style of leadership will be prevalent in BT PLC when quick decision making was required in some cases. In this scenario, motivation of employee occurs via putting confidence into managers for making productive decisions and helping individuals to put focus on goals (Fairholm, 2004). Democratic leadership style can be used in the day to day processes of BT PLC. It has a profound impact on motivation as confidence was bestowed among employees by involving them in the process of decision making.
Transformational leadership style will play a key role where drastic changes occur in the firm especially with respect to introduction of BT fast track leadership programme. The managers constantly motivated the employees via using the vision for providing a bright future to employees (Lim and Ployhart, 2004). The managers will play a role of creating a comprehensive plan for success that was explained to employees. The purpose is to motivate employees by telling them about their part played in reaping success of organization
Application of theories of motivation in workplace
There is a requirement on part of managers working for BT PLC to understand that motivational theories play a key role to help the employees move towards the ladder of overall satisfaction. It is only by application of motivational principles, the managers can improve as well as work towards maintain the morale of employees (Singh, 2008). The mangers at BT PLC have utilized the concept of motivational theories which are as follows;
The concept of equity theory can be applied by rewarding the employees in an appropriate manner i.e. on basis of the work they have put in the organization in comparison to their peers (Rasusch, 2008). The staff members should be treated in an equitable and fair manner by the supervisors and managers in workplace settings.
The principles of Maslow need hierarchy theory can also be applied where mangers will focus on the needs which are required to be satisfied as per individual employee. Ways have been formulated so as to satisfy the unmet needs. For example, the employees whose safety and security needs have not been met, the wants can be satisfied by medical insurance, job security, and financial reserves (Chun and Soo, 2008).
With the help of Hertzberg’s theory, the mangers can understand the hygiene needs and provide for good working conditions, increased supervision and better salary. In the same manner, contingency motivational theory can be applied by management of BT PLC (Better Future report, 2012). Here, if workers expect reward which helps to meet their needs. This will lead to a positive performance form them according to set standards.
Usefulness of a motivation theory for managers
The motivational theories play a key role for managers to help in putting the human resources employed in BT PLC into action. The theories will also aid in the direction of an improved efficiency as well as enhanced efforts from employees. There would be further accomplishments of organizational goals and objectives. This will in turn lead to creation of cooperative and friendly relations at workplace. Resolution of conflicts in a well defined manner will help the employees to excel in the ladder of organizational growth thereby being beneficial for future development of BT PLC (The BT Story, 2013).
MECHANISMS FOR DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE TEAM WORK IN ORGANIZATIONS
Any business setup is usually composed of two types of groups namely, formal and informal in nature. In this context, a group can be defined as a social setting composed of a collection of individuals where members are designated with a common task (Bertocci and Berrtocci, 2009). The members further become interdependent for performance and also interact with each other to promote the accomplishment of set goals and objective.
Formal group is that which is used to carry out a specific task which is structured and arranged so as to cater towards division of works. In case of informal group, it is formed by employees themselves which leads to absence of any formal structuring (Analoui and Karami, 2003).
The group behavior is determined by the size as large groups requires for higher degree of formalization and also work on clearer lines of communication. It also depends on purpose and nature of task for which the group has been formed. Hence these factors influence the behavior of individuals. The motivation of employees to enhance efforts on tasks is affected by involvement of members.
Factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organisations
There are a large number of factors that play a key role to promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organisations. These are as follows;
- Diversity at work – The presence of diversity helps to promote creation of innovative ideas and enhance the success of team work. On the negative front, they may also lead to creation of differences due to variation in attitudes and process of thinking.
- Communication between team members– The presence of open and clear cut communication will facilitate in reduction of conflicts and enhance team work quality.
- Leadership styles – Various styles of leadership may promote or inhibit the effectiveness of team work within organizations. For example, autocratic leadership may foster in process of faster decision making but can also lead to decrease in morale and motivation level of employees. On the other hand, democratic style may lead to development of effective decisions (Bishop, 2012).
- Team building techniques – These methods usually cater to development of team spirit via shared experiences and practices. On the negative front, they made lead to increased conflicts due to presence of differences (Adamson, Doherty and Viney, 2002).
- Delegation of responsibility –This helps in sharing of work lead and plays a key for development of budding managers. This acts as a productive step to promote teamwork.
- Incentives to team members – Manager should focus on providing rewards and monetary as well as non monetary incentives to the individuals who effectively contributes to teamwork.
The impact of technology on team functioning within a given organization
Use of innovative and efficient technologies will greatly impact working in a team. It has been because of using modern technologies that BT has been able to build a platform for proper communication, coordination and synchronization within its operational team. Use of technical training workshops has helped in improving individual employee performance which leads to beneficial team efforts (Bertocci and Berrtocci, 2009).
There has also been faster flow of top and bottom level communication. It is also allowing the employees to work effectively towards the development of new product and service offering. Hence there has been a better serving of consumers by employees due to increased operational efficiency (Gill, 2008). Here, the inputs offered by modern technologies have led to effective team building exercises within the workplace of BT PLC. This has further led to effective communications and better coordination of efforts at workplace. Hence, the firm can get better results from the team member (Better Future report, 2012). New technologies used by the company have helped to build a passion among employees for respective job responsibilities. It has further brought a reduction on boredom and increased presence of innovation as well as a creative environment.
From the above report, it can be concluded that it is very essential for managers of organizations to adhere with the principles of sound organizational culture and structure. This is essential irrespective of whether the organization under study is big or small. Moreover, the manager has to inculcate the elements of leadership and management style followed by motivation of employees so as to achieve the best possible results. Lastly, it can be said that employees are the asset for company and hence are required to be managed properly. (Analoui and Karami, 2003).
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