INTRODUCTION to Leadership and management
Leadership and management are significant aspects linked to process which adds for providing other distinct aspects. Leading and managing is associated with both science and technology. Effective leaders have looked on displaying different characteristics within respect to their traits and goals of company. Motivation is required up in meeting up for different goals which should be kept diverse differentiating their views from other individuals which should be different and unique. Looking into execution of tasks unity between team members becomes on significant related to smooth functioning related with different roles thus relating members employed in organizations to be directly prepared for open conversations. Making the people more and more encouraged within action and looking on appreciating innovation and thus looking for managing information. Bringing in motivational theories and leadership theories linked in with through certain aspects, looking on changing on task formulation looks out to be significant for important activities of leaders. Different theories and their effect have been defined out by researchers and scholars in history which are consistently based on team dynamics.
Team based working and providing on roles related with team leadership attaches various other roles which links been attached through processes which brings them towards delivering enhanced objectives providing organization towards well provided in making various other techniques which links other roles being defined over processes (Managing Cultural Diversity in the Workplace, n.d.). Motivational theories and leadership ones aligns functioning of distinct and other techniques bringing in directly defined roles which attaches organizations thus delivering in enhanced measures which attaches companies in providing their well directed measures.
Leadership style within Apple has been linked to autocratic style form of leadership with leader exhibiting on dominating roles making employees directly linked to organizational processes which demonstrate their impact on future leadership of company. With current motivational aspects and relating theories which impacts current roles of these defined organizations towards focusing on needs of organization.
Leadership and organizational behaviour issues:
Taking into account relevance of trait theories which assumes that people have inherent qualities and traits that makes them best suited for leadership and management defined on certain aspects which demonstrates different other roles making organizations flourish towards making it more productive regarded considering other related trends which focuses through covering well through other related measures. These are on basis of personality traits or behavioural characteristics of individual and gives rise to questions on their formation related to other looked out measures giving companies more and more focus linked with delivering various roles making other organizations focused on through with several defined aspects covering different motivation being discussed in demonstrating various attitudes enhanced in with various techniques.
Leadership within Apple is more focused on dominating role of leader directly being focused on personality traits related to looking for improvements in organizational processes. While including in different measures attached to different levels operating in company, specific group of employees is more and more directed towards attaining almost high efficient level associated in with present working of company (Managing Cultural Diversity in the Workplace, n.d.). Delivering in enhanced roles and demonstrating different techniques which links consistent functioning and other related measures which looks for involving distinct roles bringing them more motivated through certain defined aspects providing them in through distinct motivational techniques. Autocratic form of leadership style links in with various levels which associated roles of other employees being more and more directed towards covering for significant enhanced features measuring organization success based on with several aspects which links employees towards achieving several other objectives thus determining roles with more and motivation being provided through in their performance.
Motivation within Apple is affected through with autocratic style being followed on through with distinct aspects making organizations more flourish within towards achieving in distinct roles present related with various levels of management being focused (Apple and employee motivation, 2014. [Online]). Motivation being imparted to people looks on to distinct aspects moving companies in achieving distinct significant roles attached to services present through in other measures which links through encouragement being given through with employees looking through covering distinct measures. Covering in motivation directed in increasing efficiency of employees within having diverse roles looks on bottom-down approach associated through bringing them up on given defined level through which they are given up different motivation based through with distinctly measured aspects providing in enhanced methods which brings employees on common platform determining their roles.
Team dynamics in Apple is based on their functional roles defined over distinct levels based on through different observations which bring in team coordination and association linked directly with majorly worked out means looking into delivers their consistent functioning based on certain specific roles focused on making them attached with covering their roles (Bush, 2011). Decisions at upper level or top management employees to direct their co-ordination and play on their roles which bring them focused in displaying their productivity and quality within tasks assigned based on their roles which are given directly to them. Looking into team dynamics and defined co-ordination linked in with tasks performed through within their inter-related functions makes them more directed in achieving efficiency associated with these.
Motivation, team dynamics and leadership aspects have been significant aspects related to overall functioning of any organization. Linking in organizational behaviour through with distinctly related aspects in relation to other provided measures looking for organization to respond within their organizational efficiency based on roles that are described to them. Motivation linked with current companies is well focused with making different observations based on certain objectives which links different functions delivered in by making these directly aligned with employees covered under several aspects (Malby, Mervyn and Pirisi, 2013). Leadership through within current organizations delivers on to provide distinct measures bringing in enhanced techniques bringing in several other roles which ultimately defines these in providing them with more elaborated functions defined while covering in other methods which generally enhance them in making this aligned to organizational objectives.
How leadership affects working of people in organization?
Negative aspect of using power is differences between individuals and exercising control single-handedly over people. Leaders take disadvantage of power and act unfairly in certain situations. It lies in hands of leadership and management to maintain some restrictions over unwanted use of authority for benefit of individuals or group and not the employee. Within Apple leaders have taken on certain decisions thus directing defined group of management and employees making them to attain there designed tasks and objectives which would indirectly force these people on to complete their definite work (Lim, Chan, and Dallimore, 2010).
Growth can be achieved when people are focused upon shared vision and common objectives. Employees want to remain stagnant if it is going on as it is, but there is always better way to do a job by reviewing objectives. Working capacity of individuals should be seen to better performance (Arluke, 2003). If employees are not motivated strongly, it will lead to drop in levels of productivity and if this persists for long time, they will develop resistance. Employees will tend to achieve more if they are given sense of accomplishment. Dominating roles being exercised in Apple through top leaders directs them on to drive and make their working capacity more and more increased for achieving their own increased performance.
Making major changes in management, developing strategy and directing it, creating learning environment, building up new organizational structure, structuring powerful teams, forming cultures of innovation, promoting diversity and inclusion, mobilizing knowledge to employees, encouraging social responsibility, streamlining, improving work processes, creating and maintaining team networks (Guellec and Cervantes, 2002).
Though theories lead on different leadership and management options available, effective leadership is formed on influence specific to situation, characteristics and actions. On the part of management, the best style to be suited needs to be drawn on finding right style. As transformational leadership requires the leader to be strong motivator and most appropriate for situations.
Leaders who exert influence on people often use combination of different styles, which are based on team requirements and company needs. Effectiveness emerges through developing trust and maintaining balance between needs of team and that of company. Before opting for particular style, leader considers his own preferred style, recognizes the abilities and experience of team, nature of work to be done and takes into account the organizational environment (Kumaraswamy, 2011).
Until recently, leadership has been shown and they have been stereotyped as more effective. Women are rarely seen in leadership positions thus showing incompetency as compared to men (Laszlo, 1999). Though studies have also been there which contradicts the thought which is given by people in covering several other objectives distinguishing roles that determines functioning that would certainly be affected by taking into observations several defined measures. Apple provides an appreciable ratio of women empowerment within workforce while looking into more challenging roles to be assigned to them.
Role of motivation in increasing performance related to employees?
Motivating people needs what is missing for them and how it can be acquired. People who actualize themselves do not necessarily need goals but they are imposed on something. They may work with endeavour and ambitions but not direct towards common goal. Motivation for these people means character aggression and maturation and growth. Besides people, for leadership it is essential for having desire to lead workforce based on with certain aspects. Leader should be energized on ideas, confident and challenging question, recognize people, facilitate team, resolve interpersonal conflicts between team, creative on new ideas and good in convincing people (Barney, 1986). Management involves getting things done by utilization of resources, formal methods, rules and structure of organization while leadership involves driving through changes and initiatives. Approach to be used for motivation depends upon changes in organization, depending on use of power by leader, and area of freedom given to employees. When they are involved in decision making and given some part in it, then they are more motivated. Apple takes into account current motivational level of workforce thus aligning them within workforce to be directed towards achieving their roles being defined encompassing (Vries, 2011).
Motivation is being applied within Apple based on several techniques which would associate them in assigning other roles dealing with management directly based on through with different functions that would demonstrate on their roles related to other aspects. Motivation is adopted within Apple based on effective communication with others; encouraging others to play their role in decision making; by applying first to oneself and provide evidence to their thoughts; by clearly stating objectives to be achieved; distributing benefits to all parties and decision to be made; motivational leadership involves maintaining balance between these points and applying them appropriately (Powell and Butterfield, 2003). Thus motivation within Apple is based on covering all the above objectives and looking on defined balance to be achieved while taking in certain measures that would generally bring into them with various defined methods that would directly enhance on their roles provided on with distinct tools.
How team dynamics delivers an impact on consistent flow of linked functions in companies?
Team dynamics looks on interactions between people when they are put together within a group. Teams and groups are living organisms with predictable stages of development. Team development consists of different stages which are forming, storming, norming, performing and transforming. Individual and mutual accountability is exhibited within team structures. Gather for discussion, decision making, problems solving and planning also forms prominent feature linked with teams Apple links it team functioning with diverse roles that would present organizations thus making these more directed towards achieving organizational objectives (Marquis and Huston, 2009). Focusing team goals and looking on for collective work products also forms major part linked directly with team functioning based for several other aspects encompassing roles which covers them in achieving their defined roles. Looking on individual roles, responsibilities and tasks to do its work often share and rotate them. Directly providing their concerns related with outcomes of everyone and looking through with challenges. Other designed roles are being framed on by team leaders and members (Lundby and Jolton, 2010).
For effective functioning of teams, they should be having clear purpose, self-conscious, clear about goals atmosphere should be comfortable, promote open communication, and criticism should be in relative to context. It depends on various factors: Type of leadership to be adopted by leader which is suitable for environment and sporting manner accepting disagreements. Discipline should be maintained during overall functioning of team. Every member should inculcate sense of responsibility (Burns, 2012). The motivation should flow from the managers to members. Within this aspect Apple takes through with significant decisions related to employees thus introducing their own employees with functions which are consistently aligned through with their organizational objectives present within workforces based on requirements attached with roles (Long, 2012). Teams should be based on values of passion, model, freedom, being proud, and be a leader. For effective functioning of teams, they should be having clear purpose, self-conscious, clear about goals atmosphere should be comfortable, promote open communication, and criticism should be in relative to context. In Apple both informal and professional communication should develop for effective functioning of the team. Teams should also focus on the aligning with the organizational goals.
Models and theories related to motivation and leadership:
Theories of motivation have impact on organization function. Maslow hierarchy of needs highlights preferences and priorities of the individual in order of life stages. The theory reflects time span of performance. Herzberg theory is concerned more about the physical conditions of the workplace. McGregor theory explains more about the employer’s perspective (Burnes, 2009). Vroom expectancy theory does take into account other factors important in the output on other hand it drives the individuals to achieve more (Team Building across Cultures, 2014[Online]). Social constructionist can be defined as a view that believes diversity in human life exists as it is social and interpersonal influences It hypothesizes all other aspects of humanity which are created and destroyed in interactions with others through time and emphasizes on ways on social and culture aspects of people along with influence of those whom we know, are having major impact on our life with others (Runde and Flanagan, 2012). While looking on their influence within organizations such as Apple challenging roles being provided to employees works out to be significant factor in improving on their productivity based on several aspects.
Theory of Planned Behaviour:
It adopts a cognitive approach to explain behaviour which focuses on individual’s beliefs and attitudes. This form of behavioural approach has not been found to be much effective in organizations such as Apple.
Herzberg Two Factor theory:
Two factors include Hygiene and Motivator Factors. Hygiene factors are business requirements, which are company policies and administration. Motivator factors include status, opportunities, recognition, responsibility, challenging and sense of personal achievement (Evermann, 2004). Herein motivator factors linked with various other enhanced objectives. Motivation related to employees within Apple is majorly looked on to their achieved levels thus bringing them more initiated towards maintaining workforce towards more consistent ways thus determining their efficiency related to various roles present within companies.
McGregor Theory of Employee Motivation:
This theory consists of two theory assumptions:
Theory X which holds that employees are lazy and avoid work, only interested in money, and in need of close supervision. Employees have little ambitions, avoid responsibility and need to be forced through control systems.
Theory Y which holds employees are ambitious self-motivated and is eager to accept responsibility. Employees should exercise control, self-directed and creative (Allen, 2001). Apple looks on their workforce to be more creative and performing with challenging roles offered with various purposes being mentioned directly through with different purposes. Discussing these challenging roles with respect to organizations looks on to determine their roles that would employees within Apple more competitive within workforce and would promote healthy relationships based on several other aspects which directly brings in them towards consistent functioning provided in with them.
Theories of motivation are significant in the success of the organization. Maslow hierarchy of needs considers the preferences of the individual and priorities of the individual and the order of fulfilment of needs of the individual, this theory reflects the stages when particular thing is to be expected from the individual (Nelson, 2012). Within Apple this theory does not seem to have much relevance provided to be based on certain aspects measuring performance of current employees more directed towards achieving various distinct roles thus determining efficiency bringing in consistent characteristics. This theory restricts the organization not be speculative about the output and interests from the individuals .Herzberg theory tells more about hygiene factor and less about the motivator factors (Hayes, 2010). The theory emphasizes more on physical conditions of the workplace. McGregor theory explains more about the employer’s perspective. Vroom expectancy theory does take into account other factors important in the output but it drives the individuals to achieve more (Gopee and Galloway, 2013). Best theory to be adopted in my view will be McGregor theory because it present both aspects of the business. It explains why the business being more profitable and less innovative or more innovative or less profitable.
Models related to motivation are taken into account while looking into teamwork which would lead in better utilization of the team and proper flow of the information is maintained. The theory and model gives an outline of the tasks necessary for team performance and negligence on any part will lead to the delay in task or ineffectiveness in the task. The models display the ideal structure for the functioning of the team.
Tuckman’s team development model: The base of the model is team behavior and tasks; model consists of structure which starts from forming, storming, norming and performing. The stages involve organizing the people, aligning the tasks, outcomes or result and motivating the people (Northouse, 2013). Any skipping in these steps leads to inefficiency of the team. This model would be better compared with organizational roles present within Apple thus bringing in different stages linked to processes certainly initiating on different roles which would certainly allot them on through them several assigned measures focusing directly towards different techniques providing distinctive roles which directly bring in enhanced methods demonstrating organizations. Looking into team development within Apple, roles being present through various different aspects would certainly determine on through with more and more distinct roles.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:
Team success depends on various factors Type of leadership to be adopted by leader which is suitable for environment and sporting manner accepting disagreements. Discipline should be maintained during overall functioning of team. Every member should inculcate sense of responsibility. The motivation should flow from the managers to members. Looking into quantitative paradigm compared with activities going within organizations delivers on distinct aspects which directly present them more directed towards functioning different goals and objectives. Covering in autocratic style of leaderships substantially present them towards bringing their consistent aspects which directs them towards enhancing with their different techniques demonstrating in their roles attached to various processes. Considering likes, concerns, suggestions for teams. Assembling brainstorming session by starting with few people, analyzing results, recording it and finally reviewing thoughts. Manpower planning, allocations of new departments and restructuring of the organization will require tasks to be performed. Apple has delivered on to providing their employees to be in more consistent functioning directed in towards achieving well-designed roles currently linking in their enhanced performance.
- Apple and employee motivation, 2014. [Online]. Available through: blogs.Website:< https://storify.com/erikhammel/apple-and-employee-motivation>[Accessed on 24th April, 2014].
- Team Building across Cultures, 2014. Available through: Claxus.com. Website:< http://www.claxus.com/articles/team-building-across-cultures/> [Accessed on 24th April, 2014].
Books and Journals:
- Allen, M., 2001. Analysing the Organisational Environment. Select Knowledge Limited.
- Burns, J. M. ,2012. Leadership. Open Road Media.
- Bush, T., 2011. Theories of Educational Leadership and Management. Sage Publications.