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Every individual has own way to learn a new thing, they always prefer a particular style of teaching and learning. Therefore, teachers are required to understand learning pattern of each learners and must adopt a range of teaching techniques (Kelly, Lesh and Baek, 2014). In this regard, an assignment is going to make an application on different theories, principles and models of learning; communication; curriculum development and reflection. It also describes process by which the same can be applied in teaching and learning practices. The main purpose of present report is to make a critical discussion on approaches to deliver safe and inclusive teaching to learners.
Learning is a extremely important and universal aspect of developing process which is culturally organized as per human psychological function. There are many different theories, models and principles of learning by which teachers can analyse how people learn.
Learning Principles for Learners-
Learning Theories for Learners:
Learning Models for Learners
Learning Preference: By underpinning the potentials and abilities of learners, teachers are required to adopt a range of teaching patterns. Through this process, they can aid people to grab information in proper manner by attending a lecture sessions.
Different Teaching and Learning Methods: Through different techniques of teaching like one-to-one, paired work, small and whole group learning etc. tutors can applied theories and models of learning in their own practices.
Every individual has own style of learning style through which they grab knowledge from surroundings. It generally developed from childhood learning practices. For example: Some people used to observe others for learning a specific ability whereas some prefer to do practices for the same. There are various different ways of ascertaining preferences such are some learners prefer practical activities for learning a thing instead of reading or writing. According to Honey & Mumford, preference of people can be categorised according to activist, theorist, pragmatist and reflector. Activist includes those persons who like to deal with new concepts and experiences, by trial and error method. While learners under Pragmatist category like to apply those techniques that they have learnt from practical situations. Apart from this, Theorist learners require an adequate amount of time to get information. For this process, they prefer to read books and journals to get prior information first. While Reflectors go in deep investigation, while learning and apply activities as a part of learning.
The most exciting part in teaching and learning process is the growing recognition where learners share interest in facing challenges of developing their learning environment. The enthusiasm to meet such challenges is universal as well as leads to an explosion of exciting projects which are creating significant contribution. In this regard, individual learning preference influence way of teaching which are based on accounts of learners. Therefore, instructors are required to keep at a high level to become able to transfer their skills over learner's functional skills. For example- For speaking and understanding learning, teachers should organise proper activities because it is difficult task for learners to understand this concept. For this purpose, giving group-activities to make conversation and interaction with each other.
Communication refers to a process of interaction between receiver and communicator to understand a concept (Metzler, 2017). In learning, communication plays an important role through which teachers entails the whole concept to learners. Therefore, some major theories, models and principles of communication are:-
Theories of Communication:
Models of Communication:
Principles of Communication: Communication in learning can be defined as 2-way process of providing or receiving information by a channel (Darling-Hammond, 2014). It includes following principles:-
Embedding Literacy Numeracy and Language: Difficulty in understanding different language and illiteracy issues create various barriers to learning (Tan, 2014). Therefore, tutors are required to introduce resources through which isolation can be reduced within learners. By organising educational games and activities, such learners can develop literacy and numeracy as well.
Blooms Taxonomy of Learning: It refers to set of hierarchical models which is used for classify educational learning objectives on the basis of objectives, evaluation, synthesis and specificity. In this context, for promoting higher forms of thinking in education, educators can identify three main domains of learning. It includes cognitivism (mental skills), affective (growth in behaviourism and self-learning process) and psycholomotor (manual or physical skills).
Assessment can be defined as means of collecting and analysing evidence for establishing the performance of individuals. It is carried out by both external and internal methods (Titmus, 2014). In this regard assessment tasks, portfolio submission and examination covered in external methods.
Theories of assessment:
Formative Assessment: This theory gives information and feedback during teaching and learning process. It generally uses to measure progress of both learners and instructors so that need of training or practice can be determined.
Summative Assessment: This theory is used after completing a learning or teaching session between learners and instructors. It gives feedback and information to check the progress of learning process.
Summative Assessment Model: Assessment is the systematic process which gather,interpret and react on the particular types of data (du Plessis and Van Niekerk, 2014). The process of assessment is applied in the various types of model and then those proven theory are considered as assessment model. This provide a particular structure or framework to design the specific program which could be integrated in assessment model. This helps in analysing overall environment in a strategic manner that helps in assigning the each and every task while making model in an efficient way. The assessment planning is also being done so that outline can be made for each and every project with the context of assessment model.
Principles of Assessment:
Assessment for learning: It is generally achieved by self-assessments of learners after completing a lesson (Stoeckel, 2017). Therefore, tutors can offer one-to-one sessions to learners so that progress of learning can be measured and monitored.
Co-operative learning and learning conversation: It assists learners to work as a team and ensure that contribution of each is valued. Through working in group they can create cross-cultural understanding and foster platform for curriculum development. In this process, teachers must provide assessments to learners in groups so that they can share skills with each to complete the same.
Curriculum development is a part of planning, implementation and process of review, therefore, cannot be carried out in isolation. It describes development of learning process on the basis of four different levels ability (Espíritu-Olmos and Sastre-Castillo, 2015). It includes large-scale curricular reform for changing lessons of individuals. In this context, there are various models exists which can be adopted or implemented to form basis of curriculum development.
Theories of Curriculum Development: Curriculum theories can be used to develop and shape curriculum. Therefore, to define learning process, some major theories are explained as below:
Models of Curriculum Development:
Linear product or objective model: It was developed by Tyler which defines learning in terms of learner's (Ramazani and Jergeas, 2015). Therefore, it uses systematic approach to planning by focusing on learning outcomes. The main objective of this approach is that it enables programme specification and subject benchmarking.
Principles for curriculum development according to linear product model:
Cyclical Model: It was given by Wheeler which involves formulation of aims and objectives on the basis of assessment needs of learners and professional bodies.
Principles for curriculum development as per cyclical model:
There are different approaches and processes available by which curriculum activities can be developed. It includes-
Using e-learning and technology: All learners possess some potentials to learn a concept. By using e-learning platform, learners who have literacy issues can understand what tutors want to teach them. As this technology also read out the text and represent knowledge in visualise manner. Therefore, this technique or curriculum activity helps in developing ICT skills in individuals.
Encourage Learners: By actively encourage and motivate learners to share their experience helps in developing listening and learning skills in them. In this regard, educators are required to give opportunity to learners to speak and share experiences related to barriers they have faced during a learning session.
Reflection allows tutors to analyse own method of teaching, mentally process as well as utilise an experiential knowledge for getting an outcome (Theories and principles of learning and communication, 2018). It is essential for every instructors to assess own progress while giving a learning session.
Theories of Reflection:
Kolb’s Learning Cycle: It is a well known theory which argues that every person gain experience from own practice. This theory reveals the process of learning in four stages that are: Plan- Purpose of learning process; Experience- Do something; Conceptualisation- Make generalisation and Reflection: Think about what have done. Therefore, every learner and instructor is needed to measure efficiencies of own. This will help in improving own skills.
Models of Reflection:
Terry Borton: This reflective model is adopted by Gary Rolfe which states that practitioner needs to work on three stages. It includes What; What Next and So What. Through this analysis, they can construct the knowledge which have learnt by own experience.
Argyris and Schon: This theory is built around the correction and recognition of perceived value (Kris-Etherton and et. al., 2014). It derives some main notions that are: Reflection-on-action; Reflection-in-action; Respond to Problems and Priority of practical knowledge.
In order to apply theories, models and principles of reflection in teaching, learning and assessment to review own practice, teachers can adopt psychological tests. It is used to measure certain abilities like mechanical or clerical skills. In addition to this, it is generally designed for a particular job. For example: Aptitude test which is also known as Minnesota Clerical Test, helps in measures the accuracy or perceptual speed for teaching a concept. This would help a person in measuring effectiveness of own teaching skills so that modification can be done if required.
From this assignment, it has concluded that every person has own needs and style of learning a thing. They adopt different-different ways to grab knowledge and information either from surroundings or taking a learning session from an institute. Therefore, it assists teachers to adopt a wide range of teaching techniques through which learners can understand what they want to teach. In addition to this, tutors must applied different theories, models and principles of learning, assessment and communication in their part of teaching. They should organise curriculum activities through which learners can develop own learning skills also.
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