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INTRODUCTION

Homeostasis is the process of keeping the internal environment of the body constant. Thermoregulation is considered to be integral process in such case, as it helps in regulating the overall body temperature. The normal body temperature in humans is 37 degrees Celsius, which is required to be maintained in a manner that it does not affect the normal functioning of the body (Flouris and Schlader, 2015).

Muscular system plays an important role in the body in form of movement supporting in heat production through contractions and relaxations. It helps in maintaining the body temperature to the ideal one.

Malignant Hyperthermia is considered to be skeletal muscle disorder leading to calcium homeostasis due to certain triggers. The process will be further discussed in detail in discussion section.

DISCUSSION

Muscular system plays an important role in both heating and cooling activity of the body. Its one of the major characteristics is to regulate temperature (IJzerman and et.al., 2015). In the heat, the muscles help in excreting sweat from the skin. However, in extreme cold condition, the muscles make an attempt to warm the body by contracting, which is translated as shivering in layman’s language. The movement in muscles help in generating heath that can further be used to keep the body warm (Flouris & Schlader, 2015). Heat production, in order to maintain body temperature, is considered to be an important by product of muscles. Approximately 85% of the heat, that is produced, is the overall result of contraction and relaxation of muscles (Kiyonaka and Mori, 2013).

Homeostasis generally refers to balance, stability and equilibrium within body or a particular cell. It is characteristics installed in a body which helps in keeping stable internal environment that requires constant adjustments to be made as per changing dynamics of inside and outside of cells. Thermoregulation is the process that helps in allowing body to maintain the core internal temperature so that the body can return to the condition of homeostasis (Romanovsky, 2014). The core temperature of human body is stabilized and regulated by hypothalamus, which is an area of brain linked to endocrine system to the nervous system. As the temperature varies from the core, endocrine production tends to initiate control mechanism so that energy production can be increased or decreased as per the requirements so as to initiate the body temperature towards normal one (Tansey and Johnson, 2015). There are various factors that can lead to raise internal temperature in the body are, fever, exercise and digestion. The endocrine system tends to play substantial role in the process of homeostasis because hormones are responsible for regulating the activities of body cells. A constant increase ort decreases in the amount of hormone secreted in response to the change helps in dealing with the internal condition of the body (IJzerman & et.al., 2015). The self-adjusting mechanism is generally called as feedback regulation. There are various pathways that can lead to bring changes in homeostatic mechanism. These are, toxins, physical health, genetic or reproductive make up and nutrition (Flouris and Schlader, 2015).

When any change is noticed in the internal temperature, sensors attached to central nervous system sends this message to hypothalamus. In response to these signals, it sends the signals to various systems and organs of the body. The body tends to reach in variety of measures, such as, sweating, where sweat glands help in cooling down the skin as and when it evaporates (IJzerman and et.al., 2015). It helps in lowering down the internal body temperature of the body. Vasodilatation is the other mechanism to control the internal body temperature, where blood vessels present under the skin gets wider, ultimately increasing the overall blood flow into the body. It helps in bringing the body temperature to the normal permissible area (Kiyonaka & Mori, 2013). However, in case of requirement of the body to warm up then, vasoconstriction is one method where, the blood vessels under the skin gets narrower, decreasing the blood flow of skin, retaining warmth for the overall body (Kiyonaka & Mori, 2013).

Malignant Hyperthermia is the state where severe reactions can take place in the body due to the reaction of particular drug during surgery or any other type of invasive procedure. People who gets exposed to MH can experience, muscle rigidity, rapid heart rate and increased acid levels in the blood (Romanovsky, 2014). The triggering agents are, volatile anaesthetics or depolarizing muscle relaxants. It is required for the health care professionals to take immediate actions that can help in reducing the complications related to it, otherwise the condition can be life threatening to the patient (Kiyonaka and Mori, 2013).

It can be stated that the below prepared concept map can help in controlling the overall body temperature in the manner that body can control the same in the most natural manner. In such cases, central nervous system plays an important role where signals can be sent to hypothalamus brain and body tend to react in a manner that can bring the internal body temperature under control (Tansey & Johnson, 2015).

CONCEPT MAP

 Body Temperature Regulation-Concept Map

REFERENCES

  • Flouris, A. D. and Schlader, Z. J., 2015. Human behavioral thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 25(S1). pp.52-64. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12349
  • IJzerman, H. and et.al., 2015. A theory of social thermoregulation in human primates. Frontiers in psychology6, p.464.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00464
  • Kiyonaka, S. and Mori, Y., 2013. Genetically encoded fluorescent thermosensors visualize subcellular thermoregulation in living cells. Nature methods.10(12). p.1232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2690
  • Romanovsky, A. A., 2014. Skin temperature: its role in thermoregulation. Acta physiologica210(3), pp.498-507. https://doi.org/10.1111/apha.12231
  • Tansey, E. A. and Johnson, C. D., 2015. Recent advances in thermoregulation. Advances in physiology education39(3), pp.139-148.

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