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The current management project is research based dissertation under which particular organization as Marriott hotel has been selected to understand the impact of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty. The selection of project will be done to carry out in-depth analysis and complete the research activities by understanding the associated concept with the research problem.
To Analyse the impact of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty within the hospitality industry" -A case study of Marriott International Inc. UK.
Customer satisfaction refers to the term which is usually applied in the field of marketing. It assists management of the business to effective measure that how services and products supplied by the business meet the expectations of customers. The concept of customer satisfaction is associated with repeat purchase. It is because when a buyer get the product and services in accordance with his or her requirement then he is likely to do repeat purchase. The main focus of the dissertation is on factors which increase the level of satisfaction and its direct relevance with repeat purchase decision (Pizam and et. al., 2016). However, customer satisfaction tend to measure the attitude of customers whereas repeat purchase or loyalty of buyers indicate act of consumers who are making repeat purchase decision. This brand loyalty is derived from opinion and reviews about a particular project and service. In this manner, the success of an organization relies on customers and their action as well as attitude along with behavior. For this purpose, management of business has long term vision to gain customer attraction as well as their retention for its success its global level. These kind of practices are followed by effective plan of customer satisfaction and increasing their attention towards products and services offered by the business. Marketing activities remain at the top of such kind of plans whereby customers get attracted towards the services due to discount, uniqueness and different kind experience.Dissertation help online
The brand market put efforts to build the strong relationship with customers in accordance with their requirement and expectations. It is helpful for them to get the detail information regarding the consumers and accordingly bring necessary modification in the current products and services. This would be effective for the purpose of retaining them for longer time span. However, in the present era, companies face issue related to dissatisfaction among buyers due to huge gap or communication gap. Here, it is very important to bridge the gap and apply suitable strategy to make the customers highly satisfied and happy. Without focusing on specific need of customers, firm usually face issue related to low customer base and poor rate of return.
The positive link between customer satisfaction and brand loyalty reflects that companies must appropriately address the issues which are being faced by consumers. It leads to retain customers by offering them rich experience. In case they are not provided experience and right kind of services then it is likely they would search for other alternatives. Thus, customer is the center focus of companies and all marketing or operational strategies are framed as per their specific need only.
The aim and objectives of current dissertation are formulated as follows. These mentioned objectives will formed in accordance with stated aim so as to collect and select the methods accordingly.
The role of customer satisfaction is higher for taking repeat purchase decision wherein business companies shed light on attracting users by implementing different kind of strategies. Further, ineffective implementation of marketing activities is the most typical factor impeding growth of the business. Now-a-days businesses operating in hospitality sector face issue related to low customer base because of lack of effective retention strategies for them. However, an organization cannot survive without loyal customers who are highly satisfied (The importance of customer satisfaction and loyalty research, 2017). Hence, low level of satisfaction among customers have several negative impact on hotel sector such as higher cost of operation, low profitability and poor image of the firm in the marketplace. Owing to this, current study will be conducted to assess the factors affecting customers satisfaction and its direct impact on repeat purchase. This would be effective to create competitive edge of the business and meet the expectations of all related parties. Furthermore, the issue related to low customer base and poor satisfaction level affect performance of the firm to great extent. Hence, the study will cover importance of customer satisfaction and how does it affect repeat purchase decision of the business.
The present dissertation is based on hospitality sector of UK which covers tour operator, travel agencies and tourist destination and hotels etc. However, specific hotel as Marriott International Inc UK has been selected to identify the impact of customer satisfaction on repeat purchase. The Marriott International is an American multinational diversified hospitality company which has broad portfolio of lodging related facilities an hotels in 110 countries. The wide range of food services and higher standard rooms of the hotel attract more buyers who lie in the upper class segment (Marriott, 2017). It is because corporation charge the premium price for its high end services and unique experience for buyers. This company apply different strategies to increase the customer satisfaction by taking their reviews. However, provided suggestions of customers are helpful to bring modification in the existing services. Thus, firm applies appropriate strategies to maintain higher level of customer satisfaction and thus promote their repeat purchase decision.
The multinational hotel adopts several kind of strategies for the attraction of buyers. Not only this but their specific preferences are already known to the company. This proves to be effective for customers to get the higher level of satisfaction. At the same time, company put efforts to meet their expectations by introducing several reward related program and marketing tactics.
For this purpose, reward program and customer loyalty related activities are implemented. These activities ensure to emotional attachment of customers with the brand and make it possible for them to purchase the same. The better integration among customers and management as well as workforce would be effective to develop a suitable strategy so as to understand the requirement of the business. A the same time, consumer-brand relationship has emerged as the navel approach. It enables corporation to build long term relationship with sellers and buyers so they can effectively focus on brand loyalty. It is because seller come to know about the specific preferences of customers and those preferences are updated under the current pattern of services. This proves to be effective for catering the requirement of parties associated with firm and ensure to provide the higher level of satisfaction through the offered brand.
However, previously companies focused on traditional method so as to market the brand by considering its function relationship with the customers. However, the customers in modern era refers to more compelling experience. Owing to this, experiential marketing is applied for appropriate consumer brand relationship and ensuring its significant impact on the brand image of the business. Here, companies need to consider that brand experience does not reflects its emotional relationship concept. The emotional boding is considered as one of the internal outcome which stimulate buyers to take the purchase decision from a particular brand. Therefore, appropriate brand experience is provided for buyers in order to derive the higher level of satisfaction among them.
The literature review sector of research proposal plays important role as scholar access varied sources of information n order to develop deep understanding and collect important information about the same. This section will be completed by focusing upon research aim and objectives so that accordingly valid outcome can be drawn. It is very important to complete the chapter of literature review in the line of objectives framed so as to make it possible to propose the appropriate suggestions. However, the chapter of data analysis also needed the both primary and secondary data. Hence, literature review is completed in order to accomplish the purpose of the research and effectively frame the valid outcome accordingly.
The concept of customer satisfaction is related to attitude, need and expectations of customers whereas customer loyalty assess the behavior of individual buyer towards particular product or service. According to Fornell, Morgeson and Hult (2016) customer satisfaction is an input the derive the outcome as repeat purchase decision. It is because when customer is highly associated from a business then he is likely to purchase product and service from the same only. Owing to this, focus is laid on applying varied strategies to raise the awareness of buyers towards the quality products offered by the firm. This proves to be effective for corporation to cater their need and support business effectively to meet its long as well as short term objectives. Furthermore, repeat purchase decision ensures that a particular buyers is highly satisfied and become the assets of the business. This proves to be effective for future certainty of an organization and enable management to frame appropriate strategies to develop new product in accordance with requirement of the customers.
According to Ali and et. al., (2016) customer satisfaction is affected by number of factors such as quality of services, price, special offers and uniqueness associated with firm. The modern dynamic corporate environment requirement focus of companies towards the specific requirement of businesses so that accordingly they can employ the best possible solution to grab the attention of buyers. At this juncture, firm need to shed light on requirement of customers and consider the same at the time of developing new product. Here, it is important to focus upon intention to switch from the customer perspective. Here, research and development department of business find the reason that why customers are switching to another brand. In this manner, potential ways to retain buyers can be identified so they can accordingly put grab attention of those buyers. However, the first parameter is related to service quality that whether the staff service is good, room provided in hotel are clean and neat. It can be critically evaluated that inappropriate staff service disappoint the customers to a great extent. It is very important to focus on their requirement and then provide them services accordingly. However, pricing and special services also matter fro specific buyers who are giving preference to costly holiday packages.
ŠeriÄ‡, MikuliÄ‡ and Gil-Saura (2016) asserted that customer satisfaction is derived with the help of aesthetic, durability, reliability and performance. However, customer satisfaction and service quality have positive relation so management of firm must focus on the same for extracting the valid outcome. This in turn firm can effective create competitive edge in the marketplace with the increased rate of return. Not only this but company can easily put efforts to meet the expectations of all related stakeholders. But, the importance of communication should be understood properly and contract can be established accordingly.
Aktepe, Ersöz and Toklu (2015) asserted that, varied factors are considered in order to determine the higher level of satisfaction among consumers related to a specific brand. It consists of perceived quality, equity and value. Owing to this, it is important for the corporation to focus on these particular aspects and ensure that specific requirement of the customers is considered at the time of designing the product or services. This would be beneficial to increase their satisfaction level of customers to a great extent. On a critical note, in case buyers cannot refer the product as of good quality then they would like to switch from one another brand so as to ensure the value of money. Furthermore, brand trust is another strong aspect in determining the satisfaction level. This is derived with the help of marketing and promotion activities of an organization. For example, in case hotel uses social media marketing strategies to grab the attention of buyers then at the same web page customers will get to know the worth of the brand. This enables consumers to take the purchase decision on the basis of available information and face related to organization.
Kim and et. al., (2014) explained that situational, personal and brand related factors are also significant for determining the higher level of satisfaction among customers. Furthermore, the personal factor such as higher or low budget, greater quality of services and gathering of people would force individual to do not look for further information regarding a suitable brand but directly approach the corporation or brand in order to get the right kind of services. It contribute towards the success of the business and also retain the buyers. However, only retention is not important but company must value the bonding with consumers. This can be made possible with the help of clear communication among consumers and offering them chance to contribute towards modifying the existing service quality by giving the feedback. Wu and Tseng (2015) asserted that appropriate facilities are arranged for increasing the satisfaction level of customers. It contributes towards increasing their attention towards a particular brand and accordingly shift their focus from one to another brand.
According to Oliver (2014) there are different factors such as billing timeliness, competitive pricing and variety of products and services are some of the factors which plays important role in attracting consumers and meeting their expectations. This is made possible by the help of offering right kind of service quality for users and cater their need effectively so as to retain them in a right manner. This proves to be effective for generating positive feeling among them and ensure their retention with the corporation. For this purpose, different factors and elements are taken into account by the business through which it becomes important for stakeholders to integrate all resources and produce valid outcome out of the same. For example, Marriott hotel improves the delivery system through which fair prices are quoted for these services rendered. In this manner, corporation can easily put efforts towards the increased attention of customers and provide them suitable work environment. Kaura, Durga Prasad and Sharma (2015) companies follow different kind of strategies such as offering occasion discount on some particular services of products which in turn customers can be attracted. It is not about the attraction only but buyers start having attachment with the brand and they feel very good to have services in a cost effective manner.
Meiseberg and Dant (2015) explained that feedback from customers is taken by the organization and it is updated or implemented in the services. This aids to influence them to a great extent and create positive image of the business. This leads to deliver good quality of services to consumers from wide range. On a critical note, absence of clear of communication do affect the retention of customers. In case they are not provided clear information related to products and services then it becomes quite typical for company to find the specific detail related clear communication and its potential impact on the attraction of the buyers. For this purpose, company uses the latest promotional tools like social media strategies so as to make it possible for corporation to attract as many as customers possible, This in turn business create strong goodwill in the marketplace and meet the expectations of related parties.
In addition to this, Wu and Anridho (2016) appropriate mode of communication is very important through which company build its strong reputation in the marketplace. This would be effective to increasing flow of operation and catering requirement of all related parties. In this manner, corporation can effectively address the issues which are being faced by customers and make them feel happy by preferring a particular brand. It leads to support firm in dealing with several kind of situation and provide the comfortable environment in a right manner. It proves to be effective for building the brand image.
According to Berezina and et. al., (2016) customer satisfaction is achieved with the help of repeat purchase decision of the buyers. Here, the major fact is associated with increasing the level of customer satisfaction in order to promote their repeat purchase decision. Lai, I.K.W. and Hitchcock (2017) further explained that in case service quality, product, promotion everything is good in accordance with preferences of buyers then it would be effective for them to enhance the brand loyalty of hotel among users. King and et. al., (2016) asserted that hotel sector frame the training program for increasing the expertise of personnel for raising their knowledge and competence. This proves to be effective to cater need of buyers and support all related parties to ensure well being of the business in the marketplace. Here, timely information to users, focused approach of business and appropriate marketing strategies are used by firm. Combination of all these aspect contribute towards successful operation of coronation along with their higher level of repeat purchase decision of consumer. Moreover, hotel sector also introduce schemes like club card system for offering discount to premium buyers and ensure their retention with the business for longer time span.
Therefore, customer satisfaction increases the brand loyalty of buyers and make them able to take quick repeat purchase decision. At the same time, satisfaction among customer is the key to increase customer base as buyers recommend the same brand to their friends and other relatives. It can be critically evaluated that, low level of customer satisfaction become the reason behind lack of repeat purchase decision because intention to switch is promoted at that particular point of time. Hence, better service quality, appropriate pricing decision and other related factors make it possible to increase satisfaction level of buyers and thus promote the repeat purchase.
According to Aktepe, Ersöz and Toklu (2015) the intention to purchase a particular product from a specific brand is based on the brand commitment. In a consumer is brand focused then it would be very easy for him or her to select the brand. However, many of the customers do not prefer the brand and just focus on other factors such as price and variety etc. Owing to this, they might seek for the same and accordingly get the services and product. For this purpose, it is very important to integrate all related parties and support them to stay connected with customers. It facilitates to cater the requirement of all related parties and make it possible for them to accomplish long as well as short term objectives of the firm. Kim and et. al., (2014) asserted that consumption experience of buyers determines his or her satisfaction level. This also indicates that whether customers satisfied with the quality, price and features of the corporation or not. In case they are not then satisfaction level of same would be equal to zero. For this purpose, companies put efforts to enhance their satisfaction level through getting timely feedback and offer them opportunity to amend the procedure related to growth and development. However, the satisfaction is also based on the ability of the corporation to evaluate the particular product and services on the basis of key factors and then accordingly they go for the purchase decision. For this purpose, they must be satisfied in accordance with factors they think are important in a particular product or service. In this manner, brand trust of customer reflects that buyers' particular expectations are met with the help of certain functions of particular brand. It contribute towards well being of both consumer and business.
Wu and Tseng (2015) asserted that positive correlation among brand trust and satisfaction leads to decide that how strong a brand is. For example, in case a customer trust in Marriott hotel services then it is just the outcome f the services which they have got. On a critical note, commitment of the customers towards the brand can be in two aspects such as continuance commitment and affective. The affective commitment comes under the emotional connection whereby customers stay connected with the brand due to personal identification. This also shows the shared values and belief of the customers related to the specific product or service. On the other hand, continuance commitment on the other hand shed light on week feelings for a specific brand. This is because customers find the switching cost as very higher and availability of the less alternative. This force them to refer the product from a available brand. It can be critically evaluated that, it might not be possible that buyer is happy with the particular brand.
According to Oliver (2014) brand image must be strong to address the need of customers and accordingly enhance their satisfaction level. It would be effective to shed light on specific need of the consumers and address the same with application of the most appropriate action. In this manner in case brand image is strong then firm would implement the successful strategies to improve the performance of the corporation. This aids to enhance the customer satisfaction level. Not only this but the brand image makes it possible to expand the operation of organization to globe.
Kaura, Durga Prasad and Sharma (2015) all efforts are put just for the sake of meeting the requirement and expectations of consumers. This enables firm to integrate all its operational activities in the right direction. However, this direction is decided as per the market and research development action. For this purpose, focus is laid on research department so that desire and expectations of customers can be known. On a critical note, some of the businesses merely focus on increasing the sales turnover and expanding the business rather focus on satisfaction on customers. However, a department handling the customer query must be assigned.
Customer complaints plays major role in bringing innovation and change in the existing services quality. Without focus on on their views and suggestions, an organization cannot build its image. For this purpose, investment is done on research department through which detail about customers is collected and the same is used for the sake of managing the current business situation in an effectual manner. The output of research and development department must be linked with the operation department of hotel. This aids to update the current pattern of services and address specific issues which are being faced by consumers. Thus, business is managed with handling customer queries effectively and giving them higher level of satisfaction with the whatever services or products they are provided. It leads to utilize the available resources in a right manner and involve customers in the procedure of decision making.
The research questions for the current study will be framed in the line of aim and objectives formulated. Basically research aim will serve as the basis for constructing the suitable research questions. These are explained as follows-
Research methodology section of the proposal covers the methods applied for collection of data and analysis of the same for drawing valid outcome. In the current study on analyzing the impact customer satisfaction on repeat purchase within hospitality industry, qualitative type of investigation will be used. This will be effective for in-depth analysis in accordance with collected information (Silverman, 2016). This supports research to present the findings effectively. It involves different parts and sections such as research philosophy, research design and data collection methods as well as analysis. Along with that, ethical consideration and other limitation of the research have also been explained. This would be effective to meet the research objectives effective because suitable data will input the valid outcome in a right direction. This aids researcher to find the most suitable sources for the collection of information and reaching at the valid outcome in the right direction. All the method applied for the current investigation are explained along with detail justification and explanation of the most suitable method which can be applied for the completion of the current study.
Research philosophy showcases the belief, assumption and valies of researcher which they apply in the study. Basically two types of research philosophies are used such as interpretivism and positivism. Use of interpretivism research philosophy is higher under the qualitative types of investigation whereas another one is applied under the quantitative type of data (Bryman and Bell, 2007). The positivism type of philosophy enables researcher to apply the specific information such as facts and figures available related to research problem. It might not be possible to find the outcome with the association of own knowledge. On the contrary, interpretivism philosophy represents that existing information related to research topic can be used along with collected specific data for producing the valid outcome. Thus, interpretivism research philosophy will be applied to analyse the outcome in accordance with collected information and existing knowledge of researcher. The main reason behind incorporated such kind of philosophy that researcher can consider several facet of single truth. The main reason behind not implementing positivism philosophy is in-depth analysis by involving human aspect into the study. Hence, interpretivism research philosophy will be applied effective so as to present the findings effectively and proposing the valid suggestions in the right direction. This also allows scholar to consider varied facet of single truth on the basis of collected data. For example, brand loyalty is derived from the good quality of services and better relationship with the organization. This is made possible with the help of inclusion of suitable examples and related information only. Therefore, interpretivism research philosophy is the most appropriate for gathering the detail information and accordingly reaching to the end results.
The research design is also the important element under the research methodology which aids to draw the valid outcome in accordance with collected data. Without application of suitable research design, it is not possible to present the outcome of the study and collecting data effectively with the better understanding of respondents. The major research design used are descriptive, exploratory and explanatory and application of each of this is highly based on the specific requirement of the study. This proves to be effective to present the outcome and make it possible for readers to reach at the valid outcome effectively (Cameron and Price, 2009). Here, the application of exploratory research is not useful as research under the same kind of study explore something new and the issues which has been defined yet. Furthermore, cause and effect relationship is covered under the explanatory research through which it becomes easy to understand the impact of one variable on another in a particular situation. This is showing that both exploratory and explanatory research will not be used under the current investigation. This is because descriptive research design is found as the most effective or suitable one. The study will be based on descriptive research design as it dependence on human participation for accomplishing the aim and objectives. This research design describe the characteristics of population which is being studied. This makes it possible to present the outcome effectively and enable researcher to reach the aim (Thorne, 2016). Here, descriptive research design proves to be effective to select the data collection method according to research aim and objectives. It will assists researcher to effective present the ou8tcome of the investigation so that readers can understand the same effectively. Hence, descriptive research design will play important role in accomplishing the aim and objectives.
There are two types of data collection methods used for any research such as primary and secondary but the application of the most suitable one is based on nature of the study. The primary data reflects that research gather the information first hand on the basis of set assumption and specific purpose. On the other hand, secondary data are already collected by the research in order to explore the knowledge in the particular field and apply the same for drawing the valid outcome. Data collection method is considered as the significant part of research methodology which enable scholar to accomplish its purpose. The dissertation on analysis of impact customer satisfaction on repeat purchase within hospitality industry, both primary and secondary data will be collected. The process of primary data collection will be completed by using questionnaire method. The questionnaire method will consists of both close ended question through which time and cost both can be saved. For this purpose, list of questions following several options will be provided for the respondents. However, it is also ensured that simple and specific language is used under the questionnaire for the clarity of the participants and determine their 100% contribution in the process of data collection method. This will be selected as it is considered relatively less costly and time saving approach. Hence, collection of both kind of data make it feasible to reach at the outcome effectively and also provide the fruitful suggestions (Holloway and Galvin, 2016). The journals and online articles as well as books will be selected superficially and used under the study effectively so it becomes very easy to present the appropriate information in an adequate manner.
Sampling is the process of selecting the objects or desired population as per the requirement of the study. Two most common types of techniques such as probabilistic and non-probabilistic are used in order to select the sample. Each of these techniques contain different kind of methods for the selection of participants and application of their inputs in producing the valid outcome. Furthermore, probabilistic sampling methodology will be used under which all respondents are offered equal chance to get selected in the study. Here, simple random sampling will be used to select the participants and collect data from them. The application of simple random samping reduce the bias in study to a great extent as all respondents are offered equal opportunities to get selected in the study. In this manner, simple random sampling will be selected to meet the purpose of investigation in a right manner. Furthermore, sample size is also very important at the time of selecting the participants for the investigation. The size of same is already representative of the population (Sekaran, 2010). Owing to this, it is selected with the great extent. The study under consideration will use sample size as 50 customers will be taken who will actively take part in the data collection procedure. The reason behind selecting customers as respondents is that brand loyalty among them can be determined effectively. This is known with the help of collecting questionnaire from respondents and drawing valid outcome out of the same.
The pattern of data collection plays significant impart on the research quality and outcome generated in the same. Deductive and inductive are two types of research approaches applied in the investigation in accordance with the requirement of the study. Inductive research approach begins with specific investigation so as to make it possible to develop new theory with in-depth analysis or collection of appropriate data (Collis and Hussey, 2009). At this juncture, scholar refers the data which are causing issue for the research and accordingly find the possible solution by referring the further data in the same line. Moreover, deductive approach facilitates to select the pattern of top down through which at first general information related to topic is collected and the specific knowledge base is applied for the purpose of investigation of topic under consideration. Apart from this, deductive research approach will be used in which scholar will at first start with theory or generalization of content. However, on the basis of collected data specification will be done in order to understand the impact of customer satisfaction on repeat purchase (Klenke, 2016). The reason behind not selecting the inductive approach is its direct focus on the specification whereas in the study research must develop the strong base for the investigation and produce the valid outcome to reach the end outcome. The selected research approach will help scholar to find the related studies and concepts associated with customer satisfaction and its direct link between the brand image. This leads to reach to to the company specific information. The selection of research approach will be done as per the nature or requirement of the study is an effectual manner. This is helpful for the purpose of presentation of the findings and suggestion in the right direction.
The type of investigation plays significant impact in the field of research which enable scholar to follow the most suitable method for completing the entire study in a right manner. There are two types of research investigation applies such as qualitative and quantitative where the previous one generate the need to apply statistical tool for production of valid outcome (Creswell, 2009). For example, tools SPSS and excel sheet are used through which data can be inserted to take out the outcome in numerical form. This aids to provide the valid suggestions for the study on the basis of factual information. On the other hand, application of qualitative technique for data analysis is considered as the most effective due to its active role in completing the in-depth analysis. For this purpose, qualitative technique of data analysis will be used under which thematic is considered as the most appropriate. Here, collected information will be presented in the tabular form and graphical presentation. It aids to meet the research objectives effectively and present the outcome in an effectual manner. In this manner, both tabular form and graphical will be presented with aim to complete the investigation in a detail and showing the analysis part with the consistency of both primary and secondary data. The main reason behind not using the quantitative investigation will be requirement of in-depth analysis. It proves to be effective for stating the valid suggestions (Pears and Shields, 2005).
Ethical and legal issues are important under the research which are considered by the scholar at the time of data collection and presentation of the findings among the public. The study on impact of customer satisfaction on brand loyalty will follow the ethical consideration and accordingly no any participants is forced to take part in the data collection procedure. This would be effective to shed light on outcome without any kind illegal practices. However, the study will be based on both primary and secondary data. Owing to this, is important to select the sources of information appropriately (Hair, Money, Samouel and Page, 2007). However, some of the articles might found restricted to use , will be accessed by taking the prior permission. At the same time, approval of participants will also be taken in advance and they will be known regarding the purpose of study. Moreover, no any personal information will be asked from them and they will be provided proper security and chance to provide their information in a right manner. Apart from this, all legal issues related to accessing secondary sources will not take place as the collected data will be cited properly in the direction of aim and objectives. Therefore, study will be conducted by considering ethical principles and any kind of legal issues associated with the same. This validates the gathered information and findings effectively and its contribution towards achieving the end results in a most effective manner.
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