CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
Globalization and international business development has created a wide and effective impact on the growth of economies. Every country is focusing on enhancing national growth through developing the commercial activities and business operations in a well structured manner (Alipour, Salehi and Shahnavaz, 2009). Modern era of conceptualization has effectively developed the economies with innovative means of working and operating business activities. The contribution of employees in this era is highly influential for the growth and development of business activities. Employees are the key assets of the organizations as they are the only resources which could be trained, motivated and developed for organizational growth and development.
According to Belykh and Byvaltsev, (2014) employees are the integral part of the business growth. Their contribution for organizational operations helps in developing a well defined platform for success within the market. A positive working culture creates an influential impact on staff psyche which results in enhancing their productivity for business while maintaining high rate of retention in the market (Bina and et.al., 2008). The consequence of this is that businesses grow and develop widely while minimizing the cost of operations thus creating a positive impact on profitability and growth of the organization. The significance of employee contribution in the growth of business is high and wide. Different business units define success measures in different ways. However, employee need recognition is one of the sig
Business needs and demands are changing continuously and quickly in the present era. This has helped organizations in creating a competitive edge within the market. In order to attain the global needs and demands of the consumers businesses are focusing on adopting international level of business growth and development within the market (Haelermans and Borghans, 2012). This has helped the companies in enhancing their reach for business growth and development. Employees are resources which effectively adapt the changes and work effectively to meet organizational needs for growth and success. Through effective employee contribution firms develop a competitive foundation for growth and success within the economy. Technological growth, innovative development and creative working practices is the modern means of successful business practice (Mackelprang, Jayaram and Xu, 2012). On the basis of the above analysis it can be effectively understood that employee engagement and retention in business units is significant.
Different organizations have addressed employee satisfaction needs in different manner. In order to maintain global competitiveness within the market unique means of practices are being adopted by the organizations. Hansson, (2009) defined employee satisfaction as a force which help employees in developing a positive contribution in the business thus creating an effective impact on the growth of the organization. On Contrary to this Mazur ed., (2013) defined employee satisfaction as a factor which ascertain high motivational environment within the companies which develops a positive environment for attaining organizational goals.
Wide range of factors according to Schroter and et.al., (2008) affect employee satisfaction within an organization. Employee engagement, growth and development opportunities, effective working environment and effective motivation factors are the common contributes for the same. In addition to this, researchers has also determined some additional drivers which efficiently helps in employee satisfaction for the business growth and development (Bratton and Gold, 2012). Companies in the present era are focusing on developing activities and measures for developing a positive and working environment and well developed means of working within the business. The business activities have gradually developed with time.
Traditionally management considered employees as a cost factor thus forced them to provide maximum output without giving them effective environment and resources to work. However, in the present era employee needs are prioritized in order to attain effective business objectives. Singer and et. al., (2007) examined a simple business equation of business operations. Satisfied employees work effectively in the organization thus providing higher output and developing wide prospects for the business to grow. High level of employee satisfaction results in high organizational productivity, higher rate of retention and positive organizational culture.
Saudi Arabia is one of the developing countries which has effectively adopted the modern trends and demands within the country in order to join the league of growth and development. Saudi Arabia is well known for its oil based production economy. 90% of the export earning is attained by oil industry. Employee contribution is demanded effectively within the business units. As per the organizational researches the contribution of migrant population in the country is high (Crook, Ketchen and Todd, 2008). Companies has effectively developed wide employment opportunities for foreign employees. In order to develop growth and success opportunities organizations have effectively adopted employee engagement and growth opportunities within the business units.
A recent study revealed that the majority of employees in the Saudi private sector are willing to offer their best for their companies. It helped in analysing an interesting fact which reflected that 86%of the employees in the country are ready to contribute additional efforts for the growth and development of their companies (Singer and et. al., 2007). Th present study will focus on understanding the needs and requirements of the employees in the company and analysing the impact of different factors contribution towards the same. The study will examine the factors that lead to employees’ satisfaction in general and mainly focuses on satisfaction about the importance of employees engagement, motivation and employees’ development and growth opportunities.
The needs and preference of young employees are changing effectively for the country. Th report will focus on understanding the changing needs and requirements and develop effective measures to attain the same. Factors which helps in developing reputation of the company and creating an attractive brand image within the market and will be analysed by the researcher. Different tools, techniques and models will help in understanding social factors affecting employee satisfaction and evaluating impact of the same on business growth and development.
1.2 Problem statement
Changing business scenario, increasing global competition and developing impact of technologies has posed effective challenge for the growth of the commercial enterprises. Companies are coping up with these changes in an effective and well defined manner. Employee contribution for the same is high and effective. Saudi Arabia has developed the growth measures widely within the market. The changing cultural impact has affected the needs and demands of young employees of the country. Employee satisfaction factors have changed in the present scenario. The report will focus on evaluating the factor which effectively contribute in attaining high employee satisfaction for the company.
The current report is focusing on one of the well established and employee attractive firm of Saudi Arabia. The company was attracting the qualified and young range of employees for the growth ad development of the business. However, the needs and demands of young population has changed widely within the economy. Employee productivity and performance are directly related to the level of employee satisfaction for the business. The study will thus focus on analysing the factors which helps in enhancing employee satisfaction and growth of the company. It will help the company in analysing the effective measures to enhance employee retention thus adhering the organizational demand in an effective manner. The research will critically analyse the three major factors which has effective contribution in the growth and development of the company.
These factors include employee engagement, growth and development opportunities and employee motivation factors, the researcher has effectively analysed that the mentioned factors have wide and effective contribution in organizational development measures thus wide contributes in creating effective growth opportunities for the company.
1.3 Research aims and objectives
Research aim of the current study is to analyse employee satisfaction drivers for the business organization. In order to attain the research aim effectively and in a well structured manner research objectives has been developed. The objectives constructed for attaining research aim includes:
- To examine if high level of engagement of employees can increase employees satisfaction
- To examine if creating a motivating work environment results in high level of satisfaction.
- To examine if employees satisfaction increases with providing employees with opportunities for career development and growth.
1.4 Research hypothesis
Research hypothesis helps in constructing an effective means for attaining research aims and objectives. Effective hypothesis are developed on the basis of research objectives of the study. The hypothesis for the present research study are:
To examine if high level of engagement of employees can increase employee satisfaction (Regression)
H0: Level of employee satisfaction is not dependent on employee engagement
HA: Level of employee satisfaction is dependent on employee engagement
To examine if creating a motivating work environment results in high level of satisfaction (chi square)
H0: Motivating work environment does not increase the satisfaction level of employees.
HA: Motivating work environment increase the satisfaction level of employees
To examine if employees satisfaction increases with providing employees with opportunities for career development and growth
H0: There is no specific relationship between employee satisfaction and career development and growth opportunities for employees
HA: There is specific relationship between employee satisfaction and career development and growth opportunities for employees
1.5 Potential significance of the research
The significance of the study depicts the value of the analysis and its impact on further evaluation of the topic. It effectively contributes the researcher in analysing the contribution of the research and present day literatures and studies. It helps the researcher in contribution towards the development and growth of academic studies and analysis. The present study focuses on analysing the drivers of employee satisfaction in Saudi Arabia. The study will widely focus on analysing the different aspects of business units. It will analyse the cultural factors of the country, will evaluate different factors which helps in contributing towards employee satisfaction and analyse the significant impact of specific factors such as employee engagement, growth opportunities and employee motivation on employee satisfaction. This will help in undertaking extensive theoretical and practical analysis for the study.
The research paper will help in developing a conceptual base for developing an effective understating on the current topic. It could be also used for the further researches and analysis. In addition to this the study will focus on determining the needs and expectations of the employees of the country and analyse the impact of changing environment within the economy. In addition to the use of different frameworks and models will be effective for enhancing the theoretical knowledge about the study. The research will critically examine and evaluate various factors those are considered while analysing employee satisfaction for the business units. Research will help in reflecting the impact of changing employee needs within the business.
This sample tells you about the Importance of Employee Satisfaction
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
Through analysing the part of introduction, another chapter is of literature review. It can be assessed that here views and opinions of different scholars are assessed in regard of the subject matter. It also examines the views of one author and contrary to that of another. Further, a strong use of theoretical base has been developed in regard to identify and understand the importance of employee satisfaction within business to attain organizational goals.
2.2 Role of employee engagement in boosting employee satisfaction
As per view of Burgess (2007) employee engagement is considered as the workplace approach which leads to favorable conditions for all the members present within the enterprise. Further, it totally relies on trust, integrity and communication which take place when business and its staff members (Burgess, 2007). Moreover, it is well known fact that employees working in the organization are most crucial asset and by engaging them in each and every operation of the business it is possible to boost their satisfaction level. However, Gravells (2010) argued that engagement of staff members is all about understanding one’s role within the workplace and carrying out assigned duties as per expectations of the management. Further, it provides base to business in performing better where knowledge along with skills of staff members can be applied in improvement of products along with services (Gravells, 2010). It directly supports in creating favourable environment within the workplace when all the employees are encouraged to take part in the major affairs of the company.
In short, ultimate aim of every company is to focus on accomplishment of long term aims and objectives. Therefore, this aim can be only accomplished if efforts are applied by business in engaging its workforce which can be fruitful for organization in every possible manner (Moss, 2015). It can allow company to gain competitive advantage and can act as development tool for the entire business. In country like Saudi Arabia employee engagement as a practice has been most commonly adopted where every business focuses on engaging its workforce through different means. Boosting satisfaction level of workforce is one of the main objectives of every business and this can be only accomplished if their importance is shown within the workplace.
As per view of Russell (2012) large number of benefits are obtained by companies in Saudi Arabia which are high service quality and productivity where employees apply different skills in business operations and this supports in accomplishing business objectives. Apart from this, higher customer satisfaction is also one of the main benefits of employee engagement where business can easily retain its loyal customers for longer period of time (Russell, 2012). On the other hand, rise in profitability level along with sales is another benefit obtained through employee engagement. However Henson (2010) argued that it is the first and foremost duty of every enterprise to ensure that its relationship with staff members is strong so that they can easily work for the welfare of business. Moreover, proper communication must take place in between them with the motive to boost job satisfaction. Proper understand between top authorities and staff members provides support in knowing the level of engagement.
So, this allows business to gain competitive advantage and enhances overall productivity (Chatzoglou, 2008). According to statement of Grenway (2008), the number of business organizations faces issues regarding employee satisfaction due to improper engagement of employees. It clearly indicates that the employee engagement plays a vital role in employee satisfaction. For example, the business organization has not involved employees in decision making process and they are not well known of employees needs (Grenway, 2008). In this situation, it is possible that the decisions taken by management may face oppose of employees because activities does not meet their key needs. Moreover, with an employees' engagement the management can easily identify their key needs and design better strategies for appropriate accomplishment of employee satisfaction standards.
2.3 Role of motivation in enhancing satisfaction level of workforce
As per the view of Ryan (2012), it can be said that the job satisfaction among employees plays a critical role in organizational productivity. It has been identified that the employer mainly faces issues regarding job satisfaction due to low morale among employees. It is necessary for management to ensure that employees are feeling motivated to accomplish task in appropriate manner so that their satisfaction level can also be enhanced (Ryan, 2012). There are number of ways that can be used by management of business firm to enhance motivation level and job satisfaction aspects while operating activities in Saudi Arabia. In order to enhance the motivation level among employees the management needs to focus on creating positive work environment.
Pattanayak (2005) has asserted that the positive work environment encourages the morale of employees to work in more efficient way so that they can meet their satisfaction level.
It provides improvement in productivity that helps in effective accomplishment of organizational goals and forces employer to provide better facilities to employees in order to enhance their satisfaction level. It has also been spotted that the managers of Saudi Arabia must understand the concept of job satisfaction (Pattanayak, 2015). Employees satisfaction can enhance by creating positive work environment. In this respect, management needs to make sure about factors that attracts employees towards work culture. As per view of Kelly (2011), the better facilities and interested activities motivates employees to perform in more efficient manner and accomplish goals in desired time period. Meeting objectives in allotted time period enhances the morale and job satisfaction level because it brings professional development along with skills expertise. It is essential for management to understand the key needs of employees and perform activities that motivates them to perform job and stay loyal with organization.
Kelly (2011) has also contended that the reward and recognition are also factors that can enhance the motivation level among employees along with improvement in job satisfaction level. In other aspect, it can be said that the management must ensure that they are providing recognition to the employees for their outstanding performance. It will create better motivational aspects among employees and directly influence their job satisfaction level in positive manner. It has been spotted that the personal recognition is considered as a most powerful tool that helps in building morale and motivation (O’hara, 2006). Informal and formal recognition enhances the morale and job satisfaction in optimistic manner. Other than this, the managers of Saudi Arabia firm can also provide monetary reward to employees for advancement in their motivation level. For employee has performed an outstanding task during the job and management has decided to provide additional monetary benefits for his/her contribution. It will enhance the morale of employee and renders better satisfaction so that he can continue with the working.
Moreover, O’hara (2006) has also asserted that the involvement and engagement at workplace also enhances motivation level among employees and lead helps in accomplishment of job satisfaction standards. In this support, higher customer satisfaction is also one of the main benefits of employee engagement where business can easily retain its loyal customers for longer period of time (O’hara, 2006).
It has also been spotted that the money is sole motivational factor at the workplace and it helps person so attain economic recognition. It also provides better job satisfaction among employees also provides various additional benefits to the organization. In Saudi Arabia the business organizations can also focus on basic needs of employees in order to enhance their motivation level and employee satisfaction level (Tuzun, 2012). Food, clothing, shelter and medicine are basic needs of employees so management can provide them better services in these context to enhance motivation level. Improvement in motivation level by these kinds of activities also promotes job satisfaction level in optimistic manner.
2.4 Effectiveness of career development and growth opportunities in building employee satisfaction
According to Burgess (2007), the career development and growth opportunities plays a key role in building employee satisfaction level. Career development is considered as an opportunity that person can have while working within organization. For example, the management of Saudi Arabia companies can provide better career opportunities to the professional to enhance motivation level. Improvement in motivation level of professional is beneficial for better employee satisfaction (Gravells, 2010). Career development also encourage morale of employees and facilities in effective accomplishment of activities. Employees satisfaction can enhance by creating positive work environment and providing better career opportunities to the person is one of the best way to create positive work environment. Moss (2015) has also asserted that the organizational growth opportunities also enhances the morale of employees and helps in building employee satisfaction. For example, the organization is having various developments and attaining better opportunities in the market then it will enhance the morale of employees.
This is because the employees feel valued that they are working and contributing in one of the best organization. Moreover, organizational growth also increases the profit margin ratio of the organization which is advantageous for development in reward policies (Moss, 2015). The managers of Saudi Arabia firm can also provide monetary reward to employees for advancement in their motivation level. Above statements clearly stated that the career development and organizational growth opportunities plays a key role in building employee satisfaction level.
Moreover, with an improved focus on career development, the business organization can also reduce its employee turnover ratio. It has been spotted that the employees turnover ratio can influence the operational activities in negative manner. For example, the management of organization is not capable to manage turnover ratio then it will influence employees perception in negative manner. Negative impact on employees' perception may also reduce employee satisfaction level so it is essential for organization to ensure that they are managing employee turnover ratio in appropriate manner (Russell, 2012.).
Creating more and more job opportunities and career development activities is beneficial for improvement in employee turnover ratio. According to Burgess (2007), the development in organizational activities is also beneficial to reduce the cost of overall operational activities. It means the profit margin ratio can be enhanced and productivity can be improved in appropriate manner. Advancement in organizational productivity is also beneficial for better growth and employees morale. These kinds of improvement in work culture also enhances the employees' satisfaction level and leads business to impressive level of success (Burgess, 2007).
Other than this, Gravells (2010) has also contended that the employee morale can also be influenced by creating better opportunities within organization. Improvement in career opportunities and organizational development leads employees perception to satisfactory level. Proper communication must take place in between them with the motive to boost job satisfaction. Proper understand between top authorities and staff members provides support in knowing the level of engagement (Gravells, 2010). It is also one of critical way that creates better opportunities for professional within organization and motivates to meet satisfactory level. It also helps in overcome number of issues that can impact business in negative manner.
2.5 Key drives of employee satisfaction in Saudi Arabia
According to the view point of Gounaris and Boukis (2013), employee engagement is a effective human resource management concept that helps in attaining desired results. Employee satisfaction has clear objective that individuals are satisfied by the working environment of business and thus they are focused towards attaining desired targets. Workers who are committed to perform better within workplace helps in achieving organizational goals. However, the strongest driver of employee satisfaction involves a sense of feeling valued and involved. It is crucial for business to involve employees in decision making so that they can be encouraged in order to attain desired targets. Management of organization need to develop effective culture within workplace so that employees are able to provide effective ideas and thus managers should listen to their vi9ews and opinions in order to value them (Gounaris and Boukis, 2013). Moreover, in order to attain employee satisfaction in any part of the world organization should be concerned about the employees health and wellbeing.
Employees are more than asset to the company therefore they need to be valued effectively in the organization. However, as per several studies it is believed that satisfied employees perform their job more effectively as compared to unsatisfied workers as per Huang and Rundle-Thiele (2014). Therefore, retaining skilled and talented employees in the workforce helps in succeeding business. However, the retention of employees can be successful, if the business helps in making changes in the aspects of job rotation so that employees do not get bored or dissatisfied by continuing with the similar job. There are three different business principles of employee satisfaction such as percieved business support, percieved supervisory support and customer participation. Business is required to measure employee satisfaction patterns with the help of their nature of work, compensation and benefits, attitude towards supervisors, relationship with other workers and opportunities for promotion within workplace (Huang and Rundle-Thiele, 2014).
As per the theory of Adams equity individual possess different ways of overcoming a sensed discomfort in their work. Therefore, in order to solve the issue it is essetnial for organization to provide different benefits, salaries etc. so that job satisfaction can be attained. Here, motivation theory of Herzberg can also be implemented that helps in believing that money is not a primary motivator but job satisfaction is the one that helps in influencing individual to attain desired targets. Organization is required to implement effective strategies in order to satisfy individual need and desires. According to the opinion of Edmans, Li and Zhang (2014), job itself is meaningful and well organized factor that is one fo the main crucial driver of worker motivation and well as their job satisfaction. Business needs to analyze the ways through which individual can be encouraged so that they can attain job satisfaction. However, the work culture in Saudi Arabia is effective as it provides job variety, job autonomy and feedback for improvement so that individual can enhance their performance and increase productivity of both business as well as individual (Edmans, Li and Zhang, 2014).
Job satisfaction can be interconnected with equal opportunities provided by Saudi Arabain companies to their employees and do not discriminate among employees because of majority of them are migrants from around the globe. As per the Saridakis, Muñoz Torres and Johnstone (2013), there is a connection between promotion opportunities and satisfaction with current work assignments was significant. Management of various Saudi Arabian companies provide diverse job opportunities to their employees so that desired job satisfaction can be attained effectively and efficiently. Thus, discrimination at workplace would have adverse effect upon job satisfaction (Saridakis, Muñoz Torres and Johnstone, 2013). Also, each and every individual is required to coordinate with each other so that best relationship can be maintaineed within workplace.
2.6 Impact of Saudi Arabian culture on employee satisfaction
It can be assessed that culture is an crucial aspect that influences individual to perform effectively in order to attain satisfaction. Further, national culture should be distinguished from business culture. Organizational culture distinguishes an individual from an business from another, while national culture distinguishes individual of a nation from another. Culture involves values, beliefs and practices which is shared by a vast majority belonging to a particular country so that it influences upon the satisfaction of individual. According to the view point of Abraham (2012), cross cultural relationship helps in developing national culture as it is crucial factor in shaping work behaviour and attitudes of individual within workplace so that employee satisfaction can be attained. Further, in order to measure the culture of country it helps in influencing the employee satisfaction. Here, Hofstede culture dimensions model has been implied in order to identify the values that are assessed in order to identify the Saudi Arabian organizational culture in order to provide workforce satisfaction. For instance, organizations are required to develop effective work culture so that individual can be satisfied and enhance their productivity in order to attain organizational goals (Abraham, 2012).
As per the view of Sageer, Rafat and Agarwal (2012), Hofstede's model can be implemented in order to determine the cultural differences within enterprise. It is essential for businesses to determine effective framework and policies so that best organizational culture can be provided to employees so that individual satisfaction can be attained. There are four dimensions of national culture i.e. Power distance, individualism/ collectivism, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity/femininity.
- Power Distance- It can be stated that the extent to which the less powerful workers of business expect and accept that power is distributed uneqally amomg the workforce. For instance, in Saudi Arabian companies management has more power as compared to employees in regard to decision making therefore, it influences the individual behaviour to work and attain satisfaction (Sageer, Rafat and Agarwal, 2012).
- Uncertainity Avoidance- It refers to intolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity which needs to be av oided by the individual so that effective work culture can be maintained. Therefore, it is essential for Saudi Arabian companies to develop effective work culture so that best relationship can be developed in order to attain desired targets (Jeon and Choi, 2012).
- Individualism vs Collectivism- Furthermore, it can be assessed that the extent to which individuals are integrated tnto different groups. For instance, there are diverse work culture adopted by businesses so that it helps in satisfying the needs of workers.
- Masculinity vs Femininity- Here, it is another factor that assertiveness and competitiveness in regard to modesty and caring so that management of firm is required to maintain effective work culture within enterprise and thus satisfy individual needs (Topolosky, 2014).
As per the Yao, Chen and Cai (2013), it can be assessed that work culture within Saudi Arabian companies are differing in nature as compared to other organizations so that individuals need to be encouraged in order to satisfy their needs. Thus, based on these dimensions Hofstede creates a different index of scores of many countries so that their culture can be compared in order to achieve employee satisfaction. Through comparing different dimensions it assesses that power distance dimension assesses the degree to which inequality is considered as an effective measure in order to assess the top management possess more power than other workers. Therefore, in Saudi Arabian countries it reflects that it owns low power distance culture which states that there is partial dependence by superiors upon subordinates (Yao, Chen and Cai, 2013).
2.7 Effectiveness of positive working environment within Saudi Arabia companies in enhancing satisfaction level of workforce
It can be assessed that each and every business enterprise is required to develop effective work culture within their business environment so that satisfaction of employees can be attained. According to the view point of Pak, Luo and Yang (2015), management of firm is required to develop effective positive working environment within Saudi Arabian companies as it helps in boositng their morale to achieve satisfaction. It is essential to build effective working environment within business so that it influences motivation, happiness and productive work environment. Further, it also assists in building unique culture so that best relationship between superior and subordinate can be developed. Superiors need to assess that it is their responsibility to make their workers comfortable in order to develop positive experience and satisfaction within workplace.
Businesses are required to promote and create a healthy work environment so that they are able to attract best talent and skilled workforce within enterprise. Further, it is also essential for management of Saudi Arabian companies to retain employees, lower down absenteeism rate, boost employees morale and also create a healthy and stress free environment to work in so that employee satisfaction can be attained (Pak, Luo and Yang, 2015).
There are different elements which are required in order to develop effectiveness of positive working environment within businesses in order to improve employee satisfaction. These are as follows-
- Promoting communication- It can be assessed that communication is the best way through which individual can develop relationship with another worker. Hence, promoting two way communication among superior and subordinate helps in building strong network assists in building positive working environment. However, Pantouvakis and Bouranta (2013), argued that with the help of effective communication it empowers individual to work effectively so that their contribution is valued.
- Empowering workers- It is another crucial factor that helps in empowering individual to work effectively as a team in order to make decisions and also plan their work accordingly. As per the view of Chen, Lee and Tseng (2012), empowering employees is an essential part that assists individual to grow and develop effectively so that positive working environment can be build in order to attain desired targets.
- Offering rewards and bonuses- Through developing positive work environment within enterprise it helps individual to offer rewards and bonuses so that satisfaction can be attained. Management of Saudi Arab companies are required to promote effective rewards and bonuses to workers as per their participantion so that they can be encouraged in order to attain desired targets. Also, employees feel good at the time when they are rewarded for their efforts so that positive and healthy working environment can be attained as per Singh (2014).
- Create teams and develop team spirit- However, Sussex (2013), argued that organizations are required to develop effective team working among them so that they and encouraged to develop efficient team spirit and thus attain satisfaction. Also, it is significant for businesses to to combine effective output so that team can perform best results in order to achive organizational goals. Further, at the time when employees work in a team they are able to perform best goals so that team spirit can be nurtured. Hence, when people work in teams they see themselves as a crucial asst for organization and thus work effectively in order to attain common goals (McFadden, 2013).
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology refers to the path that needs to be incorporate by researcher for completing the study in desired manner. Here, decision is made with regards to research tools and techniques so that result can be attained from the research. In this context, Saunders’s Onion Model is applied in order to decide upon varied methods that need to be employed for conducting present research in desired manner. It helps researcher in conducting research in desired manner and also to employ necessary tools for attaining the objectives.
3.2 Research Philosophy
Philosophy refers to key assumptions that been taken into account by researcher based upon which research strategy is framed. With the help of it, researcher is able to decide the method for collecting, analysing and evaluating the data. It is of varied types namely positivism, interpretivism and realism (Kuada, 2012). Considering the nature of present research, positivism philosophy has been used through which researcher is able to test the hypothesis. This strategy will help the researcher in minimizing research gap and effectively attaining the mentioned research objectives for the present study. However, interpretivism approach will help the researcher in attaining the employee perception for the study thus analyse the effective employee analysis for the same. This will effectively help in developing the research analysis and emphasis for the same (Clark, 2012). Therefore, using a combined paradigm the whole research has focused on facts and figures as well as action and behaviour of participants of the study about the current research subject. It will help in structuring the research report in an effective and well developed manner. Along with this the study will create an effective impact on applying applied knowledge and statistical measures as well to attain reliable research results.
3.3 Research approach
After selecting research philosophy, the next step can be assessed by the scholar is selecting specific research approach. The role of employee satisfaction within business is significant therefore, it is vast and crucial topic for conducting research. However, research approach identifies the measures through which aim of the study can be attained (Collis and Hussey, 2009). It mainly consists of specific and general criteria. The main two major types of research approaches are inductive and deductive.
Inductive research approach states that here, scholar analyzes the research aim and deeply researches the aim of the study. Researcher collects the information related to the given topic in order to effectively understand the same. Thus, it helps individual to assess effective patterns and theories regarding the objectives and information (Fiegen, 2010). Such approach helps in developing clear and deep understanding regarding the specific concepts of the research in regard to refer to all the general concepts in regard to validate the same. Further, deductive approach can be stated as the way to analyze the general perspective of the study. Here, scholar examines the theory or social pattern. The test of hypothesis assists scholar to deliver the specific results regarding the research. In the present study, deductive approach has been adopted in order to effectively test the hypothesis and carry out effective implementation of objectives. However, such approach helps in understanding effective hypothesis made in order to investigate the validity of the research objectives.
3.4 Research strategy
Here, scholar is required to undertake effective research strategy such as employee survey so that different questions regarding individual satisfaction can be ascertained. It is essential for researcher to develop questionnaire so that numerous questions can be asked from respondents and thus help in carrying out information. Furthermore, research design helps in making effective decision in regard to carry out the study (Johnson and Christensen, 2008). It involves descriptive, exploratory, casual etc. Descriptive study cna be stated as the fact that exists without exploring any new areas. While, exploratory study involves identifying new information from the subject matter so that current issues can be addressed effectively. In the present research descriptive information will be included in order to understand the concept of employee satisfaction within enterprise. It helps in carrying out in depth information by developing actual facts of the study.
3.5 Research choices
In this part of the study, it is very important part in order to determine the actual impact of the research and thus scholar uses varied tools and techniques which must be needed in regard to attain specific objectives. Further, it helps in building a clear impact on the data analysis through assessing the effectual tools that helps in carrying out the study (Flick, 2011.). However, there are varied choices available with the scholar in regard to achive set objectives. It helps in developing an effectual and clea impact upon the methodology and data analysis whcih measures for the firm. Qualitative and quantitative are the two main measures used within the study. Quantitative method helps in dealing with the numerical data and uses effective statistical tools and models in order to derive effective outcome for the study. While, qualitative method helps in assessing the subjective data for the study. It helps in carrying out the data effectively for the research. Hence, in the present study, both the data has been used i,e mixed method so that it assists in improving the clear and deep attempt towards the study. Further, it helps in effectively analyzing the employee satisfaction drivers in order to attain organizational goals and objectives. Thus, in ordcer to attain effective objective, scholars adoptd both qualitative and quantitative method.
3.6 Time horizon
The research onion method helps ineffectively determining the research measures and create an effective and well developed impact on developing research structure for the study. The two major times frames adopted for conducting a research study includes longitudinal method and cross sectional method (Singh, 2010). The current study will be developed on the basis of cross sectional method. This will help the researcher in creating an effective research study for a specific time period. The study will focus on analysing the current state of Saudi Arabia and the impact of changing environment on the needs and demands of the employees in the country. The study will not adopt longitudinal method for the study as it created an in-depth analysis of the research (Vaivio, 2008). This time horizon is used to develop an extensive and long term research study which is carried on for a long period of time. The researcher here carries out an ongoing study for the topic and develop an effective understanding for the same. The current topic of the study is not suitable for longitudinal study as it focuses on the specific research problem and carried out effective strategies to address the same. Hence, in order to ascertain the success of the study specific data has been collected and analysed in order to carry the analysis for the current research issue.
3.7 Techniques and procedures
3.7.1 Data collection
This is one of the most significant part of the research study. It helps the researcher in developing a well developed measure for the study and helps in analysing the research problem in an effective manner. This part of the research methodology helps in defining the effective success measures of the study (Johnson and Christensen,2008). The current study focuses on analysing the drivers for employee satisfaction in Saudi Arabia. Both primary and secondary method of data collection has been used for the study. This has helped widely in contributing in developing authenticity and reliability of the research.
Secondary data collection measures helps in collecting that information which has already been disclosed or evaluated by other research scholars. This data helps in analysing the trends and significant factors for the study. For the present research secondary data collection tools such as books, journals, past researches, government reports, news articles etc. has been refereed (Lillis, 2008). It helped in attaining the reliable and authentic research data. Literature review has helped in determining facts and figures about factors affecting employee satisfaction. This helped n developing an effective theoretical framework for the study. The primary data collection methods is used to collect the fresh and latest research information. For the present study the employees of the selected company contributed for the same. The researcher used employee survey method for collecting all related information for the present research. The research is based on a survey that covered only one department of 1150 employees in which only 26% have participated. The primary and secondary method of data collection has helped in attaining both qualitative and quantitative data for the study which has developed an effective base for carrying out the study.
Sampling helps in effectively contributing in the success of the study. It is the process of selecting an effective and representative part of the data which could be effectively used for carrying out the research study in an effective and well structured manner. For addressing the research issue a renowned and employee attractive business unit was selected (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). The total population of the stated business units was considered for carrying out the study and attaining valid and reliable research data. The paper is investigating the factors that changed the company good reputation in terms of creating an attractive environment. The research is based on a survey that covered only one department of 1150 employees in which only 26% have participated. The company total population is more than 57, 0000 employees. The details regarding company and employee information has been deliberately kept confidential for attaining ethical consideration of the research study.
3.7.3 Data analysis
Data analysis is a significant part f the research study. It focuses on adopted appropriate methods and process for research analysis in order to attain effective and well developed result for the study. The above discussion effectively reveals the detailed structure of the study (Keightley, 2010). The research aims to analyse employee satisfaction drivers in Saudi Arabia. For successfully attaining the mentioned research objectives both primary and secondary method of data collection has been applied. Data analysis has been done using quantitative method. The researcher has attained quantitative data through survey and use statistical method to analysing the data.
Research objectives will be attained through hypothesis testing. Different tests have been applied for the study. These methods have applied by researcher for getting the best findings for each research question. Correlation and regression analysis along with Chi-Square testing will be applied for the present study which will effectively help in attaining effective and valid research results.
3.8 Validity and reliability
It is another crucial step that helps in carrying out the study effectively and efficiently. Further, it can be identified that research demands high amount of data that need to be perfectly integrated so that best results can be attained. It assists the scholar in deriving the valid and authentic data from the selected population. However, it helps in developing reliable and best study for future use (Johnson and Christensen, 2008). Also, resarcher should be able to develop logical information which should be sound and reliastic so that best results can be attained. Hence, it possess the capability in order to generate the best research outcomes and thus attain specific objectives of t he study. Scholar collects the data from employees in order to involve accessibility issues. Therefore, it is evident that due to busy schedule of management of firm it becomes quite complex to involve them within the research activity. Hence, in order to address this issue, prior appointment needs to be taken so that it helps in consuming less time.
3.9 Ethical consideration
Here, efforts are incorporated within the present study in order to get rid from different ethical issues. Therefore, in this regard data will be stored in a proper secured manner and should be used by authentic person only (Bhattacharyya, 2009). Additionally, researcher needs to be sure about that the data will be collected from authentic source only and will not be manipulated on any condition. Researcher should focus upon the interest of respondents and they should not be influenced to provide any personal information. In the present study, it incorporated high amount of ethical norms. However, researcher involved appropriate approval of the respondents in order to collect information from them. Also, no respondent was forced to provide personal information and also their data was kept confidential. Further, the data collected has been used efficiently in order to fulfil the purpose of the study.
- Abraham, S., 2012. Job satisfaction as an antecedent to employee engagement. SIES Journal of Management. 8(2). pp.27.
- Alipour, M., Salehi, M. and Shahnavaz, A., 2009. A Study of on the Job Training Effectiveness: Empirical Evidence of Iran. International Journal of Business and Management. 4(11). p.63.
- Belykh, E. and Byvaltsev, V., 2014. Off-the-job microsurgical training on dry models: Siberian experience. World neurosurgery. 82(1). pp.20-24.
- Bhattacharyya, K. D., 2009. Research Methodology. Excel Books India.
- Bina, R. and et.al., 2008. Substance abuse training and perceived knowledge: Predictors of perceived preparedness to work in substance abuse. Journal of Social Work Education. 44(3). pp.7-20.