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INTRODUCTION

Health psychology helps in addressing the issues that the society may be facing. The chosen scenario for the report is obesity where two people, belonging to lower income class family have been facing obesity issues in United States (Sallis, Owen and Fisher, 2015). The report makes comprehensive discussion regarding biopsychosocial model that can have adopted by them to their health. Further, analysis will be made on intervention programs that can be adopted by them so as to reduce its impact on their health. The report then outlines regarding health psychology and theories of health behaviour change with respect to scenario. The theory will then be able to prove to be successful in variety of health-related behaviours, inclusive of cessation, smoking, development of unhealthy or health eating habits, exercising regularly, etc. The report then outlines contextual, environmental and political facilitation and inhibiting factors that can impact health behaviours and sustainability. In the end, strength and limitation of all the chosen intervention will be briefly discussed in the report.

Critical analysis of scenario with the help of biopsychosocial model of health

Biopsychosocial model, in broader sense, helps in attributing disease outcome in order to elaborate variable interaction of biological factors such as biomedical and genetics, psychological factors like personality mood and behaviour and social factors which are family related, socioeconomic and cultural as well as medal factors (Peters, De Bruin and Crutzen, 2015). The model can help in determining cause, manifesting it and ultimately deriving the outcomes related to wellness and disease. Generally, it is the duty of health care professionals to work with people and help them in dealing with psychological and emotional aspects related to illness and health. Increasing the adherence to medical treatments, smoking cessations and weight loss program can effectively help in dealing with this issue (Maddux, 2016). Prevention and intervention programs are designed to stick to healthier lifestyle in the form of increase in intake of nutrition and promote exercise.

There are majorly eight goals of health psychology. These are:

  • Understanding contextual and behavioural factors that are directly linked to illness and health.
  • Prevention of illness
  • Investigation on consecutive effect of disease (Hayes, 2016)
  • To provide critical analysis of various health policies
  • To conduct researches that can help in prevention and interventions of health issues
  • To improve the communication between doctor and patient
  • To improve patient’s adherence to medical advice
  • To find the treatment that can help in managing pain (Maddux, 2016).

Health psychology helps in addressing issues of population and individual level across four main domains. These are public, clinical, social justice and community. Clinical health psychology helps in applying scientific knowledge to questions that belong to the spectrum of health care. It generally focuses upon prevention and treatment of health problems. It also helps in analysing behavioural change, an individual may experience due to clinical aspects of health. Community health psychology helps in investigating community factors contributes to the health and wellbeing. These interventions are generally designed with an aim to combat various diseases and promote physical and mental health. Public health psychology helps in assessing potential cause link between psychosocial factors at the pubic or population level (Gardner, 2015). It is generally promoted through educators, policy formulators and other related health care providers so that public health can be promoted at riskier groups. At the end, critical health psychology is related to distribution of power and addressing impact of power differentials on health behaviours, healthcare systems and other linked wellness policies (Andrews and Bonta, 2014). Its main aim is to prioritize social justice with an objective to promote good health in a universal manner for people of all ages, genders, races and socio-economic positions. It helps in giving equal access of healthcare to all people.

The case discusses regarding issue of obesity where BMI results reflected that more than 35% among low income women population in United States are obese. Obesity leads to various medical attentions that are required to be taken by the individual (McCracken and Vowles, 2014)

. Public health can be promoted using this model as the dependence of social and behavioural aspect can be gathered that obese women can have due to their health conditions.

Applying psychosocial model, working upon mind, body and environment; all the three factors have a strong influence on health of an individual. None of the factors in isolation can sufficiently lead to any type of health illness. Hence, there is a deep interrelation between components that can help in reaching to a specific health outcome. Hence, it is important in case of Carl and Arlene that it must be able to understand these factors and health care professionals must enter into understanding the core aspect of disease considering these three factors (Epton and et.al., 2015).

Consideration of health psychology and theories of health behaviour change with respect to scenario

Health belief model is considered to be an earliest framework that helps in understanding the human behaviour. It stated that people tend to take their health-related actions based upon six types of factors. These are:

  • Perceived susceptibility: The current health condition may affect the individual or one of feature of biopsychosocial model.

Perceived Severity: When the condition becomes severe enough that can have negative impact on current health consequences (Tonetti and et.a

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