Indigenous people are seen as a native members whomsoever are living in a specific region by having their own society. However, government are also treating them differently because they always demand as per their choice or need. Therefore, assignment is going to highlight the background of their life in around 17th and 18th century in order to analyze their living standard (Nakata and et al, 2012). Although they are similar to common people but always think in a unique way and demand more. However, discriminatory act which is faced by these people are also discussed in this project for understanding the level of racism at societal place. Therefore, main objective is to analyse the problem fac
Australia always experienced a mixture of culture and citizens which is different from that what is existing in the present times. The aboriginal and Torres culture has revised as it is now existing in an entirely distinct manner. The manner in which people are living inn Australia is greatly effected by European colonisation as it brought rapid changes for the society. Before 1788 the only people who existed in Australia were the Aboriginal and Tores Islands (Jamieson and et al, 2012). People in that community used variety of languages in order to interact with one another. Their cultures, feelings, actions and traditions which they follow varies from one another and therefore act as a base of differentiating among them. The population of Australia before 1788 was approximately 750000 and and they used a range of languages to communicate. Changes were experienced when people were sent out from the long-standing lands which further effected the population of Australia. Earlier there were not any horses and carriages till the time Europe people arrived there. Apart from these no external travellers also visited the refereed country from any part of the world till the ingenious people were existing there (Jorm and et al, 2012). Those who were part of Australia used to respect the environment to a great extent and ensure that no harm is made to the ecosystem and worked towards protecting them. For same control over the hunting practices was kept and animals were killed only to that quantity which was minimum required to feed the people. This way they make the food available if demanded next time by someone else. Hunting practice was so common and both men and women used to have their own areas to hunt. Males used to take giant animals and females on the other hand prefer hunting tiny animals and indulge in fruit collecting activities. Seasonal variation was very common at that time and in order to cope up with same people used to move here and there which further helped in maintaining the fragile environment. It has an advantage of securing particular areas from over hunting so that availability of food can be ensured for next time also (Kowal, 2011). Division of the total land area was done keeping geographical method as a base. The knowledge regarding same was provided by the old people to the next generation using personal communication as there were no other source available such as books or televisions like today. The situations has changed complete as though people used to live throughout Australia in 1788 but now it has been replaced with cites, coast and rural areas (Clifford, Doran and Tsey, 2013). In earlier time the indigenous people didn't even used to specify or own a particular land as they do not take help of fencing, boundaries etc. to differentiate their land from others. They keep on moving from one place to another which is now different. Now people have their own residence and are recognised by the name of their residential address. After 1788 European found out that it is important to bring change in this system and hence worked towards replacing the same.
Historical policies and their impact
Indigenous people are those who are known to be the first people or native person and considered as the original inhabitants of given region. They usually described as indigenous when they basically maintain their tradition or the other cultures which is associated with region.
There are few thing which should know about the indigenous people and some of those things are as:
- Indigenous people are those who speak overwhelming majority of world's around 7000 languages (Kendall and et al, 2011).
- Indigenous group is considered as the most disadvantaged and included into the vulnerable group of people in this world.
- They are among the leaders on protecting the environment in better manner.
Even though various policy and procedure is being made for the indigenous people and thus it is related with protection and the assimilation (Hill and et al, 2012).
Protection: Although according to research the aboriginal population is reducing and thus effective regulation of labour in some of the pastoral areas with changes in policy as well. Although according to report of 1837, they recommended that powerful missionaries should be there for the aboriginal people, protectors for their defence and special law with codes required to protect them in proper manner. It was not done until the later century in which more formal and informal policies of protection for the indigenous people were formulated. Moreover for those people who are full-blood aborigines there was some de facto in tolerance and allowed them with their continuous traditional way of life in better way and thus there mission are also sometimes entrusted with their running reserves, and also look for population with there unsympathetic and also having very much hostile in their traditional ways too. Hence. Some of the systematic efforts are there which include the boarding houses as part aboriginal children away from their parents so that educate them in effective way. Even though policy of protection which was reinforced with the legislative restriction and control made in comprehensive too.
Assimilation: Moreover the difficulties are continue and thus, treatment to the aboriginal which is especially in central and somewhere the northern Australia, led in around 1936 to demand and thus having states and by voluntary with aboriginal affairs. After words, policy come out that the state and commonwealth officers are there who are normally responsible for the aboriginal affairs (HealthInfoNet, 2014). They decided that objectives should be absorption with least and having” the natives with aboriginal origin but not all the people of full-blood. In terms of assimilation it has aspect with the policy and having protection to which is concerned with “future” aborigines in settled in areas.
The national rejoicing and excitement showed on January 26 each year celebrates the 1788 colonial invasion of Australia. The aboriginal life expectancy was comparatively low as they kept it 20 years less than the Australians and further the difference was changed in between 1997 to 2001. apart from this there was great difference in the unemployment rate of those who belong to the aboriginal and actual Australians. It was found that it is more or the non aboriginals people of Australia (Board, 2012).
Cultural competency for professional
Culture competency is that who is having an ability to identify and leads to challenge the owns cultural assumption, with values and beliefs. It is such which develop the empathy and also lead to have appreciating that almost there are various kind of ways to view the world and although it is being influenced by culture as well (Marmot, 2011). Although indigenous people are said to be the first person whose competency is different from the other people. Hence, it is also related to social justice, human rights and having a process for the reconciliation with valuing and supporting.
After going through the above document this has been suggested that more emphasis should be given to the implementation of policies which are made towards the ingenious society instead of making new. This will help in developing better society in Australia.
From the above report it has been summarized that indigenous people are going through various problems and issues due to discrimination faced by them at societal place. Along with this, main motive of report is to show the justice which is taken by governing bodies for these society in order to make them feel more comfortable and perfect. However, as per above information it is identified that discrimination is taking place which affect the development of society and disturb the whole community from harmful affects. Mainly, it shows the issues encountered by these member while living in a society.
- Marmot, M., 2011. Social determinants and the health of Indigenous Australians. Med J Aust. 194(10). pp. 512-3.
- HealthInfoNet, A. I., 2014. Overview of Australian Indigenous health status. Perth: Edith Cowan University.
- Hill, R and et al, 2012. A typology of indigenous engagement in Australian environmental management: implications for knowledge integration and social-ecological system sustainability. Ecology and society. 17(1).
- Clifford, A. C., Doran, C. M. and Tsey, K., 2013. A systematic review of suicide prevention interventions targeting indigenous peoples in Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand. BMC public health. 13(1). p. 463.
- Jorm, A. F and et al, 2012. Mental health of Indigenous Australians: a review of findings from community surveys. Medical Journal of Australia. 196(2). p. 118.
- Jamieson, L. M and et al, 2012. Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations. Medical Journal of Australia. 197(1). pp. 16-18.
- Nakata, M and et al, 2012. Decolonial goals and pedagogies for Indigenous studies. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society. 1(1).
- Kowal, E., 2011. The stigma of white privilege: Australian anti-racists and Indigenous improvement. Cultural Studies. 25(3). pp. 313-333.
- Kendall, E and et al, 2011. Beyond the rhetoric of participatory research in indigenous communities: Advances in Australia over the last decade. Qualitative Health Research. 21(12). pp. 1719-1728.
- Board, A. S. I., 2012. Social inclusion in Australia: How Australia is faring. Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet.