Differences and Similarities Between a Manager and a Leader


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Organization Selected : Marks and Spencer


Manager and leaders plays distinctive role in the organisation. They work collaboratively and collectively in order to attain the desired goals and objectives of the company. Mangers and leaders are essential and vital pillars in the organisation that guides, manages and influences all the workforce within the organisation (Gillen, Jacquillat and Odoni, 2016). In this context, the following report will covers the aspects of management and operations by considering Marks and Spencer as the organisation. In this report a comprehensive understanding will be establish regarding leadership and management. The difference between manager and leader will be analysed and their roles and characteristics will be identified. The different theories of leadership will be evaluated and elaborated in this assignment. Different approaches to operations management will be identified and the role of leader and manager will be determined. The importance and value of operation management and the factors which impacts on operation management, decision making by leaders and managers will be assessed in this report.


a. Differences and similarities between a manager and a leader


A person who is appointed to control the professional, administrative and business activities of an organisation is called manager(Butera and Cruz, 2017.). Manager deals with complexity of management by planning, budgeting, staffing, measuring performance, clarifying jobs and problem solving. Plans are made by him with a set goal in order to achieve the final end result. There are several operational plans to maintain the management of an organisation. A manager must have few effective features so that M&S can lead to a great height of success. Leadership quality is very helpful in leading the employees in an efficient manner (Scase and Goffee, 2017.). A lot of responsibilities come with a manager post so leading ability must be effective. They must have experiences to work in a professional environment an in a leading team. Therefore, events should be organised in order to share and gain the ideas and experiences with peoples.

An effective communication skill is a key point for manager so that he can communicate with all other employees in an effective way with positive attitudes. This skill is always helpful in representing an organisation in a very dedicated and reputed way. Time management must be at priority to make a good start of the day. Employees are effected by a right time management of a manager and they also try to be managed with their working hours. Delegation for tasks and projects is not an easy concern but yet they should able to manage it in time (Hatchuel and Segrestin, 2018). No obvious it is a matter to say that they must have confidence, yes of course they should have high confidence level. Employees of M&S should be respected by a manager so that their staffs feel confident and energetic.

Along with these things they must have skills to allocate the sources which are necessary for an organisation either it is big or small. Collection and submission of budget is a part of a manager's role. The plans for process and procedure of business must be highly effective to create and establish a good image of organisation in market. Plans must be communicated and reinforced, all the possible data and informations must be collected to develop a good fit between people and their needs. These all would be very helpful in making better planning for the organisation. New polices, procedures and systems must be discovered and applied for superior result of company. Manager has capability to recruit the employees as per rules and norms of M&S.


All information and instructions are given to a leader by manager and leader transforms theses instructions to employees who are working under them. The final end result is attained by them(Goleman,2017.). Manager has power to take risks for a company so that some better outcomes is obtained. They always try to fill the gaps between an organisation and its employees by avoiding conflicts. The efficacy of work in an organisation depends upon the nature of work that is done by top level managers. Followers are directly influenced by a leader in order to achieve a goal. They play a great role in growth and development of an organisation. Followers can be aligned by leader but it is not done by a manager. The effectiveness of a work that is performed by followers show the quality of a leader. Directions are chosen by a leader according to plans in order to complete the target of a task. The risks which is taken by manager is minimised by a leader.

b. Functions of a manger according to Fayol theory

Mainly five functions of a manager is identified by Fayol.


The manager always deal with the management of an organisation where there is need of plans, strategies and objectives for a specific goal(Peaucelle, 2015.). It is as much as necessary to make present and future plans to secure the achievement of future goals of a company. So it is very important to evaluate all parameters that are affecting the productivity of an organisation.


The manager has power to organise the systems of a company. They must train and recruit the right employees for the job. Different events and activities must be organised by a manager in company to encourage the workforce of their employees. A good relationship between company and employees play a great role to run a company in an efficient way.


Commanding is one of the tool of a manager that help them to supervise their employees in every day work and achieve the goal of company. Commands are given to a leader and those are passed to the followers to work according to that within a time interval. Generally the commanding activities are related with company polices and followers have to follow those commands(Brunsson, 2017). Communication skill is one of the great tool to provide an effective command. Commanding must be in such a way that it motivates the followers to work, negative impact of commands may lead to decrease in productivity of a company.


Control over a management means to say that a company is producing the desired result according to the plans which were made. The main motto of controlling is to look forward for continuous and dynamic activities. Controlling over business help in comparing the competitions in market. Controlling is an effective part of planning. There is no more importance of planning without controlling. Wasted effort are made for planning if there is no involvement of controlling activities in management(Follett2016).


It is one the most effective essence of a management for harmony of individual efforts that are made by them to achieve a goal. It is said that coordination is a process by which a process is pursued to a final goal with the help of subordinates. Coordination is the thread that make the good network of working within an organisation. Coordination provides strength to employees and management to work together with a harmony(Parker2016). Lack of it may lead in decrease in productivity of a company and lack of confidence among employees.

c) Situational, system and contingency leadership used in Marks and Spencer

Leadership is an art of influencing, guiding, directing, motivating and controlling the team members in the right direction and in the right path so that the organisational goals and objectives can be accomplish. In Marks and Spencer, there are distinct leadership style has been followed which are based on theories which were proposed by researchers and philosophers. These theories provide ground support to the leaders which helps them in becoming effective and efficient leaders. In this context, the situational leadership, contingency leadership and system leadership theories are described below:

Situational Leadership

The theory of situational leadership was derived by two professors and authors Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard in 1969 (Heizer, 2016). The theory is acknowledged by researchers and leadership gurus as they found that the theory is robust and effective enough which can be practically implemented within the organisation. It is considered to be powerful and effective tools of leadership which used in behavioural science. Situational leadership refers to the leadership style followed by leader or manager which is dynamic and changes according to the situation and circumstances. Situational leadership style is power yet agile tool that allows leaders more effectively influence their team members. As per this theory, leaders or managers

adjust their style in order to match the developmental level of employees which they wish to influence in the company. It depicts four core critical and crucial competencies of leader which are:

1. Diagnose: Leaders needs to analyse and diagnose the situation and circumstances in order to transform their style.

2. Adapt: They have to adjust their behaviour according to the circumstances and contingencies.

3. Communicate: Leaders have to ensure that precise articulation and communication of information has been made.

4. Advance: Leaders have to implement the style and go forth in order to influence their team members.

The situational leadership style is considered to be beneficial for M&S as leaders able to deal with employees and team members effectively and efficiently.

System Leadership Style

System leadership theory states that leadership style is a discipline of management which is concerned with the evaluation of interaction and nexus between the elements which are compromised in definite system (Jacobs, Chase and Lummus, 2014). According to system leadership theory, leaders without followers remain incapable to practice their leadership and to ensure the conviction, leaders have to provide a system, purpose and structure (Systems Theory and Systems Approach to Leadership. 2017). System approach justifies the thoughts on the complexity and dynamism of the environment and provides framework to build innovative ideas. The theory supports two major attributes which are :

1. It is collaborative

2. It extends the boundaries in which virtual, professional and organisation leaders can think beyond their usual authority and responsibility limits.

Leaders at M&S utilised system leadership theory in order to lead and guide their followers effectively and efficiently.

Contingency Theory of leadership

The contingency theory of leadership was proposed in mid 1960s by Fred Fiedler. The theory lays more focus on situations and personality of leaders. It anticipates that the traits of leaders is contingent upon various situational factors such as capabilities, preferred syles and behaviour of leaders. Leaders are not bound to follow one specific style and are open to change their leadership style on the contingencies.


1 Different approaches of operations management used at Marks and Spencer

Operation management is considered to be most important and essential department within the organisation. There are different types of approaches of operation management and the one which followed at Marks and Spencer are described below:

  • Dynamic approach: Dynamic is the process which means constant change. In order to sustain in the competitive environment and economy, it is essential to bring changes in the organisation (Abou-Senna and, 2018). The changes are made on the basis of critical research and analysis of market environment. Dynamic approach has been used in Marks and Spencer operations department where the management frequently made changes according to the needs and expectations of the market.
  • Six Sigma: Six sigma approach was first used by Motorola in 1996. It is the process improvement methodology. Six sigma approach is used by the operations management of Marks and Spencer in order to reduce the amount of wastage by following the six essential steps of the approach. Through this, the management is able to enhance the sustainability and profitability of the organisation simultaneously.
  • Business process redesign (BPR): Business process redesign was formulated in 1993 which is the business management strategy that concentrates on analysing and designing workflow of business process within a company. The objective of BPR is to assist the organisation drastically in restructuring their design, business process and operations management (Baxley and, 2016). The management of Marks and Spencer utilised this approach in order to enhance the productivity and profitability of the organisation which helps them in providing competitive advantages. Through this they are able to cope up with recent market trends and changes.

2 Role of store manager a class example of an operation manager

Store supervisor and task manager are similarly essential for the organization for achieve its goal. Without them, specialty unit can't do its working in a compelling way (Agarwal and, 2012). The goal of Marks and Spencer to a great extent relies on the viable task and administration. Due o this reason it is imperative for the director and pioneer and mange and arrange the representatives and in addition business exercises. With a specific end goal to deal with various circumstance in the organization, both administrator and pioneer have distinctive kinds of exercises. For instance, In the Marks and Spencer, the significant issue which is confronted is high rate of representatives turnover because of the poor strategies for working, ineffectual practices and absence of inspiration. In this circumstance, both pioneer and trough have distinctive part and obligation to deal with this circumstance (Park and, 2014.). By this issue, organization execution and efficiency is adversely affect on the consumer loyalty which likewise makes improvement with respect to piece of the overall industry. Piece of the overall industry is loan defeated this circumstance, administrator have significant part to comprehend circumstance and break down the purpose for the occurrence. In the wake of investigating the circumstance and purpose for this scene, director need to center around advancement of compelling strategies, practices and business framework which will be reasonable and open to as indicated by worker's necessity and working condition. Director have significant part to outline such practices and strategies which can be reasonable for workers. Moreover, director can grow such viable reward and inspiration practices, for example, preparing and advancement. Representative's welfare program, financial and non-money related reward and so on with the goal that laborers can be propelled for higher execution and can be held in the business for long time (Iqbal and Sharma, 2012). To convey powerful rewards, similar to motivator, incidental advantages, remuneration, increase, advancement is action of director to propel representatives so they can be held inside the specialty unit. Consequently, one might say that supervisor have real part to deal with circumstance of representative's turnover. Administrator can utilize their systematic and administration expertise for beat the workers turn over. In addition to this Leader has another significant part and duty to defeat the circumstance of worker's turnover. Pioneer is a man who is near each subordinate and break down each subordinate movement and execution. To unravel these workers turnover issue, pioneer can direct individual connection with representative and break down their significant issue and assess the explanation for this said scene.

3 Importance of operation management

By utilization of different activity administration approaches, refered to wander can enhance the profitability and execution of business. With a specific end goal to get compelling results, organization need to center around the activity administration. It is exceptionally fundamental angle to enhance the execution and efficiency of business undertaking. Activity administration guarantees that an association is directing business at crest productivity and capacity. It incorporates the improvement and utilization of asset that are fundamental for an organization to convey merchandise and ventures to its customers (Ghosh, 2015). With help of successful activity administration, the profitability of business can move forward. In this way director and pioneer have significant part in light of the fact that with a specific end goal to deal with the operational exercises, workers powerful execution is imperative. Manager and pioneer oversee and assess workers execution with a specific end goal to make activity administration successful. With help of legitimate task administration, Marks and Spencer can control and convey its different capacity and framework at work environment. With help of task administration, ,manager can without much of a stretch outline the procedure and structure of generation and different exercises of business. With help of legitimate task administration, refered to wander can use its accessible assets in a compelling way and they can likewise appropriately deal with the stock and hardware. Task administration is best and fundamental practices in the business venture by which business efficiency and nature of execution can be effortlessly moved forward. The fundamental expectation of the task administration is to change over contributions to the successful yields alongside less wastage. In the Marks and Spencer, the significant advantage of activity administration approach is identified with conquered the wastage. By utilizing different procedures of administration and activities like six sigmas, lining hypothesis, line generation, add up to quality administration, firm can without much of a stretch dispense with wastage and extra costs from assembling and creation (Harwiki, 2013). These methodologies of administration and activity help in enhancing nature of brand viability of item and administrations which conveys the most elevated fulfillment to the customers. With help of the different methodologies of activity and administration, organization can upgrade nature of the item and administrations. These methodologies can be connected in the creation and assembling process in the organization so by utilizing these strategies firm can without much of a stretch defeat wastage and extra costs from the assembling and generation process and improve viability of the item and administrations. The different approach of administration and activity helps in enhancing wastage and extra costs from the generation and assembling process in the organization. It helps in enhancing rate of business process, customer administrations and so forth so as through this customer can pick up the largest amount of fulfillment.

4 Identify the key outside the factors effect on the operation management

M&S is the multinational retailer of clothing , footwear and home products. Operations management of M&S is effected various outside the factors, these factor is including in macro environment. Identify the factors explain through pestle analysis of operation management in M&S.

PESTLE Analysis:

  • Political factors: The operation management of the company is effected from some government rules and regulation, policies and procedures related to trade policy of raw material cost, machinery costs etc. Any of the policies related to operations of company, operated by the government so that it is effected on the operation management (Bergström, Grubb and Jonsson, 2007). In the process of manufacturing, any of resources cost is increased by the government, it is effected on the operations of the company.
  • Economical factors: Economical factors includes changes in inflation rate, if the rate is increasing so that operation cost is increased and pricing of goods and services is also increased. But if the rate is decreased so that operation cost is deceased and pricing of goods and services is also decreased. Competitors pricing is also effected on the operation management of production process. If the competitors pricing is increase and decrease so that there is more effected on operations of M&S.
  • Social factors:Operation management is also effected by some social factors. Changes in fashions and trends, customers taste and preferences, according to the fashions or trends so that it is difficult for the operation of goods and services. If the company is not providing services according to trends so that customers are not satisfied with their products (Fizer, 2013). The company should produce those goods which is satisfaction of customers needs and wants. Cultural factors such as different culture are there and different peoples are there so that the company should focused on operations which are according to the different cultures.
  • Technological factors: Some changes in technology and entering the new technology in the market so that the company has produce the goods according to technology in the operations management. Because now a days technology is must in everything, so that in the production process, goods are produce in the new technology based machinery (Kaplan, 1960.). Online shopping is important for buy everything in just click, it is easy for the customers. So that M&S is focused on social media and online websites.
  • Legal factors:Legal factors including modification of labor laws. It is the effected on operation process, because in the production labor is important for all procedures. Any of the changes in laws so that the company should adopted all the laws related to the labor working in their company. Consumer rights is the law related to the consumers buying behavior. All the consumers buying behavior is different from other and their needs and wants also different so that it is effected on operation of the M&S.

Environmental factors: In the production process, any of raw material is related to the environment so that it is effected on operations in goods and services. M&S is adopted these types raw material used their products. So that these factors are effected for the operations of the company. Any changes in environment climate so that it is effected on the production process of M&S. The company ensuring that they can produce the goods and services to customers according to the environment (Memon and,2014.).

5 Analysis the factors impact on decision making of the organization

There are various factors effects on not only operation management but also decision making for the company. Some government policies and procedures are positive impact on operations but some policies and procedures such as high cost of machinery, are negative impact on the operation and decision making. Changes in customers taste and preferences so that it is also negative impact of decision making related to the operations.

Technological changes are also positive and negative impact on decision making related to operations or production process, because any alteration in the machines and any of new technology adopted by company, it is difficult for the decision making of the operations management. Some legal changes in the process of operations, pricing of goods and services, tax rate of goods and services, is the negative impact on operation process and their decision making (Nessett, 1986,).

In the operation and production process of goods and services impacted by some environmental changes. Because M&S is used in raw materials related to the environment, so that it is difficult for operation managers for decision making. If the customers wants immediate services of goods but in the company there is no availability of immediate goods and providing services so that it is difficult for managers that how to service provide to customers. It is also difficult of take the immediate decision.

According to some mistakes such as no availability of resources, machinery is not working, labor is not working, so that it is difficult for operations process of goods and services and difficult for customers satisfaction of their needs and wants. In this situation, operation managers are in pressures for making decision and managing the operations. Customers demands are always change according to fashion, taste and preferences so that it is difficult to decided that how to produce goods and services according to their demand (TENG, WU and WU, 2004).

Competitors pricing is also impacted on the operation management and decision making of the M&S. ASDA and TOPSHOP are also providing home goods and services on same pricing, so that they can more efforts on better quality products provides to the customers and satisfaction their needs and wants. There are many retailers in the market whose has providing the same quality products on same price so that customers will attracted on those retailers, it is negative impact on M&S.

They can provide all the products on online stores so that it is easy to customers for getting the all types of products in just one click. Because now every person used mobiles, social media and doing online shopping as well so that it is not necessary to going in the market and purchasing the products. M&S also providing the online services to the customers.

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By the entire report it has been summarized that management and operation is very significant aspect in the Marks and Spencer by which quality of product and service can increase and wastage from the production and manufacturing can eliminate. By use of several applications and systems like six sigma, total quality management, lean production etc company can easily meet the objective of business and deliver high quality of product and services to its customers. It has been also summarized that manager and leader plays a very crucial role in the management and operation functions and activities through which determined objective can easily address.

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